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Azulfidine

Generic Azulfidine is used for the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis, as adjunctive therapy (with other medications) in the treatment of severe ulcerative colitis, for the treatment of Crohn's disease, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Prograf, Aprico, Asacol, Cimzia

 

Also known as:  Sulfasalazine.

Description

Generic Azulfidine is used for the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis, as adjunctive therapy (with other medications) in the treatment of severe ulcerative colitis, for the treatment of Crohn's disease, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.

Generic Azulfidine is a sulfonamide that decreases inflammation and help regulate the immune system in various areas of the body.

Azulfidine is also known as Sulfasalazine.

Generic name of Generic Azulfidine is Sulfasalazine.

Brand name of Generic Azulfidine is Azulfidine.

Dosage

Doses range: from 500 mg to 2000 mg, and dosing intervals range: from every 6 hours to every 12 hours, depending on the clinical condition of the patient.

Generic Azulfidine should be taken with a full glass of water after meals or with food to minimize stomach upset.

Patients with kidney diseases may need to use lower doses of Generic Azulfidine.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Azulfidine suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Azulfidine and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Azulfidine are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Azulfidine if you are allergic to Generic Azulfidine components or to a salicylate (eg, aspirin) or a sulfonamide (eg, sulfisoxazole).

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not take Generic Azulfidine if you have the blood disease porphyria or a blockage of the intestine or urinary tract.

Some medical conditions may interact with Generic Azulfidine.

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you have kidney or liver problems, a blood disorder, a gastrointestinal infection, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, or asthma.

Some medicines may interact with Generic Azulfidine.

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you are taking anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) or methotrexate because the actions and side effects of these medicines may be increased; anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) or beta-blockers (eg, propranolol) because their effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Azulfidine; methenamine because the risk of crystals in the urine is increased.

Do not share this medicine with others for whom it was not prescribed.

Do not use this medicine for other health conditions.

If using this medicine for an extended period of time, obtain refills before your supply runs out.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Azulfidine taking suddenly.

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Sulfasalazine is widely used in rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases. The mechanisms of its activity have not been elucidated. In leukocytes, sulfasalazine and its analogue, CL 42A, inhibited the formation of leukotrienes and possibly of the second messenger compounds at the level of phospholipase C. Partial inhibition of interleukin-lbeta (IL-1beta), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was also found. Since the synthesis of eicosanoids is induced by phospholipase A2 and since secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is proinflammatory, we investigated the impact of sulfasalazine and related compounds on mRNA, protein synthesis, and release of sPLA2 from osteoblasts. Sulfasalazine and CL 42A markedly inhibited extracellular release of sPLA2. The impact of sulfasalazine was evident at 50 microM (P < 0.001) and maximal at 400 microM, and that of CL 42A at 10 microM (P < 0.001) and 200 microM, respectively. Split products of sulfasalazine, 5-aminosalicylic acid (400 microM) and sulfapyridine (400 microM), had no impact. The effect of sulfasalazine and CL 42A was evident regardless of whether the cells were stimulated with IL-1beta/TNF-alpha, lipopolysaccharide/forskolin, or dibutyryl-cAMP. Sulfasalazine and CL 42A did not alter the level of sPLA2 mRNA. Exposure of stimulated fetal rat calvaria osteoblasts (FRCO) to sulfasalazine did not show accumulation of the intracellular sPLA2 protein as tested by western blot; however, enzymatic activity of PLA2 in disrupted cells was definitely increased. Thus, the impact is on the post-transcriptional release of sPLA2 rather than on the synthesis. There was also an increase in the extracellular release of prostaglandin E2 from FRCO exposed to sulfasalazine or to CL 42A. In contrast, sulfasalazine had no effect on the extracellular release of gelatinase from the cells or on mRNA of cytosolic PLA2 or cyclooxygenase 2. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory activity of sulfasalazine may be related, in part, to the selective inhibition of the extracellular release of proinflammatory sPLA2.

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Chronic inflammatory polyarthritis does occur following chikungunya infection. It involves large and small joints of hands and feet and is erosive and deforming. It is rheumatoid factor negative. AntiCCP antibody was positive in majority. Synovial biopsy revealed nongranulomatous chronic synovitis with infiltration with lymphocytes and plasma cells. It was negative for chikungunya RNA. Treatment with Sulfasalazine with and without methotrexate produced good response in 71.4 % and 12.5% respectively.

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Use of DMARD in RA has increased in the recent past, but DMARD are currently used by fewer than 44% of patients with RA. Use of DMARD has not increased over time among patients of physicians other than rheumatologists.

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Prescription patterns, drug costs, and adverse drug reactions, and their distributions and trends were analyzed by cross sectional annual data. Drug exposures and costs were assessed from the National Diagnosis and Therapy Survey. All costs were recalculated to the 1997 level using the drug price index. Information on adverse drug reactions was obtained from the national pharmacovigilance system.

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This study was designed to characterize breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) knockout Abcg2(-/-) rats and assess the effect of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (Abcg2) deletion on the excretion and pharmacokinetic properties of probe substrates. Deletion of the target gene in the Abcg2(-/-) rats was confirmed, whereas gene expression was unaffected for most of the other transporters and metabolizing enzymes. Biliary excretion of nitrofurantoin, sulfasalazine, and compound A [2-(5-methoxy-2-((2-methyl-1,3-benzothiazol-6-yl)amino)-4-pyridinyl)-1,5,6,7-tetrahydro-4H-pyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridin-4-one] accounted for 1.5, 48, and 48% of the dose in the Abcg2(+/+) rats, respectively, whereas it was decreased by 70 to 90% in the Abcg2(-/-) rats. Urinary excretion of nitrofurantoin, a significant elimination pathway, was unaffected in the Abcg2(-/-) rats, whereas renal clearance of sulfasalazine, a minor elimination pathway, was reduced by >90%. Urinary excretion of compound A was minimal. Systemic clearance in the Abcg2(-/-) rats decreased 22, 43 (p<0.05), and 57%, respectively, for nitrofurantoin, sulfasalazine, and compound A administered at 1 mg/kg and 27% for compound A administered at 5 mg/kg. Oral absorption of nitrofurantoin, a compound with high aqueous solubility and good permeability, was not limited by Bcrp. In contrast, the absence of Bcrp led to a 33- and 11-fold increase in oral exposure of sulfasalazine and compound A, respectively. These data show that Bcrp plays a crucial role in biliary excretion of these probe substrates and has differential effects on systemic clearance and oral absorption in rats depending on clearance mechanisms and compound properties. The Abcg2(-/-) rat is a useful model for understanding the role of Bcrp in elimination and oral absorption.

