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Loracarbef, which is the first agent of the carbacephem class of beta-lactam antibiotics to be developed, provides good activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria. A single-blinded, randomized, parallel clinical trial in 10 centers in the United States compared the efficacy and safety of loracarbef with that of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium in the treatment of acute bacterial maxillary sinusitis. A 7-10-day regimen of loracarbef (400 mg twice daily) was as effective as amoxicillin/clavulanate (500/125 mg three times a day) and resulted in somewhat fewer side effects. The results of a European trial in Sweden, Finland, and Iceland showed that loracarbef was clinically more effective than doxycycline in the treatment of acute bacterial maxillary sinusitis.
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These results suggest that AMC and PTZ are suitable alternatives to carbapenems for treating patients with bloodstream infections due to ESBL-EC if active in vitro and would be particularly useful as definitive therapy.
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Cape Girardeau, Missouri (population 35,500). Interventions. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for penicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefprozil, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, cefaclor, and loracarbef by E test for 108 isolates of S. pneumoniae. The MIC50, MIC90, and percentage susceptibility were calculated for each agent. Pharmacokinetic variables were obtained from the literature, and serum concentration-time profiles were simulated for a 25-kg child taking pediatric dosages commonly administered to treat otitis media. The average time above MIC (T > MIC) was calculated as percentage of the dosing interval using free concentrations and the MIC for each individual isolate. Analysis of variance (Scheffe post hoc test) was used to determine differences among agents for in vitro activity and T > MIC (level of significance, p<0.05).
Undifferentiated acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a large and heterogeneous group of infections not clearly restricted to one specific part of the upper respiratory tract, which last for up to seven days. They are more common in pre-school children in low-income countries and are responsible for 75% of the total amount of prescribed antibiotics in high-income countries. One possible rationale for prescribing antibiotics is the wish to prevent bacterial complications.
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Prophylactic antibiotic usage in patients undergoing tension free inguinal hernioplasty did not show any statistically significant beneficial effects in reduction of surgical site infection.
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The administration of indometacin to rats increases intestinal permeability and induces inflammatory pathology of the small bowel. This represents a potential model for Crohn's disease.
Results showed that 50% of all tested products were heavily contaminated, and the predominant contaminants comprised Klebsiella, Bacillus, and Candida species. Furthermore, the results showed that the isolated Bacillus and Klebsiella species were resistant to Augmentin ® and cloxacillin. The differences in means for cfu/mL and zones of inhibition among the microorganisms isolated were considered significant at P < 0.05.
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In trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock requiring surgery, the administration of 2 g of amoxicillin and 0.2 g of clavulanate seems adequate, according to the antibiotic concentrations observed in plasma for both drugs. However, further studies exploring antibiotic concentrations in tissues are warranted.
The study group comprised 167 children aged from 7 to 10 years (100 males, 67 females) with CP from the OCS, who were subdivided into a preterm rupture of membranes (PROM) group (87 children) and an SPL group (80 children). The OCS sought follow-up information regarding the health and behaviour of surviving children at 7 years of age in the UK using a parent-report postal questionnaire. Families provided further information to define wider aspects of function and were offered a physiotherapy assessment.
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24 patients affected by chronic sinusitis, undergoing sinus surgery, were divided into three groups receiving an oral dose of 1 g of coamoxiclav (875 mg amoxicillin, 125 g of clavulanic acid, 7:1 ratio) at 2 h (first group), 4 h (second group) and 6 h (third group) before surgery. The mean concentration of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were determined biologically in serum and in tissues.
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In this study, we have retrospectively analyzed all patients who underwent concomitant bariatric procedure and mesh repair for ventral hernia at our institute.
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Orbital cellulitis is uncommon. It may arise as a sequel to eyelid infection, or from direct spread of infection from the paranasal sinuses; it may be of odontogenic origin and has been reported after meningitis and after nasoorbital fractures with pre-existing sinusitis. Clinically, orbital cellulitis is of great importance, as it is a severe disease with potentially disastrous consequences. It may lead to optic neuritis, optic atrophy, blindness, cavernous sinus thrombosis, superior orbital fissure syndrome, meningitis, subdural empyema, and even death. We report two cases of severe post-traumatic orbital cellulitis with subperiosteal abscesses. These were managed surgically and vision was preserved. We describe the anatomy, a classification of orbital infection, and the importance of multidisciplinary management of these cases.
