Caraka the renowned physician of Indian system of medicine recommended Cyavanaprasa for wide variety of ailments from paediatric to geriatric. So, the paper is focused on the result of the clinical study, that was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Cyavanprasa in elderly volunteers. And the paper also highlights the step made through this clinical study to evaluate the weight of chief constituent i.e.500 number of fresh Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) with proper ratio of sugar.
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Present study was carried out on 56 patients of Madhumeha from S.S. Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Dietary interventions and life style modifications schedule was prepared based on Ayurvedic principles and patients were advised to follow this regimen. Three consecutive follow-ups were done for 3 months at the interval of one month each.
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The research team's results showed that mice fed a HFD for a 10-week period, supplemented with herbal preparation(s) of triphala or its constituents, resulted in significant reductions in body weight (P < .0001), energy intake, and percentage of body fat (P < .001), as compared with mice in the HFD group. Herbal treatment significantly improved the lipid profiles of the mice by lowering serum total cholesterol (Total-C), TG, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increasing levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as compared to the mice in the HFD group. The research team also found that herbal treatment attenuated glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance as measured by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and levels of ALT. In addition to treatment with its three individual components, treatment with a popular Ayurvedic formulation of triphala also reversed the pathological changes in liver tissue and decreased the relative weight of visceral adipose fat pads.
In India, vaidyas (Ayurvedic physicians) traditionally administer triphala and its constituents as therapeutic agents for promoting digestion and satiety.
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The results suggest that Triphala (300 mg/kg) has a considerable and reliable effect in reducing colitis in rats. This effect can be attributed to its antioxidant activity and well presence of flavonoids.
In yeast-induced pyrexia model, both dosage forms of test drug produced marked decrease in rectal temperature after 3 h, 6 h, and 9 h among which extract produced statistically significant decrease after 6 h compared to control group. In the tail flick method, both forms of test drug showed insignificant increase in tail flick response after 180 and 240 min compared to control group and in formalin induced paw liking model decoction form of test drug significantly increased the latency of onset of paw licking and decreased the paw licking in early phase while alcoholic extract produced insignificant effect compared to control group.
DNA damage caused by various sources remains one of the most researched topics in the area of aging and neurodegeneration. Increased DNA damage causes premature aging. Aging is plastic and is characterised by the decline in the ability of a cell/organism to maintain genomic stability. Lifespan can be modulated by various interventions like calorie restriction, a balanced diet of macro and micronutrients or supplementation with nutrients/nutrient formulations such as Amalaki rasayana, docosahexaenoic acid, resveratrol, curcumin, etc. Increased levels of DNA damage in the form of double stranded and single stranded breaks are associated with decreased longevity in animal models like WNIN/Ob obese rats. Erroneous DNA repair can result in accumulation of DNA damage products, which in turn result in premature aging disorders such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Epigenomic studies of the aging process have opened a completely new arena for research and development of drugs and therapeutic agents. We propose here that agents or interventions that can maintain epigenomic stability and facilitate the DNA repair process can slow down the progress of premature aging, if not completely prevent it. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):717-721, 2016.
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The research team fed all mice, except those in a control group (ND), a HFD for 10 weeks beginning at 7 weeks of age, supplementing the HFDs with herbal treatments for 4 of the groups. The team divided the mice into six weight-matched groups of seven mice each: (1) normal diet (ND), (2) high-fat diet (HFD), (3) triphala (HFD+T), (4) amalaki (HFD+A), (5) haritaki (HFD+H), and (6) bibhitaki (HFD+B).
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The present study with two Ayurvedic formulations reveals formulation-specific effects on several parameters of the fly's life, which seem to generally agree with their recommended human usages in Ayurvedic practices. Thus, Drosophila, with its very rich genetic tools and well-worked-out developmental pathways promises to be a very good model for examining the cellular and molecular bases of the effects of different Ayurvedic formulations.
Decoction and alcohol soluble extract of Amalakyadi Gana were used in the present study. Antipyretic activity of dosage forms were carried out against yeast-induced pyrexia in Wistar albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated using radiant heat model and formalin induced paw licking in Wistar albino rats.
Decoction and alcoholic extract of Amalakyadi Gana has moderate antipyretic activity in rats, which may be due to inhibition of the synthesis and/or release of local PGE2. Further, Amalakyadi Gana has mild analgesic effect through central and peripheral mechanism. The result of the present study provide further scope for development of new palatable dosage form and tested clinically for better efficacy.