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The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), cyclooxygenase(COX)-2 inhibitors, gold and cyclosporine is limited in renal insufficiency due to nephrotoxicity. Methotrexate should not be used in patients with a glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 45 ml/min, because of the unpredictable pharmacokinetics with a risk for fatal pancytopenia. The dosage of sulfasalazine, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide and antimalarial drugs should be reduced in patients with moderate and severe renal insufficiency. In contrast, leflunomide and numerous biologics can be used without dosage modification; however, biologics with a molecular weight < 60 kDa (e.g. anakinra) are an exception and should be reduced in patients with renal insufficiency. Overall, there are only limited data on the use of biologics in this population. Numerous comorbidities and the high risk for infection should be kept in mind when patients with rheumatic disease and renal failure are treated with immunosuppressive drugs.

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The mean changes in the leflunomide, placebo, and sulphasalazine groups were -9.7, -4.3, and -8.1 for tender joint count; -7.2, -3.4, and -6.2 for swollen joint count; -1.1, -0.3, and -1.0 for physician's overall assessment; and -1.1, -0.4, and -1.1 for patient's overall assessment. Leflunomide and sulphasalazine were significantly superior to placebo (p=0.0001 for joint counts; p<0.001 for assessments). Radiographic disease progression was significantly slower with leflunomide and sulphasalazine than with placebo (p<0.01). Most common adverse events with leflunomide were diarrhoea (17%), nausea (10%), alopecia (8%), and rash (10%). Transiently abnormal liver function was seen in three leflunomide-group patients and five sulphasalazine-group patients. There were two cases of reversible agranulocytosis in the sulphasalazine group.

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This study aimed to evaluate potential protecting effect of ML and its major constituent, eucalyptol, against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats, a model of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

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A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed and Cochrane databases, and abstracts presented at rheumatology scientific meetings until December 2013. Randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and the safety of biologic DMARD with the triple combination were included. Outcome measures were Van der Heijde modified Sharp score (SHS), remission rate, ACR criteria response, adverse events.

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Clinical trials in RA usually involve the use of several laboratory assessments of disease activity. Their use is not universal and the relative value of many novel assessments has not been determined in relation to existing clinical and laboratory methods. This study attempts to investigate the value of established and novel assessments of disease activity during treatment with accepted DMARDs. Over a 48-week study period, changes in cytidine deaminase (CD), beta 2-microglobulin, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (alpha 1-AGP), serum antibodies to Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin, pre-albumin and caeruloplasmin were compared to a group of established clinical and laboratory assessments including plasma viscosity, CRP haemoglobin and platelet count during treatment with the established second-line drugs, D-penicillamine (n = 20), sulphasalazine (n = 17), gold (n = 12) and hydroxychloroquine (n = 18). Overall, the assessments showing the greatest degree of change were plasma viscosity, articular index, summated change score, platelet count, CD, white cell count, alpha 1-AGP, CRP and pain score. The assessments showing the greatest degree of change were not homologous between the treatment groups and no single assessment was outstanding for a particular drug treatment.

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The reading level required to understand supplementary written drug information used by Australian rheumatologists is much higher than the average reading ability of the Australian population (estimated at Year 8 level). The content of this information varies widely and often omits important information.

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Chronic inflammatory spondyloarthritis involves axial symptoms of the spine and sacroiliac joints, or peripheral arthritis. Many patients suffer from extra-articular manifestations. With acute anterior uveitis, rapid treatment prevents synechiae. Other organs can be involved. Treatment includes exercise, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (if insufficient response, tumor necrosis factor blockers), and (with peripheral arthritis) sulfasalazine. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis have comorbidities and increased cardiovascular risk. For uveitis or inflammatory bowel disease, patients should be referred to an ophthalmologist or gastroenterologist. Cardiovascular risk may originate from atherosclerotic disease and cardiac manifestations. Epidemiological studies should be conducted before echocardiogram screening and cardiovascular risk management.

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The aim of this prospective study was to determine the frequency and type of pulmonary dysfunction in patients with UC with respect to disease activity. Furthermore, to evaluate the influence of smoking, nutritional status, sputum cytology and sulphasalazine therapy on PFT parameters.

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Thirty-eight patients with rheumatoid arthritis meeting American College of Rheumatism (ACR) criteria were entered in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 6 months to assess whether monthly treatment with i.v. methylprednisolone (MP) enhances or accelerates the efficacy of sulphasalazine (SSZ). All patients had failed at least one second-line agent and were randomized to receive SSZ (2g/day) and pulses of MP (5 mg/kg), or SSZ+ (2 g/day) and pulses of saline (SA). A single infusion of 2 h was carried out in both groups for a total of three times (0, 1 and 2 months). The two groups were comparable at baseline regarding their demographic and clinical characteristics. Disease activity was evaluated every 2 months by means of: (1) joint count; (2) morning stiffness; (3) grip strength; (4) visual analogue pain score; (5) health assessment questionnaire; and (6) erythrocyte sedimentation rate. All outcome measures improved significantly in both groups (P < 0.001). Evaluation at each follow-up visit showed no significant differences between the groups in any of the adverse effects attributable to SSZ therapy (one SA vs two MP). Adverse effects attributable to SA/MP therapy were rare and mild. We concluded that repeated pulses of MP during the first 3 months of treatment did not improve the efficacy of SSZ. Therefore, there is no justification for using MP in this way during the induction phase of SSZ therapy.