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A total of 561,237 children (61%) received at least one drug prescription. The prescription prevalence rate was highest in children 3 years of age (78%), decreased with increasing age and was higher in boys than in girls (chi(2)=655; p<0.001). Each treated child received an average of 3.2 prescriptions and 4.8 boxes.
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There is excessive use of antimicrobial drugs in acute respiratory infections, and the majority are used for viral infections. There is indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics, which are valid in some infections but clearly inappropriate in others. Similarly, there are important differences in the choice of antibiotics and their degree of appropriateness among hospitals.
Department of Medical Microbiology University of Nairobi and Kenyatta National Hospital microbiology laboratory, Nairobi, Kenya.
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The examinations were carried out in 80 children, without nephrolithiasis, aged 10.1 +/- 4.3 years with bronchopneumonia, treated with beta-lactame antibiotics. The children were divided in two groups: I--children treated with oral amoxicillin + clavulanic acid or cefuroxime axetil (n=40), II--children treated with the same antibiotics intravenously (n=40). The Ox concentration in plasma and urine was measured using an enzymatic method with oxalate oxidase, four times. (0)--before treatment, (a)--in third day and (b)--in last day of administration (10 to 14 day), (c)--3 weeks after finishing treatment with antibiotics.
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To determine whether postoperative urinary infections were related to shaving before undergoing endoscopic urological surgery, 90 patients were randomly assigned to shaving or not shaving. Urinary cultures revealed infection in 10 patients. Half of them had been shaved, suggesting that this practice does not affect the incidence of urinary infections.
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Previous research has shown that antibiotic usage in patients with superficial sharp lacerations has no influence over infection rate. This study is a prospective controlled trial, using systematic allocation, of 250 patients of which 113 received co-amoxiclav (Augmentin) and 137 did not. Special emphasis was placed on wound debridement and irrigation. All sharp soft tissue lacerations including those with nerve, tendon and muscle damage were entered into the trial. The results show a low overall infection rate of 4%. The infection rate in the group treated with antibiotics was 5% and 3.2% in the group who received no antibiotics. Lacerations operated on up to 48 h from the injury were included and there was no correlation between the length of time waited and the infection rate. We conclude that antibiotics are an unnecessary adjunct in the treatment of sharp lacerations of the hand and upper limb, provided meticulous surgical debridement is performed.
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Subjects consisted of the patients of a single cleft surgeon who were undergoing surgery for cleft palate repair or cleft fistula repair.
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The efficacy of cationic peptides combined with betalactams was investigated in a peritonitis rat model. Intraabdominal sepsis was induced in adult Wistar rats via cecal ligation and single puncture. The study included eight drug-treated groups: each of them received intravenous polymyxin-E (1 mg/kg), buforin II (1 mg/kg), imipenem (20 mg/kg), amoxicillin-clavulanate (50 mg/kg), polymyxin-E (1 mg/kg) plus imipenem (20 mg/kg), or amoxicillin-clavulanate (50 mg/kg), and buforin II (1 mg/kg) plus imipenem (20 mg/kg), or amoxicillin-clavulanate (50 mg/kg). The study included an untreated control group that received intravenous isotonic sodium chloride solution. All compounds significantly reduced the lethality and the number of bacteria in abdominal fluid compared with saline treatment. Among compounds, imipenem showed the highest antimicrobial activity, while buforin II produced the highest reduction in plasma endotoxin and TNF-alpha levels. Overall, buforin II and imipenem association were the most effective therapeutic approach. Data presented here suggest the potential advantages of combining antimicrobial agents and compounds able to neutralize the biological effect of the endotoxin.
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Anti-pneumococcal fluoroquinolone has been used to treat community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) frequently because of its broad antimicrobial spectrum.
