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Our objective was to determine whether administration of propranolol or verapamil modifies the hemodynamic adaptation to continuous positive-pressure ventilation (CPPV), in particular the regional distribution of cardiac output (CO).
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TCCs could be one of the crucial factors for the abnormal excitation in OD cells. The development of OD after PBOO presumably relates to the increase in TCC current in the bladder cells, the enhancement of the Ca(2+) "window" current for Ca(2+) inflow, the prolongation of the intracellular calcium oscillations, and the acceleration of the cell depolarization.
The inhibitory effects of six commonly used calcium channel blockers on three major cytochrome P-450 activities were examined and characterized in human liver microsomes. All six compounds reversibly inhibited CYP2D6 (bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation) and CYP2C9 (tolbutamide methyl hydroxylation) activities. The IC(50) values for the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 for nicardipine were 3 to 9 microM, whereas those for all others ranged from 14 to >150 microM. Except for nifedipine, all calcium channel blockers showed increased inhibitory potency toward CYP3A activities (testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation and midazolam 1'-hydroxylation) after 30-min preincubation with NADPH. IC(50) values for the inhibition of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase obtained in the NADPH-preincubation experiment for nicardipine (1 microM), verapamil (2 microM), and diltiazem (5 microM) were within 10-fold, whereas those for amlodipine (5 microM) and felodipine (13 microM) were >200-fold of their respective plasma concentrations reported after therapeutic doses. Similar results also were obtained based on midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity. Unlike the observations with mibefradil, a potent irreversible inhibitor of CYP3A, the NADPH-dependent inhibition of CYP3A activity by nicardipine and verapamil was completely reversible on dialysis, whereas that by diltiazem was partially restored (80%). Additional experiments revealed that nicardipine, verapamil, and diltiazem formed cytochrome P-450-iron (II)-metabolite complex in both human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP3A4. Nicardipine yielded a higher extent of complex formation ( approximately 30% at 100 microM), and was a much faster-acting inhibitor (maximal inhibition rate constant approximately 2 min(-1)) as compared with verapamil and diltiazem. These present findings that the CYP3A inhibition caused by nicardipine, verapamil, and diltiazem is, at least in part, quasi-irreversible provide a rational basis for pharmacokinetically significant interactions reported when they were coadministered with agents that are cleared primarily by CYP3A-mediated pathways.
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1. The present study was carried out to look at the effect of different calcium antagonists on the response to noradrenaline in the whole and bisected rat vas deferens considering that the response consisted of three components (I) the phasic response (II) the tonic response and (III) the spikes (rhythmic contractions). 2. Nifedipine (3 x 10(-9)-1 x 10(-7) M) inhibited all the components at the same concentration range, verapamil (1 x 10(-7)-1 x 10(-5) M) inhibited the phasic and tonic response but not the rhythmic activity. This latter component, at a certain concentration range and especially in the prostatic portion was markedly potentiated. Diltiazem and flunarizine lay in an intermediate position. 3. Papaverine, a Ca2+ antagonist that acts mainly intracellularly, inhibited preferentially the tonic component; ryanodine was practically inactive. 4. Cromakalim inhibited only partially the phasic and tonic components but totally inhibited the rhythmic contractions. 5. These results can be explained by postulating two types of calcium channels opened by alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation. The first one is verapamil- and nifedipine-sensitive and allows the entry of Ca2+ directly available for the contraction and responsible for the phasic and partially responsible for the tonic component. The second channel is merely nifedipine-sensitive and allows the entry of Ca2+ trigger which can release Ca2+ from intracellular sites: the mobilized Ca2+ is able to sustain the tonic component and is the main one responsible for the rhythmic activity. There is the possibility that this second channel is associated with ATP-sensitive K+ channels.
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Various studies have shown that calcium channel blockers (CCB) affect the release of central neurotransmitters including noradrenaline (NA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), which are involved in depression. The behavioural despair test was used to investigate the effect of CCB on depression. The mice were treated acutely with CCB. Verapamil (5, 10, 20, and 40 mgkg(-1), i.p.) and diltiazem (10, 20, and 40 mgkg(-1), i.p.) produced a dose-dependent increase in immobility time, indicating the facilitation of depression, while nifedipine (12.5, 25, and 50 mgkg(-1), i.p.) significantly decreased the immobility time, indicating an antidepressant activity. Verapamil ( 40 mgkg(-1), i.p.) and diltiazem ( 40 mgkg(-1), i.p.) blocked the antidepressant effect of desipramine, clomipramine, mianserin, and tranylcypromine, indicating the involvement of various mechanisms in the facilitatory effect of verapamil and diltiazem on depression. The antidepressant effect of nifedipine may be attributed to the blockade of presynaptic alpha -2-receptors (autoreceptors), as nifedipine blocked the clonidine-induced facilitation of depression.