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Pharmacologic treatments of RA include NSAIDs, glucocorticoids, DMARDs, and biological agents. With an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of RA and the evidence from various clinical trials with the agents, early aggressive therapy with a combination of drugs or biological agents may be warranted for the effective treatment of RA.

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In this multicentre, two-arm, parallel, randomised, active-controlled, open-label trial, rheumatoid arthritis patients with <1 year symptom duration were recruited from 15 rheumatology clinics in Sweden between October 2002 and December 2005. After 3-4 months of methotrexate monotherapy, patients not achieving low disease activity were randomised to addition of infliximab or sulfasalazine+hydroxychloroquine (conventional treatment group). Costs of drugs, healthcare use, and productivity losses were retrieved from nationwide registers, while EuroQol 5-Dimensions utility was collected quarterly.

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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial intestinal disorder that involves interactions among the immune system, genetic susceptibility, and environmental factors, especially the bacterial flora. Polydextrose, a polysaccharide constituted by 90% nondigestible and nonabsorbable soluble fibers, has several physiological effects consistent with those of dietary fibers, including proliferation of colon microflora. Because sulfasalazine presents serious side effects through long-term use at high doses, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventative effect of polydextrose on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced intestinal inflammation and its effects on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of sulfasalazine. Results indicated that polydextrose and its association with sulfasalazine present an anti-inflammatory effect that reduces myeloperoxidase activity, counteracts glutathione content, and promotes reductions in lesion extension and colonic weight/length ratio.

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Basic principles of drug treatment for rheumatoid arthritis are described. Nonsteroidal antirheumatic drugs are available and efficacious and part of almost each therapeutic approach. Corticosteroids have antiinflammatory and symptomatic properties with fast signs of improvement and potential anti-erosive action. Methotrexate, sulfasalazine, chloroquine, azathioprin, cyclosporin and leflunomide are the most frequently administered disease modifying antirheumatic drugs with delayed clinical effects. The biologic agents (anticytokines) offer new opportunities because they inhibit proinflammatory cytokines activity and very first stages of inflammation. Combination therapy of almost all drugs is eligible if it is efficacious and not increasing risk of adverse events. The outcome of rheumatoid arthritis is related to early diagnosis and early treatment with monitoring of efficacy and adverse events.

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Although the specific trigger of the autoimmune response in RA is not known, pathogenesis is generally believed to be associated with the generation of autoantibodies through interactions of antigen-presenting cells with the adaptive immune system (CD4 + T cells and B cells). The main inflammatory mediators of joint inflammation and destruction in RA are tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, chemokines, and proteases. Advances in our understanding of the key cells and inflammatory cytokines have led to the development of targeted biologic agents. As of 2011, 5 TNF-alpha inhibitors are approved for use by the FDA: infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab, and certolizumab pegol. In randomized clinical trials, all of these agents have been shown to be effective in reducing clinical signs of inflammation in RA patients who have failed synthetic DMARDs. Multiple studies have demonstrated significant benefits of early treatment with TNF-alpha inhibitors combined with methotrexate. Other FDA-approved biologic agents for treating moderate-to-severe RA include abatacept, rituximab, and tocilizumab. All biologic agents carry an increased risk of infections. Additional potential side effects include infusion and injection site reactions for intravenous and subcutaneously administered agents, respectively. All patients being considered for biologic agents should be screened annually for tuberculosis and should receive pneumococcal, influenza, and hepatitis B vaccinations.

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The objective of the present study was to investigate the reliability of transporter inhibitors in the elucidation of drug-transporter interactions when multiple transporters are present in a test system. The bidirectional permeabilities of digoxin, estrone-3-sulfate (E3S), and sulfasalazine, substrates of P-gp, BCRP/MRP2 and unspecified efflux transporters, respectively, were examined in Caco-2 and MDR-MDCK cells in the absence and presence of transporter inhibitors: CsA (P-gp), FTC (BCRP) and MK571 (MRP). Digoxin showed significant efflux ratios (ER) in both Caco-2 (ER=17) and MDR-MDCK (ER=120), whereas E3S and sulfasalazine only showed significant efflux in Caco-2 (ER=15 and 88, respectively) but not in MDR-MDCK cells (ER=1.1 and 1.3, respectively). CsA at 10 microM showed complete inhibition of digoxin efflux, partial inhibition of E3S efflux and no effect on sulfasalazine efflux. FTC and MK571 had different inhibitory effects on the efflux of these compounds. The present study shows evidence of the functional expression of multiple efflux transporter systems in Caco-2 cells. Although the use of Caco-2 cells and selected inhibitors of efflux transporters can provide useful mechanistic information on drug-drug interactions involving efflux transporters, the potential cross-reaction of inhibitors with multiple transporters makes it difficult to discern the role of individual transporters in drug transport or drug-drug interactions.

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Routine use of these drugs should at least equal these results. Any new drug should either be substantially less toxic or at least as efficacious.

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In the first phase of this open-label study, patients were randomized to etanercept 50 mg weekly plus methotrexate or conventional DMARD (hydroxychloroquine or sulfasalazine) plus methotrexate for 24 weeks. At the start of the second phase (week 24), investigators selected a treatment regimen that included any combination/dosage of etanercept, methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, or sulfasalazine based on previous treatment response, preference, and local product labeling, and was continued for the 104-week extension.

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Five of 12 patients in Group A and 8 of 13 patients in Group B had sustained remission during the stipulated study period of 18 months (p = ns). Two patients in Group A had to stop azathioprine because of adverse effects (bone marrow suppression and acute pancreatitis). In Group A, all patients who had treatment failure developed it in the first half of the study while in Group B treatment failure occurred in both halves.