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The occurrence of positive synergy between antibiotic discs of amoxicillin/clavulanate and cefoperazone was registered in two Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, isolated from hospitals in Czech and Slovak Republic, indicating the presence of genes coding for an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase active also against cefoperazone, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin. Sulbactam inhibited the hydrolysis of cefoperazone by cell-free lysates of these strains which substantiates its use in combination with cefoperazone. Resistance to cephalothin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, cefepime and aztreonam was transferred from K. pneumoniae isolates to Escherichia coli K-12 3110 and to Proteus mirabilis P-38 recipient strains.
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Oral treatment of groups of four mice with different daily dosages of three related antibiotics, amoxycillin, augmentin and bacampicillin, has indicated the influence of the amount of the dose that reaches the intestine in a biologically active form. Augmentin (amoxycillin plus clavulanic acid to protect it against enzymatic hydrolysis) appeared to have a suppressive effect on the indigenous colonization-resistance-associated microflora. Dose-effect curves of amoxycillin alone, showed the same shape but at a lower level. Bacampicillin treatment practically did not have an effect on the faecal flora. Only at doses of bacampicillin of well above 1.5 mg per day, an indication was seen of CR-flora disturbance. At a dose level of 2 mg and more per day, a low concentration of beta-aspartylglycine was found in the faeces. A normal undisturbed intestinal flora normally produces in mice sufficient enzyme to degrade completely this dipeptide released by the host organism into the intestinal tract.
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Duration of acute tube otorrhea and duration of bacterial growth in middle-ear fluid.
Twenty-six BRONJ patients (13 men with MM and 13 women with BC) were prospectively enroled and treated with a specific systemic and topical antibiotic therapy. Several predictors of outcome were also evaluated.
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A satisfactory clinical outcome (cure or improvement of symptoms) was found in 86% (49/57) and 71.4% (30/42) of the clinically evaluable patients treated with cefuroxime or co-amoxiclav, respectively (p >0.05).
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Due to the absence of clinical practice guidelines, there are different therapeutic protocols. According to our experience, puncture-aspiration and administration of intravenous antibiotics is a safe, effective way to treat these patients. To determine the efficacy and safety of outpatient management, controlled studies would be needed.
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A literature search was undertaken to identify national and international guidelines relating to the diagnosis and management of AOM in children. The guidelines were assessed for their applicability to UK practice. A retrospective case note audit was undertaken. Children presenting to the ED with a discharge diagnosis of AOM over a two month period were identified from the ED computer discharge system. The notes were analysed for compliance with the identified guidelines.
The activity of RU29246, the active metabolite of the oral cephalosporin ester HR916, was compared in a multicenter study with that of the four oral beta-lactam antibiotics cephalexin, cefaclor, cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate (amoxicillin/CA). RU29246 was generally 2- to 8-fold more active than the other oral cephalosporins and comparable to amoxicillin/CA against staphylococci, and was the most active cephalosporin against group B streptococci. All four cephalosporins were ineffective against enterococci. RU29246 was the only cephalosporin consistently active against Acinetobacter, but all beta-lactam antibiotics had poor activity against Pseudomonas spp. and Xanthomonas maltophilia. RU29246 was comparable to cefixime and more active than the other cephalosporins against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. However, all of the antibiotics had poor activity against Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens. Quality control reference ranges for the quality control organisms Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 are proposed for the broth dilution method based on data derived from this multicenter study.