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Preparations from Phyllanthus emblica called Amalaki rasayana is used in the Indian traditional medicinal system of Ayurveda for healthy living in elderly. The biological effects and its mechanisms are not fully understood. Since the diminishing DNA repair is the hallmark of ageing, we tested the influence of Amalaki rasayana on recognized DNA repair activities in healthy aged individuals.
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To evaluate the effect of Triphala on dextran sulphate sodium induced colitis in rats.
Concept of Saviryta Avadhi (shelf-life) of Ayurvedic dosage forms is well-defined in classics of Ayurveda. Information on this is scattered in initial classics of Ayurveda like Charaka Samhita, but focused well after 13(th) Century AD in texts such as Vangasena Samhita, Sharangadhara Samhita and Yogaratnakara. Though the concepts have a strong background; considering the pharmaceutical development, a need is felt to re-evaluate the age old concepts by following current norms.
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The research team obtained 42 fertile, male, Swiss albino mice, weighing 20 g each, and housed them individually in an approved small-animal facility, in a pathogen-free environment. The team generated DIO mice by feeding them a HFD.
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Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies worldwide, which can be correlated to Pandu described in ayurvedic classics. Poor absorption of iron is one of the main reasons of IDA. Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica L.) has Tridoshahara, especially Pittashamaka (pacifying Pitta) and Rasayana (rejuvenative) properties, thus nourishes the Dhatus and is also known to enhance the absorption of iron.
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Kaumarbhritya a branch of Asthanga Ayurveda deals with neonatal, infant and child health care. Multicentric studies conducted in various developed and developing countries have indicated that Infant Mortality Rate (I.M.R.) is very high in developing countries, and infection has been observed as the major cause. Immune system in neonates is not yet fully functional. Bala compound having the ingredients ofAtibala (Abutilon indicum Linn), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Linn), Vidanga (Emblica ribes burn), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Welld Miers), Pippali (Piperlongum linn), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn), Shankhapuspi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois ), Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn) and Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum wall) are Medhya as well as Rasayana drugs mention in Ayurvedic classics. 'Bala compound" was tried in infants in the form of oral drops for a period of six months and result was assessed for serum immuoglobulins IgG, IgM, IgA for three months of interval of two follow ups (i.e., third and six month of infant). There is significant increase of immunoglobulins observed after six months administration of 'Bala compoumd"
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Earlier we showed formulation-specific beneficial effects of dietary supplement of Ayurvedic Amalaki Rasayana (AR, a herbal formulation) and Rasa-Sindoor (RS, a mercury-based organo-metallic formulation) on various biological parameters in Drosophila, parallel to traditional Ayurvedic literature. These formulations also suppressed cell death and pathology in fly models of neurodegeneration. To understand basis of inhibition of apoptosis, we examined effects of AR and RS on induced and developmental apoptosis in Drosophila. Dietary AR or RS significantly reduced apoptosis induced by GMR-GAL4-, sev-GAL4- or hs-GAL4-directed expression of Rpr, Hid or Grim (RHG) proapoptotic proteins or by GMR-GAL4-directed DIAP1-RNAi, resulting in significant restoration of organism's viability and eye morphology. AR or RS supplement enhanced levels of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, DIAP1 and DIAP2, and of Bancal/Hrb57A, while the levels of RHG proteins and of initiator Dronc and effecter Drice caspases were reduced in non-apoptotic wild type as well as in RHG over-expressing tissues. Levels of Dronc or Drice remained unaffected in cells developmentally destined to die so that developmental apoptosis occurred normally. Elevated levels of DIAPs and reduced levels of RHG proteins and caspases reflect a more robust physiological state of AR or RS fed organisms allowing them to tolerate greater insults without triggering the cell-death response. Such homeostatic effects of these Rasayanas seem to contribute to 'healthy ageing', one of their effects suggested in traditional Ayurvedic practices.
Dietary interventions and life style modifications are two important tools by which adequate glycemic control can be obtained, especially in newly diagnosed T2DM patients and in patients who are on antidiabetic medication, but not properly controlled.
The present findings suggest that triphala and its constituents can counter the effects of an environment (ie, high dietary intake of fats) and have the potential for use as antiobesity agents with desirable lipid-profile modulating properties.