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Sulphasalazine (SASP) is now accepted as an effective slow-acting antirheumatic drug for treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but has not been previously evaluated in psoriatic arthritis. An earlier open study suggested that it was well tolerated and potentially beneficial. The present double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 30 patients has now confirmed its efficacy. Greater improvement occurred in those patients on active treatment than on placebo, with more benefit being detected in those patients with the symmetrical polyarticular but seronegative pattern of arthritis associated with a high acute-phase response. SASP was stopped in 26% because of side-effects but these were mild. No exacerbation or remission of psoriasis was observed. Further studies are in progress to determine the degree of efficacy of SASP in different clinical subgroups of psoriatic arthritis.

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Twenty randomized placebo controlled trials met our criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Comparison of SSZ with mesalamine yielded a nonsignificant relative risk (RR) of 1.04 (95% confidence interval of 0.89-1.21, P = 0.63) for overall improvement, a nonsignificant RR of 0.98 (95% CI 0.78-1.23, P = 0.85) for relapse, a nonsignificant RR of 0.76 (95% CI 0.54-1.07, P = 0.11) for any adverse events, and a nonsignificant RR of 0.78 (95% CI 0.46-1.3, P = 0.33) for withdrawals due to adverse events. Comparison of SSZ with olsalazine yielded a nonsignificant RR of 1.14 (95% CI 0.91-1.43, P = 0.25) for overall improvement, a nonsignificant RR of 0.93 (95% CI 0.77-1.12, P = 0.42) for relapse, a nonsignificant RR of 1.21 (95% CI 0.9-1.61, P = 0.20) for any adverse events, and a nonsignificant RR of 1.53 (95% CI 0.93-2.52, P = 0.09) for withdrawals due to adverse events. Comparison of SSZ with balsalazide yielded a nonsignificant RR of 1.3 (95% CI 0.93-1.81, P = 0.12) for overall improvement, and a significant RR of 0.17 (95% CI 0.06-0.49, P = 0.001) for withdrawals because of adverse events.

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Preferably, TNFi should be prescribed together with MTX. If this is not possible, we advise the use of other csDMARD.

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The observed reaction to sulfasalazine was considered phototoxic, as lesions appeared like a burn rash reaction in sun-exposed areas when sulfasalazine treatment was started and the reaction progressed to SJS. It seems that there was a correlation between the time course of the reaction and the administration of sulfasalazine. An objective causality assessment revealed that the adverse effect was possible.

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Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs) include mild maculopapular exanthems (MPE), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). We used HLA high-resolution genotyping and genome wide association analysis (GWAS) to identify the genetic markers for cADRs induced by common culprit drugs in Han Chinese population. To further understand the immunopathogenesis of cADRs, and with the goal of developing treatment strategies, we compared the expression of cytoxic cytokines between the patients with cADRs and normal controls. Our data suggested that the carbamazepine induced SJS/TEN, allopurinol induced CADRs, methazolamide induced SJS/TEN and SASP induced DRESS were respectively strongly associated with HLA-B*15:02, HLA-B*58:01, HLA-B*59:01 and HLA-B*13:01. In addition, increased expression of cytotoxic cytokines in sera and tissues of cADRs patients were found, compared with healthy controls. Our findings may shed light on prediction and prevention of cADRs, provide clues to pathogenesis, and guide treatment strategies of these reactions.

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We consider the agreement and reliability between observers to be high. The agreement and inter-observer reliability was poor between observers and patients. The SFI, as enhanced for use in this study to assess change in functional ability of patients with spondylitis, demonstrated high reliability when used by trained observers.

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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced small intestinal inflammation may have an adverse effect on the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We therefore assessed small intestinal and joint inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis before and after three to nine months' treatment with sulphasalazine (n = 40) and other second line drugs (n = 20), while keeping the dosage of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug at the same level. Sulphasalazine significantly decreased the mean (SD) faecal excretion of 111indium labelled leucocytes from 2.39 (2.22)% to 1.33 (1.13)% (normal less than 1%, p less than 0.01) and improved the joint inflammation as assessed by a variety of parameters. There was no significant correlation between the effects of sulphasalazine treatment on the intestine and the joints. Treatment with other second line drugs had no significant effect on the faecal excretion of 111indium (1.58 (1.04)% and 1.86 (1.51)%, respectively) but improved joint inflammation significantly. The lack of correlation between the intestinal and joint inflammation and their response to treatment suggests that the two are not causally related.

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Patients with active RA ((DAS28) >3.2) who were enrolled in the first open label phase of the RELIEF study received leflunomide for 24 weeks. Inadequate responders then entered the double blind phase and received a further 24 weeks' treatment with leflunomide (20 mg once daily) plus sulfasalazine (final dose 2 g once daily), or placebo plus sulfasalazine (dose as above). The primary efficacy variable was the DAS28 response rate, and secondary efficacy outcomes were ACR 20%, 50%, and 70% response rates. Adverse events, including standard laboratory tests, were recorded.

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Malignant melanoma occurred in 11 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Six cases occurred in patients with ileocolitis, two in regional enteritis, one in granulomatous colitis, and two in patients with ulcerative colitis. The mean age at development of IBD was 24 yr, and at development of melanoma was 40 yr: the mean duration from onset of IBD to development of melanoma was thus 16 yr. All patients for whom complete information was available, except two, had received steroids and azulfidine for approximately a decade, as well as blood transfusions, usually multiple, and on repeated occasions. Six of the 11 patients had undergone one to seven prior operations (mean 3.5). All patients had wide radical excision of the melanoma, with or without concomitant or subsequent nodal dissection. Two patients (ages 25 and 36 yr) died rapidly from widely disseminated malignant melanoma. These cases may be coincidental, or else there may be an association between IBD and melanoma, related to immunosuppression either from the disease itself, from the medical and surgical therapy, and/or from x-ray exposure.

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The diagnostic yield of such stool studies has not been examined recently in the United States.

