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To determine whether conservative management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an appropriate option for patients with bladder stones.
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Although testosterone is the most abundant serum androgen, dihydrotestosterone is the main prostatic androgen. Testosterone is converted to dihydrotestosterone by the enzyme 5α-reductase (5α-R). Dihydrotestosterone plays an important role in several human diseases, including benign prostate enlargement and prostate cancer. The observation that males born with 5α-R 2 deficiency have never been reported to develop prostate cancer stimulated interest in development of 5α-R inhibitors. Thus far, 2 5α-R inhibitors are approved for clinical use. Several trials evaluated the use of 5α-R inhibitors in prostate cancer prevention and treatment and will be reviewed in this article.
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The number of Nigerian men presenting with benign prostatic hyperplasia is on the rise because of increase awareness about the ailment. With the renewed effort by the national health insurance scheme to cover the informal sector, it becomes imperative to determine the cost implication for managing Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and the cost effective drug combination to be adopted. The objective of this study is to estimate cost effective analysis (CEA) of fixed -dose combination of dutasteride and tamsulosin compared with dutasteride monotherapy from the health service provider perspective design.
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In this randomized, single-blind, parallel group study, 32 healthy male volunteers received single oral doses of GI198745 ranging from 0.01 to 40 mg. Data were analysed by nonlinear mixed effects modelling using NONMEM where both linear and nonlinear pharmacokinetic models were examined.
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Subjects received i.v. injection of saline, GHRH, GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2), somatostatin (SS), and GHRP-2/GHRH/l-arginine (triple stimulus) each on separate mornings fasting. Outcomes comprised cortisol concentrations, pulsatile cortisol secretion, and relationships with age or abdominal visceral fat (AVF).
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Risk of PED was higher in men with longer exposure to 5α-RIs. Among young men, longer exposure to finasteride posed a greater risk of PED than all other assessed risk factors.
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The authors analyzed prostate cancer incidence in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial, which evaluated finasteride and the related compound dutasteride, respectively (both vs placebo). They used 13-year prostate cancer survival data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) trial to project prostate cancer mortality from incidence patterns; survival rates were applied to incident cancers according to prognostic strata, which were defined by Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen level, and clinical stage. For PCPT, the analysis was performed using both original trial results and previously published adjusted analyses that attempted to account for artifacts related to the drugs' effect on prostate volume.
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The primary end point was incidence of PCa. Secondary end points included postbaseline prostate biopsy rates and Gleason score of cancers.
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The Eighth Annual Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research meeting was held in Houston, Texas, in November 2009. This report highlights significant presentations that advance the fields of chemoprevention, clinical trial recruitment and retention, cancer screening including optical imaging, energy balance, and nutritional epidemiology, and health communications and decision making. In findings from the randomized Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events trial, dutasteride reduced the risk of biopsy-detectable prostate cancer in high-risk men by 23% compared with placebo. Important clues about the dosing and window of susceptibility for supplementation with choline, vitamin D, and folate were revealed from epigenetic research that has implications for future nutritional epidemiology research. Noninvasive optical imaging techniques using endoscopic ultrasound and autofluorescence for the early detection of cancers in the lung, pancreas, and oral cavity are being studied. The report also addresses the challenges of promoting cancer prevention. Understanding how individuals process risk information and make sustained behavior changes and the effect of socioeconomic status on health disparities were identified as critical areas of research. This multidisciplinary research meeting of basic, clinical, and behavioral scientists and epidemiologists continues to play a major role in identifying the research priority areas of cancer prevention, elucidating new mechanisms of carcinogenesis for targeted chemoprevention therapies and delivering a comprehensive strategy for engaging individuals in the unifying goal to reduce cancer incidence.
In total, 220 men were randomized (dutasteride, n = 107; surveillance, n = 113). PCa was detected in 47.6: 49.1 % in the surveillance group and 45.9 % in the treatment group (p = 0.66). The detected PCa differentiation by Gleason score (GS) was GS 6 in 76.9 %, GS 7 in 19.8 %, and GS ≥ 8 in 3.3 %, with no difference between groups. The 3-year PCa-free survival was 43.6 % in the surveillance and 49.6 % in the dutasteride group (log rank p = 0.57). Limitations include a relatively high non-adherence rate, open-label design, and baseline sextant biopsy scheme.