The anticancer properties of ceramide, a sphingolipid with potent tumor-suppressor properties, can be dampened via glycosylation, notably in multidrug resistance wherein ceramide glycosylation is characteristically elevated. Earlier works using the ceramide analog, C6-ceramide, demonstrated that the antiestrogen tamoxifen, a first generation P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, blocked C6-ceramide glycosylation and magnified apoptotic responses. The present investigation was undertaken with the goal of discovering non-anti-estrogenic alternatives to tamoxifen that could be employed as adjuvants for improving the efficacy of ceramide-centric therapeutics in treatment of cancer. Herein we demonstrate that the tamoxifen metabolites, desmethyltamoxifen and didesmethyltamoxifen, and specific, high-affinity P-gp inhibitors, tariquidar and zosuquidar, synergistically enhanced C6-ceramide cytotoxicity in multidrug resistant HL-60/VCR acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells, whereas the selective estrogen receptor antagonist, fulvestrant, was ineffective. Active C6-ceramide-adjuvant combinations elicited mitochondrial ROS production and cytochrome c release, and induced apoptosis. Cytotoxicity was mitigated by introduction of antioxidant. Effective adjuvants markedly inhibited C6-ceramide glycosylation as well as conversion to sphingomyelin. Active regimens were also effective in KG-1a cells, a leukemia stem cell-like line, and in LoVo human colorectal cancer cells, a solid tumor model. In summary, our work details discovery of the link between P-gp inhibitors and the regulation and potentiation of ceramide metabolism in a pro-apoptotic direction in cancer cells. Given the active properties of these adjuvants in synergizing with C6-ceramide, independent of drug resistance status, stemness, or cancer type, our results suggest that the C6-ceramide-containing regimens could provide alternative, promising therapeutic direction, in addition to finding novel, off-label applications for P-gp inhibitors.
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The MDR human breast cancer MCF-7/ADR cells were treated with IJO, its sesquiterpene component isoalantolactone (ISO) or ADOat non- cytotoxic concentrations. The MDR ability was examined by measuring the sensitivity to doxorubicin (DOX), DOX accumulation and efflux, ABCB1 ATPase activity, ABCB1 expression, membrane fluidity, and stability and localization of lipid rafts and caveolae. Finally, the molecular modeling was performed to postulate how ISO interacts with ABCB1.
Overexpressed ICAM-1 and MMP-9 mediated BBB dysfunction after ischemia, which induced EB leakage and (125)I-albumin uptake increase. Enhanced accumulation of verapamil in brain tissue, but intracellular concentration reduced evidently after H/R injury. Transcellular transportation of verapamil elevated when P-gp function or expression was inhibited after H/R injury.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate diurnal variations of the variability and irregularity of heart rate (HR) in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) with and without rate control drugs. Thirty-eight patients with permanent AF were part of an investigator-blind crossover study comparing diltiazem, verapamil, metoprolol, and carvedilol. We analyzed five Holter recordings per patient: at baseline (no rate control drug) and with each of the four drug regimens. HR, variability (SD; percentages of interval differences of successive RR intervals of >20, 50, and 80 ms; and root of the mean squared differences of successive RR intervals), and irregularity (approximate and sample entropy) parameters were computed in 20-min long nonoverlapping segments. Circadian rhythmicity was evaluated using cosinor analysis to each parameter series, which is characterized by the 24-h mean [midline statistic of rhythm (MESOR)] and excursion over the mean (amplitude). Arrhythmia-related symptoms were assessed by a questionnaire measuring symptom severity and frequency. HR and variability parameters showed a significant circadian variation in most patients, whereas only a small minority of the patients had circadian variations of irregularity parameters. Patients with circadian approximate entropy n at baseline had more severe symptoms (symptom severity: 9 ± 4 vs. 6 ± 5, P < 0.05, circadian vs. noncircadian variations). All drugs decreased the MESOR of HR and increased the MESOR of variability parameters. Only carvedilol and metoprolol decreased the normalized amplitude over 24 h of all parameters and HR. In conclusion, HR and RR variability parameters present a circadian variation in patients with permanent AF, whereas few patients demonstrated circadian fluctuations in irregularity parameters, suggesting different physiological mechanisms.