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Seventy rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, i.e., the normal control group (n = 10), the model group (n = 15), the treatment 1 group (n = 15, treated from Fei), the treatment 2 group (n = 15, treated from the intestine), and the Western medicine (WM) group [n = 15, treated with Sulfasalazine (SASP). Except those in the normal control group, the UC rat model was prepared by allergizing colon mucosa combined with TNBS-alcohol (50%) enema, and then intervened by medication (treated with CM complex prescription of treatment from lung, CM complex prescription of treatment from intestine, and SASP). After intragastric administration for 4 weeks, rats were sacrificed and samples taken. The expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-8 contents in the lung tissue, the intestinal tissue, and the serum were detected by radioimmunoassay. Serum MedCAM-1 contents were detected using ELISA. Changes of the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), neutrophil migration inhibition factor (MIF), mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MadCAM-1) mRNA in the lung tissue and the intestinal tissue were detected by real time PCR.

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cost of azulfidine 2016-06-12

The metabolism of salicylazosulphapyridine was studied in 16 patients with ulcerative colitis admitted to hospital. The acetylator phenotype was determined on admission. The mean serum concentration (mug/ml) (at steady state eight +/- two days in patients responding to treatment) of SASP, total SP, and 5-ASA were 18.7 +/- 12.8; 53.7 +/- 23.1; and 1 +/- 0.9 for slow acetylators and 17.6 +/- 7.1; 31 +/- 9.0 and 1 +/- 0.9 for fast acetylators respectively. Twenty-four hour urinary buy azulfidine online excretion of SASP, total SP, and 5-ASA were 4.6% +/- 3.1; 52% +/- 9.6 and 22.3 +/- 6.7% of the administered dose respectively. Serum total SP concentration of 20 to 50 mug/ml appeared to coincide with clinical improvement in the absence of any side effects related to salicylazosulphapyridine. No such relationship could be shown with serum SASP, individual metabolites, or 5-aminosalicyclic acid.

azulfidine dosing 2016-06-12

Turner's syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal disorder where phenotypic females have either a missing chromosome (45 X0) or a structural aberration of one of the chromosomes. It is possible for TS to accompany such autoimmune diseases as thyroid diseases, inflammatory intestinal diseases, diabetes mellitus, psoriatic arthritis and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Herein, we present an unusual case with Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and autoimmune thyroiditis associated with TS. We suggest that the possibility that TS patients may also develop such other diseases as AS apart from the already known accompanying autoimmune diseases should not be ruled out when monitoring TS buy azulfidine online patients.

azulfidine tablets 2017-09-03

Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) inhibitors are frequently used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, but whether use of a different TNFalpha inhibitor can improve patient response is unknown. We assess the efficacy and safety buy azulfidine online of the TNFalpha inhibitor golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who had previously received one or more TNFalpha inhibitors.

azulfidine mg 2017-02-15

The small intestine is a more common site for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) toxicity than the well-recognized effects on the stomach and duodenum. Although NSAID strictures and perforation buy azulfidine online are rare, two thirds of regular NSAID users may be prone to small bowel enteropathy. This review highlights this emerging issue in patients requiring antiinflammatory drugs.

azulfidine tab 500mg 2016-12-07

Using data buy azulfidine online from RA patients enrolled in a US commercial health plan and the US Medicare program, we identified RA patients initiating oral MTX. Persistence with MTX (oral or subcutaneous [SC]) was defined as no gap for ≥90 days.

azulfidine dose 2017-12-01

At week 16, significantly more apremilast 20 mg BID ( buy azulfidine online 31%) and 30 mg BID (40%) patients achieved ACR20 versus placebo (19%) (p<0.001). Significant improvements in key secondary measures (physical function, psoriasis) were evident with both apremilast doses versus placebo. Across outcome measures, the 30-mg group generally had higher and more consistent response rates, although statistical comparison was not conducted. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal and generally occurred early, were self-limiting and infrequently led to discontinuation. No imbalance in major adverse cardiac events, serious or opportunistic infections, malignancies or laboratory abnormalities was observed.

azulfidine drug interactions 2016-05-30

Guanosine (GUO) has been shown to act as a neuroprotective agent against glutamatergic excitotoxicity by increasing glutamate uptake and decreasing its release. In this study, a putative effect of GUO action on glutamate transporters activity modulation was assessed in hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model of brain ischemia. Slices subjected to OGD showed increased excitatory amino acids release (measured by D-[(3)H]aspartate release) that was prevented in the presence of GUO (100 µM). The glutamate transporter blockers, DL-TBOA (10 µM), DHK (100 µM, selective inhibitor of GLT-1), and sulfasalazine (SAS, 250 µM, Xc(-) system inhibitor) decreased OGD-induced D-aspartate release. Interestingly, DHK or DL-TBOA blocked the decrease in glutamate release induced by buy azulfidine online GUO, whereas SAS did not modify the GUO effect. GUO protected hippocampal slices from cellular damage by modulation of glutamate transporters, however selective blockade of GLT-1 or Xc- system only did not affect this protective action of GUO. OGD decreased hippocampal glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and GUO recovered GS activity to control levels without altering the kinetic parameters of GS activity, thus suggesting GUO does not directly interact with GS. Additionally, the pharmacological inhibition of GS activity with methionine sulfoximine abolished the effect of GUO in reducing D-aspartate release and cellular damage evoked by OGD. Altogether, results in hippocampal slices subjected to OGD show that GUO counteracts the release of excitatory amino acids, stimulates the activity of GS, and decreases the cellular damage by modulation of glutamate transporters activity.

azulfidine and alcohol 2017-03-13

Colitis in rats was induced by colonic administration with TNBS. ISA (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was administered for 12 days to buy azulfidine online experimental colitis rats. The inflammatory degree was assessed by macroscopic damage score, colon weight/length ratios (mg/cm), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and nitric oxide (NO) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities were measured with biochemical methods.

azulfidine drug class 2017-02-17

To determine the effect of different treatment strategies (early versus delayed) on the radiological progression of joint damage during 4 years. Additionally, to determine the effect of treatment buy azulfidine online strategy on the association of HLA class II alleles and joint damage.