In all, 355 patients (343 women [49 premenopausal] and 12 men) with a mean age of 61 years (range 23-86) were included. Early menopause was detected in 49 patients (14%), whereas 46 (13%) had undergone hysterectomy. Severe FFA was observed in 131 patients (37%). Independent factors associated with severe FFA after multivariate analysis were: eyelash loss, facial papules, and body hair involvement. Eyebrow loss as the initial clinical presentation was associated with mild forms. Antiandrogens such as finasteride and dutasteride were used in 111 patients (31%), with improvement in 52 (47%) and stabilization in 59 (53%).
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Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and male sexual dysfunction are highly prevalent in ageing men, and are strongly linked. Various treatment strategies for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)/LUTS may affect sexuality, with differences between drug classes and between drugs within a same class. The 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, finasteride and dutasteride, are associated with a greater risk of erectile dysfunction (ED), ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and decreased libido than is placebo. Alpha1-adrenoceptor blockers (alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, terazosin) show an incidence of decreased libido and ED closely similar to placebo, but differ in their impact on ejaculation, tamsulosin being associated with a higher incidence of EjD (10%) than other alpha1-adrenoceptor blockers (0-1%) and placebo (1%), which is unrelated to retrograde ejaculation or higher efficacy. A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study conducted in healthy volunteers showed that tamsulosin 0.8 mg once daily markedly decreased mean ejaculate volume in almost 90% of subjects, with 35% having no ejaculation. By contrast, there was no lack of ejaculation in subjects receiving alfuzosin 10 mg once daily or placebo. Sperm concentrations in urine after ejaculation were similar for the three treatment groups, confirming that the EjD with tamsulosin was unrelated to retrograde ejaculation. It may be related to a peripheral effect on seminal vesicles and/or the vas deferens. A central effect is also plausible, as tamsulosin shows a strong affinity for 5HT1A- and D2-like receptors, both of which are involved in the central command of ejaculation. In conclusion, because treatment options for managing BPH have different effects on sexuality, the sexual dimension should be considered when assessing patients' expectations and the choice of treatment.
To evaluate the clinical response and adverse events (AEs) of solifenacin (SOL) or mirabegron (MIR) in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with persistent overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms after dutasteride (DUT) treatment.
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A patient presented to our urology clinic having experienced post-coital gross hematuria for 2 years. He had not experienced lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). A series of examinations were performed to determine the source of bleeding.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common visceral malignancies in human. In recent years, its incidence has dramatically increased in China. 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors can block the biological effects of dihydrotestosterone by restraining the transformation from testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, and therefore can be used for the chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Two large clinical trials on the chemoprevention of prostate cancer (the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) were completed in 2003 and 2008, respectively, bringing the global interests on this topic. However, the interpretations of these two trials and the possible recommendations on clinical applications remain controversial.
MRI in Primary Prostate cancer after Exposure to Dutasteride (MAPPED) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, supported by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). Men with prostate cancer suitable for active surveillance (low-intermediate risk prostate cancer on biopsy), and a visible lesion on T2-weighted MRI of at least 0.2 cc, were eligible for consideration. Forty-two men were randomised to 6 months of daily dutasteride 0.5mg or placebo. Multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) scans were performed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The percentage changes in cancer volume over time will be compared between the dutasteride and placebo groups. Planned analyses will examine the association between tumour volume and characteristics (perfusion and contrast washout) as seen on mpMRI, HistoScan ultrasound and biopsy histopathology in both groups.
To study the effect of Dutasteride on the efficacy of GreenLight photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PV). Some investigators have suggested that 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors may interfere with PV by reducing intraprostatic blood flow. Dutasteride offers the most complete blockade of the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, with minimal increase in side effects.
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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a frequent cause of lower urinary symptoms, with a prevalence of 50% by the sixth decade of life. Hyperplasia of stromal and epithelial prostatic elements that surround the urethra cause lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), urinary tract infection, and acute urinary retention. Medical treatments of symptomatic BPH include; 1) the 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, 2) the alpha1-adrenergic antagonists, and 3) the combination of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor and a alpha1-adrenergic antagonist. Selective alpha1-adrenergic antagonists relax the smooth muscle of the prostate and bladder neck without affecting the detrussor muscle of the bladder wall, thus decreasing the resistance to urine flow without compromising bladder contractility. Clinical trials have shown that alpha1-adrenergic antagonists decrease LUTS and increase urinary flow rates in men with symptomatic BPH, but do not reduce the long-term risk of urinary retention or need for surgical intervention. Inhibitors of 5alpha-reductase decrease production of dihydrotestosterone within the prostate resulting in decreased prostate volumes, increased peak urinary flow rates, improvement of symptoms, and decreased risk of acute urinary retention and need for surgical intervention. The combination of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor and a alpha1-adrenergic antagonist reduces the clinical progression of BPH over either class of drug alone.