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This study explores the effects of cefditoren (CDN) versus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) on the evolution (within a single strain) of total and recombined populations derived from intrastrain ftsI gene diffusion in β-lactamase-positive (BL⁺) and β-lactamase-negative (BL⁻) Haemophilus influenzae. DNA from β-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) isolates (DNA(BLNAR)) and from β-lactamase-positive, amoxicillin-clavulanate-resistant (BLPACR) (DNA(BLPACR)) isolates was extracted and added to a 10⁷-CFU/ml suspension of one BL⁺ strain (CDN MIC, 0.007 μg/ml; AMC MIC, 1 μg/ml) or one BL⁻ strain (CDN MIC, 0.015 μg/ml; AMC MIC, 0.5 μg/ml) in Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM). The mixture was incubated for 3 h and was then inoculated into a two-compartment computerized device simulating free concentrations of CDN (400 mg twice a day [b.i.d.]) or AMC (875 and 125 mg three times a day [t.i.d.]) in serum over 24 h. Controls were antibiotic-free simulations. Colony counts were performed; the total population and the recombined population were differentiated; and postsimulation MICs were determined. At time zero, the recombined population was 0.00095% of the total population. In controls, the BL⁻ and BL⁺ total populations and the BL⁻ recombined population increased (from ≈3 log₁₀ to 4.5 to 5 log₁₀), while the BL⁺ recombined population was maintained in simulations with DNA(BLPACR) and was decreased by ≈2 log₁₀ with DNA(BLNAR). CDN was bactericidal (percentage of the dosing interval for which experimental antibiotic concentrations exceeded the MIC [ft>MIC], >88%), and no recombined populations were detected from 4 h on. AMC was bactericidal against BL⁻ strains (ft>MIC, 74.0%) in DNA(BLNAR) and DNA(BLPACR) simulations, with a small final recombined population (MIC, 4 μg/ml; ft>MIC, 30.7%) in DNA(BLPACR) simulations. When AMC was used against the BL⁺ strain (in DNA(BLNAR) or DNA(BLPACR) simulations), the bacterial load was reduced ≈2 log₁₀ (ft>MIC, 44.3%), but 6.3% and 32% of the total population corresponded to a recombined population (MIC, 16 μg/ml; ft>MIC, 0%) in DNA(BLNAR) and DNA(BLPACR) simulations, respectively. AMC, but not CDN, unmasked BL⁺ recombined populations obtained by transformation. ft>MIC values higher than those classically considered for bacteriological response are needed to counter intrastrain ftsI gene diffusion by covering recombined populations.
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A high incidence (39%) of positive direct antiglobulin tests (DATs) has been reported in patients taking Unasyn [ampicillin sodium plus sulbactam sodium (a beta-lactamase inhibitor)]. Three of four patients, with positive DATs, receiving Unasyn or Timentin [ticarcillin disodium plus clavulanate potassium (also a beta-lactamase inhibitor)] developed a haemolytic anaemia (HA) associated with a positive DAT, which resolved when drug therapy was stopped. The patients' sera did not react with red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of Unasyn or Timentin, but when drug-treated RBCs were tested, patients' sera and normal sera reacted equally by indirect antiglobulin test. Following incubation in normal sera, RBCs treated with Unasyn, Timentin, Augmentin (amoxicillin + clavulanate), sulbactam and clavulanate reacted with anti-human globulin and anti-human albumin (an index of non-specific adsorption); RBCs treated with ampicillin and amoxicillin were nonreactive. The beta-lactamase inhibitors sulbactam and clavulanate seem to cause nonimmunologic adsorption of protein onto RBCs in vitro. This may explain the high incidence of positive DATs detected in patients taking Unasyn, which contains sulbactam. It was not possible to prove that there was a direct association between the nonspecific uptake of protein onto drug-treated RBCs in vitro with the positive DATs or the HA.
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Augmentin (amoxycillin/clavulanate) was used in the treatment of 88 patients with mild and moderate infections of the urogenital organs. The drug was administered in a single dose of 375 mg thrice daily for 6 to 12 days. The renal function in 62 patients (70.5 per cent) was normal and in 26 patients (29.5 per cent) the chronic renal insufficiency latent stage was stated (the decrease of the glomerular filtration up to 55-70 ml/min). When augmentin was used before lithotripsy in 35 patients for 6 days, all the laboratory and clinical indices came to normal in 30 patients (85.7 per cent) and only in 4 patients (11 per cent) leukocyturia and in 1 patient bacteriuria persisted. When augmentin was used in 26 patients before adenomectomy or after transurethral resection for 7 to 9 days, all the indices came to normal in 13 patients (50 per cent) and in the other 13 patients leukocyturia persisted, while no bacteriuria was recorded. When augmentin was used in the treatment of 19 patients with pyelonephritis exacerbation during the postoperative period for 7 to 12 days, all the clinical and laboratory indices came to normal in 13 patients (68.4 per cent), leukocyturia persisted in 6 patients and bacteriuria persisted in 2 patients. When augmentin was used in the treatment of 8 patients with acute orchiepididymitis for 7 to 10 days, the clinical effect was stated in all the patients. As a rule, the drug was well tolerated by the patients.