azulfidine buy 2016-08-22

Four hundred and thirteen RA patients from 9 clinical centers were included in the clinical trial. They were randomly divided into Western medicine (WM) treated group with 204 cases and traditional Chinese medicine (CM) treated group with 209 cases. A complete physical examination and 18 common clinical manifestations were recorded before the randomization and after the treatment. The WM therapy included voltaren extended action tablet buy azulfidine online , methotrexate and sulfasalazine. The CM therapy included glucosidorum Tripterygll totorum tablet and Yishen Juanbi Tablet. The American College of Rheumatology 20 (ACR20) was used for efficacy evaluation. All data were analyzed on SAS 8.2 statistical package. Eighteen symptoms in the RA patients were analyzed by factor analysis and the relationships between the factors and effects were analyzed with Chi-Square test.

azulfidine y alcohol 2015-09-06

A new compound, APAZA, consisting of a molecule of 5-aminosalicylic acid linked to one molecule of 4-aminophenylacetic acid by an azo bond, was testedfor its ability to inhibit acute colitis in rats caused by Clostridium difficile toxin A. When administered chronically for 5 days in drinking water, APAZA significantly inhibited toxin A-induced myeloperoxidase activity, luminal fluid accumulation, and structural damage to the colon at doses of from 1 to buy azulfidine online 100 mg/kg x day. For comparison, sulfasalazine was administered in identical doses and was found to significantly inhibit toxin A-induced colitis only at the dose of 100 mg/kg x day. When 4-aminophenylacetic acid alone was administered chronically in drinking water, it also inhibited toxin A-induced colonic inflammation at a dose of 100 mg/kg x day. In order to determine if 4-aminophenylacetic acid has a direct anti-inflammatory effect on the colon rather than a systemic effect, 4-aminophenylacetic acid was administered acutely to surgically prepared isolated colonic segments by intraluminal injection in anesthetized rats 30 min before toxin A was injected. 4-Aminophenylacetic acid strongly and significantly inhibited toxin A-induced colitis in this experiment at doses as low as 10 microg/segment. It is concluded that APAZA is a potent inhibitor of toxin A-induced colonic inflammation in rats and that its constituent, 4-aminophenylacetic acid, is responsible for this increased protection against colitis compared to the 5-aminosalicylic acid component of sulfasalazine.

azulfidine cost 2015-08-18

Sulfasalazine was effective in PsA, buy azulfidine online with efficacy observed as early as the 4th week of treatment. Longterm studies are needed to determine whether such therapy can modify disease outcome.

azulfidine 500 mg 2015-05-15

After 2 years remission-steered treatment in early RA and UA patients, DAS-remission and DFR percentages were relatively low. Patients who achieved early remission more often achieved (drug-free) remission after buy azulfidine online 2 years than patients who needed additional treatment steps in the randomization arms, and more UA than RA patients achieved DFR. Overall, disease activity and radiologic damage progression in all patients were well suppressed.

azulfidine suspension 2016-10-20

The Treatment of Early Aggressive Rheumatoid Arthritis (TEAR) study is a 2-year, randomized, double-blind trial. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to randomly assign subjects to 1 of 4 treatment arms: immediate treatment with MTX plus etanercept, immediate oral triple therapy (MTX plus sulfasalazine plus hydroxychloroquine), or step-up from MTX monotherapy to one of the combination therapies (MTX plus etanercept or MTX plus sulfasalazine buy azulfidine online plus hydroxychloroquine) at week 24 if the DAS28-ESR was ≥ 3.2. All treatment arms included matching placebos. The primary outcome was an observed-group analysis of DAS28-ESR values from week 48 to week 102.

azulfidine generic name 2015-02-21

We report a case of lymphocytic colitis in a 74-year-old woman presenting with watery diarrhea since 1 year and in whom previous extensive investigations were normal. The diagnosis could be made on the basis of typical Zanaflex Buy Online pathological pattern in colonic biopsies. The outcome was favourable with salazopyrine therapy. The clinical, histological and pathophysiological aspects of lymphocytic colitis are discussed.

azulfidine reviews 2015-05-31

At this time, standard therapy for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease includes the use of glucocorticoids for moderate to severe Crohn's disease, severe ulcerative colitis, and moderate ulcerative colitis failing mesalamine. Although the majority of patients will have clinical improvement with glucocorticoids, a substantial minority of patients will later flare with attempts to withdraw therapy. Given the numerous potential side effects associated with glucocorticoids, every effort should be made to switch these patients to a less toxic medication. Historically, the most reliable agents have been azathioprine or 6 Cialis 800mg Reviews -mercaptopurine. Infliximab is a relatively new medication but would be expected to be beneficial for weaning glucocorticoids for Crohn's disease patients. Methotrexate is another alternative for Crohn's disease. Budesonide and CDP571 are still in developmental phases but likely will be helpful in managing this patient population. Mesalamine, cyclosporine, mycofenalate mofetil, and thalidomide have less data available to support their use but may be helpful for some patients. 6-Thioguanine may be an alternative to patients who do not tolerate 6-mercaptopurine or azathioprine.

buy azulfidine 2017-06-01

487 patients were initially enrolled. Of 258 who had not achieved low disease activity with methotrexate, 130 were allocated sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine and 128 were assigned infliximab. 32 of 130 (25%) patients allocated sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine achieved the primary outcome compared with 50 of 128 (39%) assigned infliximab (risk ratio 1.59 [ Bactrim Cystitis Dosage 95% CI 1.10-2.30], p=0.0160). Adverse events were balanced fairly well between the two groups and accorded with known adverse events of the drugs used. No deaths occurred in either group.

azulfidine tab 2017-01-15

Causality assessments of 980 reported cases of agranulocytosis were definite in 56 (6%), probable in 436 (44%), possible in 481 (49%), and unlikely in 7 (1%). A total of 125 drugs were definitely or probably related to agranulocytosis. Voltaren Gel 1 Drugs for which more than 10 reports were available (carbimazole, clozapine, dapsone, dipyrone, methimazole, penicillin G, procainamide, propylthiouracil, rituximab, sulfasalazine, and ticlopidine) accounted for more than 50% of definite or probable reports. Proportions of fatal cases decreased between 1966 and 2006. More patients with a neutrophil count nadir less than 0.1 x 10(9) cells/L had fatal complications than did those with a neutrophil count nadir of 0.1 x 10(9) cells/L or greater (10% vs. 3%; P < 0.001). Patients treated with hematopoietic growth factors had a shorter median duration of neutropenia (8 days vs. 9 days; P = 0.015) and, among asymptomatic patients at diagnosis, had a lower proportion of infectious or fatal complications (14% vs. 29%; P = 0.030) than patients without such treatment.