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We retrospectively investigated patients who suffered from BPH for 1 year between January 2005 and December 2008. For treatment groups, we divided the patients into two groups: one was treated with alfuzosin and finasteride and the other was treated with alfuzosin and dutasteride. At the beginning of treatment, the patients underwent transrectal ultrasonography and measurement of urine flow rate, residual urine volume, PSA, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Patients with diseases affecting urinary function were excluded. We not only analyzed the data at the time of initial treatment, but also after 1 year of treatment. A total of 219 patients were able to be evaluated for 1 year.
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Clinical trials, sponsored primarily by the manufacturer, have shown dutasteride to be an effective treatment of BPH compared with placebo and to likely possess efficacy similar to that of finasteride. Further studies are needed to gain a more clear understanding of any clinically significant differences between dutasteride and finasteride.
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We constructed a Markov model to compare cost effectivenss of dutasteride and finasteride using data from the available pharmacoeconomic literature and data about socioeconomic sphere actual in Montenegro. A time horizon was estimated to be 20 years, with the duration of 1 year per one cycle. The discount rate was 3%. We performed Monte Carlo simulation for virtual cohort of 1,000 patients with BPH.
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Long-term efficacy and safety of combination therapy and its beneficial effect on quality of life and risk reduction of need for BPH-related surgeries have been discussed.
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Fifty cases with residual OAB symptom score (OABSS) ≥ 5 and OABSS Q3 ≥ 2 after at least 6 months treatment of DUT were included in this study. Patients were administered 5 mg/d of SOL (N = 25) or 50 mg/d of MIR (N = 25), and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and OABSS were prospectively collected at 4 and 12 weeks. The safety was evaluated by changes in postvoided residual urine volume and the incidence of AEs.
Abiraterone blocks androgen synthesis and prolongs survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, which is otherwise driven by intratumoral androgen synthesis. Abiraterone is metabolized in patients to Δ(4)-abiraterone (D4A), which has even greater anti-tumour activity and is structurally similar to endogenous steroidal 5α-reductase substrates, such as testosterone. Here, we show that D4A is converted to at least three 5α-reduced and three 5β-reduced metabolites in human serum. The initial 5α-reduced metabolite, 3-keto-5α-abiraterone, is present at higher concentrations than D4A in patients with prostate cancer taking abiraterone, and is an androgen receptor agonist, which promotes prostate cancer progression. In a clinical trial of abiraterone alone, followed by abiraterone plus dutasteride (a 5α-reductase inhibitor), 3-keto-5α-abiraterone and downstream metabolites were depleted by the addition of dutasteride, while D4A concentrations rose, showing that dutasteride effectively blocks production of a tumour-promoting metabolite and permits D4A accumulation. Furthermore, dutasteride did not deplete the three 5β-reduced metabolites, which were also clinically detectable, demonstrating the specific biochemical effects of pharmacological 5α-reductase inhibition on abiraterone metabolism. Our findings suggest a previously unappreciated and biochemically specific method of clinically fine-tuning abiraterone metabolism to optimize therapy.
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REDUCE was a 4-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of dutasteride (0.5 mg/d) vs placebo for PCa risk reduction. We modeled the incidence of Gleason 8-10 cancer and used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the effects of baseline predictors of PCa, as well as post-baseline prostate volume at the time of biopsy, on PCa diagnosis. We compared needle biopsy Gleason scores with corresponding surgery Gleason scores. All statistical tests conducted were 2-sided.
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Our inability to distinguish between low-grade prostate cancers that pose no threat and those that can kill compels newly diagnosed early prostate cancer patients to make decisions that may negatively affect their lives needlessly for years afterward. To reliably stratify patients into different risk categories and apply appropriate treatment, we need a better molecular understanding of prostate cancer progression. Androgen ablation therapy and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors reduce dihydrotestosterone levels and increase apoptosis. Because of the differing biological potentials of tumor cells, however, these treatments may, in some cases, worsen outcome by selecting for or inducing adaptation of stronger androgen receptor signaling pathways. Reduced dihydrotestosterone also may be associated with altered survival pathways. Complicating treatment effects further, molecular adaptation may be accelerated by interactions between epithelial and stromal cells. The hypothesis that early prostate cancer cells with differing biological potential may respond differently to finasteride treatment is worth testing. Ongoing studies using a systems biology approach in a preoperative prostate cancer setting are testing this hypothesis toward developing more-rational clinical interventions.