Evaluation of the environmental risk of human pharmaceuticals is now a mandatory component in all new drug applications submitted for approval in EU. With >3000 drugs currently in use, it is not feasible to test each active ingredient, so prioritization is key. A recent review has listed nine prioritization approaches including the fish plasma model (FPM). The present paper focuses on comparison of measured and predicted fish plasma bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of four common over-the-counter/prescribed pharmaceuticals: norethindrone (NET), ibuprofen (IBU), verapamil (VER) and clozapine (CLZ). The measured data were obtained from the earlier published fish BCF studies. The measured BCF estimates of NET, IBU, VER and CLZ were 13.4, 1.4, 0.7 and 31.2, while the corresponding predicted BCFs (based log Kow at pH 7) were 19, 1.0, 7.6 and 30, respectively. These results indicate that the predicted BCFs matched well the measured values. The BCF estimates were used to calculate the human: fish plasma concentration ratios of each drug to predict potential risk to fish. The plasma ratio results show the following order of risk potential for fish: NET > CLZ > VER > IBU. The FPM has value in prioritizing pharmaceutical products for ecotoxicological assessments.
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Hypertensive patients are likely to have an exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response during physical exertion. When moderate aerobic exercise was added to medical antihypertensive therapy in patients with severe hypertension, excessive elevations in BP during physical exertion were attenuated even with a modest reduction in BP at rest.
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The outward movement (flop) of fluorescently labeled analogues of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in human and murine red blood cells (RBC) was examined. 1-Oleoyl-2-[6(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]caproyl (C6-NBD) analogues of PS and PC were incorporated in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane through the action of aminophospholipid translocase or through equilibration upon prolonged incubation, respectively. After removal of noninternalized probe, externalization of C6-NBD-PS or C6-NBD-PC from the inner to outer leaflet was monitored by continuous incubation of the cells in the presence of bovine serum albumin. Flop rates for both probes in intact human RBC were virtually identical (t1/2 approximately 1.5 h), confirming earlier findings by Bitbol et al. [Bitbol, M., et al. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 6783-6787] and Connor et al. [Connor, J., et al. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 19412-19417]. Flop activity in resealed RBC ghosts could only be found upon coinclusion of both ATP and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Furthermore, flop in intact cells was sensitive to verapamil (IC50 = 5-7 microM), vincristine (IC50 = 20 microM), and indomethacin (IC50 = 50 microM), suggesting the involvement of proteins conferring multidrug resistance (MDR). Experiments with RBC from knock-out mice for multidrug resistance P-glycoproteins (Mdr1a/1b-/- and Mdr2-/-) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1-/-) revealed that Mrp1 is responsible for the observed flop of the fluorescent lipid analogues. We found no indications for outward transport of endogenous PS by any of these drug-transporting proteins as measured by a sensitive prothrombinase assay. Neither aminophospholipid translocase nor Ca2+-induced lipid scramblase activities were affected in RBC of these knock-out mice. We conclude that lipid floppase activity, as detected with lipid probes, reflects the activity of MRP1 recognizing the modified lipid analogues as xenobiotics to be expelled from the cell.
In this study, we chose three of the flavonoids isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside(IRR) diosmetin-7-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside(DXG) and morin, which showed obvious efflux, to test the hypothesis that a specific efflux transporter is responsible for their transportation.
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We studied the effect of Russian preparation of porcine calcitonin (calcitrin, 1 U/100 g) and blockers of Ca(2+) channels nifedipine (1 mg/kg, blocker of chemosensitive Ca(2+) channels) and isoptin (5 mg/kg, blocker of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels) on glucose metabolism. Calcitonin produced a pronounced hyperglycemic effect in rats. A close negative correlation was found between glucose level and total calcium content. Injection of calcitonin reduced glucose tolerance in rats. Isoptin and nifedipine reduced plasma calcium level and did not affect significantly the blood glucose levels, did not change the pattern of alimentary hyperglycemia in response to glucose load, completely abolished the hyperglycemic effect of calcitonin, and prevented calcitonin-induced impairment of glucose tolerance.