azulfidine 500mg tablet 2016-03-04

Ulcerative proctitis is an idiopathic mucosal inflammatory disease involving only the rectum and is therefore an anatomically limited form of ulcerative colitis. Diagnosis is made based on clinical presentation, endoscopic appearance, and histopathology. Additionally, other etiologies of proctitis are excluded. The course of the disease is variable ranging from complete resolution to easily maintained remission to frequent relapses or refractory disease. Extension of inflammatory Moduretic Drug Information changes involving the proximal colon occurs in some cases. Rectal 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) or steroids are the initial treatments of choice with oral 5-ASA, sulfasalazine, or steroids used for treatment failures or patients unable to tolerate rectally administered drugs. Immunomodulators like azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine have been used successfully in small groups of patients who have not responded to 5-ASA or steroids. Oral or rectal 5-ASA products maintain remission but long-term steroid use should be avoided. Rare cases may require surgical therapy.

azulfidine en generic 2015-02-04

One hundred and ninety-five DMARD-naïve patients with recent-onset RA were randomised to receive combination DMARD therapy (n=97) starting with sulfasalazine, methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, and prednisolone (COMBI) or monotherapy (n=98), initially with sulfasalazine, with or without prednisolone (SINGLE). After two years, the choice and dosing of DMARDs and prednisolone were not restricted, but the treatment was still targeted to achieve or maintain remission. Urinalysis, serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR; estimated according to the Cockcroft-Gault formula [eGFRCG]) were analysed at baseline and at months 6, 9, 12, Nolvadex Dosage 18, 24 and thereafter yearly up to 11 years.

azulfidine brand name 2017-04-13

The design and execution of the Cooperative Crohn's Disease Study in Sweden are described in this paper. A double-blind, double-dummy, crossover (2 X 4 mo) technique was used to compare the suppressive efficacy of metronidazole (0.4 g b.i.d.) and sulfasalazine (1.5 g b.i.d.). The number of randomized patients (78) presented approximately one-third of the available population. The Crohn's Disease Activity Index and the plasma level of orosomucoid were Celebrex Tab the main variables for clinical evaluation. Results were analyzed primarily in the first treatment period by ranking the clinical outcome of every patient according to a uniform and detailed scheme and applying Wilcoxon nonparametric statistics. The cross-over data only served as additional information. Thirty-six patients had had earlier and mostly positive experience with sulfasalazine. Repeated plasma drug analysis indicated good compliance. The blindness of the trial was tested and appeared satisfactory. The coordination of the trial proceeded as planned. A lack of full conformity in the electroimmunoassay of orosomucoid was taken care of satisfactorily.

azulfidine brand 2015-12-19

Crohn's disease, an inflammatory illness of the large and the small intestine, has rising incidence in highly civilized populations. Its etiology is unknown; multifactorial causes are assumed. The outcome and the effect on the individual are cancer-like. Surgical therapy is only helpful as far as the complications of the disease are concerned. Resection of the affected parts of the intestine will not lead to restoration, as the recurrence rate shows.

azulfidine dosage 2017-03-28

Following a short description of the dynamics of spermatogenesis possible pharmacological effects are discussed. These are: 1st a directly cytotoxic effect, 2nd a peripheral endocrine effect (androgen inhibition), and 3rd a central endocrin eff (gonadotrophin inhibition). Cytostatic drugs are the substances most dangerous to the seminiferous epithelium. If the treatment period takes more than 6 months, the damage is irreversible. After shorter periods the risk of chromosomal disarrangements is enhanced in the phase of regeneration. The widespread environmental pesticides act in a similar manner. Also retinoids, sulfasalazine and heavy metals have predominantly cytotoxic effects. Hormones administered in pharmacological doses will exert endocrine effects. The clinical symptoms are mainly those of disturbed sexual function, as the lack of testosterone is visible at first in peripheral organs. Estrogens, gestagens and antiandrogens act in a similar manner, but even exogenous testosterone will inhibit the spermatogenesis.

dosage of azulfidine 2015-12-12

The therapeutic role of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and azathioprine (AZA) remains controversial due to their perceived relatively slow-acting effect and adverse effects. An updated meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of these agents for the maintenance of remission in quiescent Crohn's disease.

azulfidine medication 2017-02-17

Patients with RA initiating treatment with ETN-MTX combination therapy demonstrated greater adherence and persistence at 1 year than patients initiating triple therapy.

azulfidine drug 2016-01-18

The recommendations were based on evidence from the literature. First, a scientific committee used a Delphi procedure to select five focal points about which recommendations were needed. Then, a literature task force looked for relevant publications in the following: Cochrane, PubMed, and Ovid databases; and abstracts from the French Society for Rheumatology, European League against Rheumatism, and American College of Rheumatology. Based on the data in these publications, recommendations were drafted then validated by a group of experts. The strength of each recommendation was determined, as well as the extent of agreement among the experts.

azulfidine sulfasalazine cost 2015-09-16

A new water soluble copper(II) complex, [Cu(glygly)(ssz)(H(2)O)]⋅6H(2)O, 1 derived from dipeptide (glycyl glycine anion) and sulfasalazine was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), molar conductance measurements and spectroscopic methods (IR, UV-vis, ESI-MS). The complex 1 is non-ionic in nature and possess octahedral geometry around Cu(II) metal ion. The interaction of complex 1 with Human Serum Albumin (HSA) was investigated under physiological condition in Tris-HCl buffer solution at pH 7.4 by means of various spectroscopic methods (fluorescence, CD and FTIR) and molecular docking technique. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that the complex 1 strongly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through a static quenching procedure. Binding constants (K(b)) and the number of binding sites (n≈1) were calculated using modified Stern-Volmer equations. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG at different temperatures were calculated subsequently the value of ΔH and ΔS was also calculated which revealed that the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions play a major role in HSA-complex 1 association. The distance r between donor (HSA) and acceptor (complex 1) was obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer and the alterations of HSA secondary structure induced by complex 1 were confirmed by FT-IR and CD measurements.