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This study tested whether levofloxacin, at a new high dose of 750 mg, was effective for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections (SSSIs). Patients with complicated SSSIs (n=399) were randomly assigned in a ratio of 1:1 to 2 treatment arms: levofloxacin (750 mg given once per day intravenously [iv], orally, or iv/orally) or ticarcillin-clavulanate (TC; 3.1 g given iv every 4-6 hours) followed, at the investigator's discretion, by amoxicillin-clavulanate (AC; 875 mg given orally every 12 hours). In the clinically evaluable population, therapeutic equivalence was demonstrated between the levofloxacin and TC/AC regimens (success rates of 84.1% and 80.3%, respectively). In the microbiologically evaluable population, the overall rate of eradication was 83.7% in the levofloxacin treatment group and 71.4% in the TC/AC treatment group (95% confidence interval, -24.3 to -0.2). Both levofloxacin and TC/AC were well tolerated. These data demonstrate that levofloxacin (750 mg once per day) is safe and at least as effective as TC/AC for complicated SSSIs.
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Clarithromycin has established efficacy and safety in the treatment of respiratory infections.
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The experience with the use of augmentin (amoxycillin/clavulane) in abdominal surgery for prophylaxis of postoperative purulent complications was analyzed. The drug was used in 44 patients after relatively pure operations, 37 of them having various risk factors. In 2 patients (4.5 per cent) of that group postoperative pyoinflammatory complications were recorded. For comparison the results of the prophylactic use of cefoperazone, cefamandole or ceftazidime in the group of 78 patients after relatively pure operations on the abdominal cavity organs were analyzed. Postoperative complications in the latter group amounted to 7.4 per cent (4 patients). The results of the treatment of patients in two groups after contaminated operations were also compared. The patients of one group (41 patients) were treated prophylactically with augmentin in a dose of 1200 mg intraoperatively followed by the drug use in a dose of 600 mg thrice daily for 1 to 2 days after the operation. Postoperative pyoinflammatory complications were recorded in 4 patients of that group (9.7 per cent). 78 patients of the other group were treated prophylactically with ceftazidime or cefoperazone in a dose of 2 g and metronidazole intraoperatively or cefoperazone in a dose of 2 g twice daily and metronidazole in a dose of 500 mg twice daily for 1 to 2 days after the operation. Postoperative infectious complications were recorded in 8 patients of that group (10 per cent). In the group of patients with acute cholecystitis treated with ciprofloxacin in a dose of 400 mg in combination, with metronidazole before the operation and for 1 to 2 days after the operation postoperative complications were recorded in 4 patients (17 per cent).
The aim of this paper was to compare amoxicillin-clavulanic acid with cefazolin as ultra-short term prophylaxis in laparotomic gynecologic surgery.
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From a prospective melioidosis study commencing in 1989 at Royal Darwin Hospital, 170 initial isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei were available for susceptibility testing. Of these 163 (96%) were susceptible to meropenem/imipenem, ceftazidime, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (SMX/TMP) and doxycycline. Seven (4%) showed primary resistance; three had low-level resistance to SMX/TMP, one to ceftriaxone and amoxycillin/clavulanate (AMOX/CA) and three to doxycycline. Of 167 patients who survived their initial presentation, seven (4%) had culture positive infections which persisted for greater than 3 months after start of therapy. All ultimately cleared carriage of B. pseudomallei though three required changing to SMX/TMP after development of doxycycline resistance. Nineteen (11%) of the initial survivors clinically relapsed and 17 of these had repeat isolates available for testing. Four of these had acquired resistance: one to doxycycline, one to AMOX/CA and ceftazidime, one to SMX/TMP and one to both SMX/TMP and doxycycline. Molecular typing using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed all but one relapse isolate to be the same as the original strain. These data are similar to published data from Thailand. As melioidosis has a high mortality (21% in this series) these results emphasize the need for prolonged eradication therapy and regular clinical and microbiological monitoring so that the emergence of resistance can be detected early and appropriate treatment modifications made.