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Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of amalki (Emblica officinalis), spirulina and wheatgrass were prepared and analyzed for antioxidant vitamin content (vitamin C and E), total phenolic compounds. Antioxidant status, reducing power and effect on glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity were evaluated in vitro. Vitamin C content of crude amalaki powder was found to be 5.38 mg/g, while very less amount 0.22 mg/g was detected in wheat grass. Amalki was rich in vitamin E like activity, total phenolic content, reducing power and antioxidant activity. Total antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of amalki, spirulina and wheat grass at 1mg/ml concentration were 7.78, 1.33 and 0.278 mmol/l respectively. At similar concentrations the total antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of amalaki, spirulina and wheat grass was 6.67, 1.73 and 0.380 mmol/l respectively. Amalki was also found to be rich source of phenolic compounds (241mg/g gallic acid equivalent). Alcoholic extract of wheat grass showed 50 % inhibition in FeCl(2)- ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogenates in vitro. Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of amalaki inhibited activity of rat liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) in vitro in dose dependant manner. Since GST acts as powerful drug metabolizing enzyme its inhibition by amalaki offers possibility of its use for lowering therapeutic dose of herbal preparations. The aqueous extracts of both amalki and spirulina also showed protection against t-BOOH induced cytotoxicity and production of ROS in cultured C(6) glial cells.
To assess the clinical effects of dietary interventions and life style modifications in Madhumeha patients.
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Significant improvement was observed in clinical signs and symptoms along with plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Madhumeha patients after these interventions (P < 0.001).
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Considering this, two samples of Āmalaki Rasāyana (AR7 and AR21) were studied to evaluate comparative immunomodulatory activity against the cyclophosphamide immunosuppression in rats.
Āmalaki (Embelica officinalis Gaertn.) is one of the most celebrated herbs in the Indian system of traditional medicine. It is one of the best Rasāyana-s (health promoting) drug. In Dugdhāmalakyādi yoga, Āmalaki (Embelica officinalis Gaertn.) powder is administered along with milk in case of svarabhaṅga (hoarseness of voice). Here an attempt is made to convert this formulation into chewable tablet without altering its property to improve its palatability, shelf life and fixation of proper therapeutic dose.
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A randomized controlled open clinical trial was conducted at Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar. Iron deficient anemic patients (n = 25) having Hb <12g% in females and 13g% in males and S.Iron <50mg/dl were selected and divided into two groups. Group A was given 2 g of Amalaki Rasayana thrice a day with unequal quantity of honey and ghee for 45 days, while Group B was given 150 mg ferrous fumarate + 1500 mcg folic acid (standard control) once a day with water for 45 days. Assessment was done on the basis of relief in cardinal symptoms of Pandu and hematological parameters.
A 0.5% (weight/volume) supplement of AR or RS affected life-history and other physiological traits in distinct ways. While the size of salivary glands, hnRNP levels in larval tissues, and thermotolerance of larvae/adult flies improved significantly following feeding either of the two formulations, the median life span and starvation resistance improved only with AR. Feeding on AR or RS supplemented food improved fecundity differently. Feeding of larvae and adults with AR increased the fecundity while the same with RS had opposite effect. On the contrary, feeding larvae on normal food and adults on AR supplement had no effect on fecundity but a comparable regime of feeding on RS-supplemented food improved fecundity. RS feeding did not cause heavy metal toxicity.
This signifies that, Bhavana not only incorporates additional therapeutic attributes, but also helpful in increasing shelf-life.
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Amalaki Rasayana (AR) is a common Ayurvedic herbal formulation of Phyllanthus emblica fruits and some other ingredients, and is used for general good health and healthy aging. We reported it to improve life history traits and to suppress neurodegeneration as well as induced apoptosis in Drosophila. The present study examines responses of Drosophila reared on AR-supplemented food to crowding, thermal or oxidative stresses. Wild-type larvae/flies reared on AR-supplemented food survived the various cell stresses much better than those reared on control food. AR-fed mutant park13 or DJ-1 beta Delta93 (Parkinson's disease model) larvae/flies, however, showed only partial or no protection, respectively, against paraquat-induced oxidative stress, indicating essentiality of DJ-1 beta for AR-mediated oxidative stress tolerance. AR feeding reduced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation even in aged (35-day-old) wild-type flies while enhancing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. We show that while Hsp70 or Hsp83 expression under normal or stress conditions was not affected by AR feeding, Hsp27 levels were elevated in AR-fed wild-type control as well as heat-shocked larvae. Therefore, besides the known anti-oxidant activity of Phyllanthus emblica fruits, dietary AR also enhances cellular levels of Hsp27. Our in vivo study on a model organism shows that AR feeding significantly improves tolerance to a variety of cell stresses through reduced ROS and lipid peroxidation on the one hand, and enhanced SOD activity and Hsp27 on the other. The resulting better homeostasis improves life span and quality of organism's life.