azulfidine buy online 2017-08-10

Sulfasalazine was not well tolerated in patients with PsA in our clinic. For those able to tolerate sulfasalazine, there was no evidence of a treatment effect with respect to articular involvement. In addition, sulfasalazine does not appear to halt radiographic progression in PsA.

azulfidine tabs 2016-12-11

The importance of leucocyte-endothelial cell interactions in the inflammatory process is now recognized. In Crohn's disease, we have proposed that these interactions mediate not only the development of the parenchymal cell infiltrate, but also initiate a process (multifocal gastrointestinal infarction) that leads to ischaemic damage to the bowel wall. We review data on the actions of drugs in the treatment of Crohn's disease and, where known, we highlight their effects on leucocyte adhesion to the endothelium. Corticosteroids inhibit adhesion by inhibiting production of interleukin-1, tumour necrosis factor, interferon gamma, leukotrienes and platelet activating factor. Drugs liberating 5-aminosalicylate inhibit leukotriene production. Cyclosporin inhibits T-cell activation, and amplification of the immune response. Inhibition of leucocyte--endothelial cell interactions probably accounts for some of the beneficial effects of these drugs in Crohn's disease.

azulfidine 1000 mg 2016-06-12

Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the use of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) drugs in Crohn's disease (CD) in remission after a surgical resection is conflicting. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs to examine this issue.

azulfidine drug classification 2016-09-15

15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD) is the key enzyme responsible for the metabolic inactivation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) catabolism. PGE2 is one of the predominant catabolic factors involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the expression and regulation of HPGD in RA fibroblast‑like synoviocyte (FLS) remain to be elucidated. Disease‑modifying anti‑rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are the most important anti‑arthritic drugs, which reduce the effect of joint injury. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of HPGD in RA tissues and cells, and normal synovial tissues and cells. The effect of the most popular DMARDs, hydroxychloroquine, on the expression of HPGD in RA‑FLS was also investigated. Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the expression levels of HPGD in human synovium were lower in RA synovium compared with the normal and OA synovium. In RA‑FLS, the expression of HPGD was increased following treatment with several DMARDs, including sulfasalazine, methotrexate, and hydroxychloroquine. Hydroxychloroquine (10 µM) treatment induced the phosphorylation of ERK, SAPK/JNK and p38. Hydroxychloroquine induced a decrease in the release of PGE2, which was restored by mitogen‑activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway inhibitors. Hydroxychloroquine may therefore, affect the pathogenesis of RA through the MAP kinase pathway by regulating the expression of HPGD.

azulfidine sulfasalazine dosage 2017-11-22

We developed a method for the determination of three aminothiols--cysteine, glutathione (GSH), and homocysteine--using surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). The analytes were first captured using the unmodified 14-nm gold nanoparticles; N-2-mercaptopropionylglycine-modified gold nanoparticles serving as internal standard were sequentially added, and then the sample was analyzed using SALDI-MS. This approach provided good quantitative linearity of the three analytes (R(2) = approximately 0.99), with good reproducibility (relative standard deviations: <10%), in the analyses of GSH in the lysates of human red blood cells and MCF-7 cancer breast cells in the presence and absence of the anti-inflammatory drug sulfasalazine. The internal-standard SALDI-MS approach provides simplicity, accuracy, and precision to the determination of GSH in cells under drug invasion, to open an avenue for SALDI-MS to be used for the precise quantitative determination of a variety of analytes. From the clinical editor: This paper reports the development of a surface assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry method to precisely determine aminothiols-cysteine (Cys), glutathione (GSH), and homocysteine (HCys).

azulfidine 10 mg 2017-02-13

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease in childhood and is usually treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) such as methotrexate or sulfasalazine. However, not all patients respond to these treatments, and toxicities may limit long-term use or diminish compliance. With advances in pharmacotherapy and the development of new therapeutic agents, there have been improvements in treatment of both systemic and non-systemic JIA, particularly with biologic agents such as anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, anti-interleukin (IL)-1, and anti-IL6. Anti-cell therapies, such as co-stimulator blockers or anti-CD20, small molecules, and biosimilars represent new areas of interest, and, while many are not yet currently commercially available for use in children, preliminary studies appear to be promising. In the present article, the authors review therapeutic strategies for the different JIA subtypes, mainly according to guidelines and recommendations. Newer and possible future treatments for arthritis, already approved in adults but currently under study in children, are also discussed. Drugs currently in development plans for rheumatoid arthritis, which hopefully will also be useful for JIA patients in the future, are also mentioned in this paper.

azulfidine prices usa 2017-11-13

A man with alleged Crohn's disease of the terminal ileum was started on sulfasalazine. Five weeks later he developed progressive cough, shortness of breath, and fever associated with peripheral eosinophilia and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. After withdrawal of sulfasalazine all abnormalities returned to normal. This case supports the conviction that there is an entity of sulfasalazine-induced lung disease.

azulfidine online 2017-10-11

Data pooled from 4 large (n = 1281) clinical trials were used to compare disease duration subgroups for placebo or sulfasalazine (SSZ) versus etanercept (ETN), which, in turn, were analyzed by age of diagnosis ≤ 40 versus > 40 years, HLA-B27 status, and baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) ≤ upper limit of normal (ULN) versus > ULN using chi-square tests, and ANCOVA. The primary efficacy measure was Assessments of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) partial remission (PR) after 12 weeks of treatment. Also analyzed were Bath AS Disease Activity Index and Functional Index, AS Disease Activity Scores, and ASAS response rates.