We designed the present study to examine whether diabetes mellitus affects the antiarrhythmic effect of flecainide, a sodium channel blocker, E-4031, a potassium channel blocker, and verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, in diabetic rats. The experiments were performed in intact and diabetic rats 2, 4, and 6 wk after administration of streptozotocin. Rats were anesthetized with halothane and monitored continuously for arterial blood pressure and premature ventricular contractions. The arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine was defined as the smallest dose producing 3 or more premature ventricular contractions within a 15-s period. The arrhythmogenic doses of epinephrine in the presence of flecainide were 8.2 +/- 2.2 (mean +/- sd), 7.4 +/- 6.1, 5.5 +/- 2.8, and 2.0 +/- 0.5 microg/kg in intact and diabetic rats 2, 4, and 6 wk after streptozotocin administration, respectively. Similarly, the arrhythmogenic doses of epinephrine in the presence of E-4031 were 7.7 +/- 2.6, 2.3 +/- 0.7, 2.0 +/- 0.7, and 1.2 +/- 0.5 microg/kg, and those in the presence of verapamil were 8.2 +/- 2.1, 3.1 +/- 1.2, 2.3 +/- 0.9, and 1.5 +/- 0.5 microg/kg. Insulin partially recovered the antiarrhythmic effect of the blockers. We concluded that diabetes mellitus reduces the antiarrhythmic effects of flecainide, E-4031, and verapamil.
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The Caco-2 intracellular accumulation of Rho123 in clemastine and verapamil treated cells was 90.8 ± 9.8 and 420.6±25.4 pg/mg protein, respectively which was significantly higher than that in control cells (50.2±6.0; P<0.05). Immunoblotting results indicated that clemastine decreased expression of P-gp in Caco-2 cells in vitro. More over effective intestinal permeability (Peff) of digoxin in the presence of clemastine, was significantly increased compare to control group.
Rabbit duodenum, jejunum and ileum segments were prepared. The spontaneous contractions of longitudinal and circular smooth muscle were recorded using a computer via an isometric force transducer. The specific agonists and antagonists of tachykinin receptors were added into the organ bath.
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The freshwater common pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis produces embryos that complete direct development, hatching as shell-bearing individuals within 10 days despite relatively low ambient calcium and carbonate availability. This development is impaired by removal of ambient total calcium but not by removal of bicarbonate and/or carbonate. In this study we utilized pharmacological agents to target possible acquisition pathways for both Ca(2+) and accumulation of carbonate in post-metamorphic, shell-laying embryos. Using whole egg mass flux measurements and ion-specific microelectrode analytical techniques, we have demonstrated that carbonic anhydrase-catalyzed hydration of CO(2) is central in the acquisition of both shell-forming ions because it provides the hydrogen ions for an electrogenic vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase that fuels the uptake of Ca(2+) via voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and possibly an electrogenic Ca(2+)/1H(+) exchanger. Additionally, CO(2) hydration provides an endogenous source of HCO(3)(-). Thus, hydration of endogenous CO(2) forms HCO(3)(-) for calcification while hydrogen ions are excreted, contributing to continued Ca(2+) uptake, as well as creating favorable alkaline internal conditions for calcification. The connections between Ca(2+) and HCO(3)(-) acquisition mechanisms that we describe here provide new insight into this efficient, embryonic calcification in freshwater.
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The purpose of this study was to characterize blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of oxycodone, a cationic opioid agonist, via the pyrilamine transporter, a putative organic cation transporter, using conditionally immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cells (TR-BBB13). Oxycodone and [3H]pyrilamine were both transported into TR-BBB13 cells in a temperature- and concentration-dependent manner with Km values of 89 and 28 microM, respectively. The initial uptake of oxycodone was significantly enhanced by preloading with pyrilamine and vice versa. Furthermore, mutual uptake inhibition by oxycodone and pyrilamine suggests that a common mechanism is involved in their transport. Transport of both substrates was inhibited by type II cations (quinidine, verapamil, and amantadine), but not by classic organic cation transporter (OCT) substrates and/or inhibitors (tetraethylammonium, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, and corticosterone), substrates of OCTN1 (ergothioneine) and OCTN2 (L-carnitine), or organic anions. The transport was inhibited by metabolic inhibitors (rotenone and sodium azide) but was insensitive to extracellular sodium and membrane potential for both substrates. Furthermore, the transport of both substrates was increased at alkaline extracellular pH and decreased in the presence of a protonophore (carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone). Intracellular acidification induced with ammonium chloride enhanced the uptakes, suggesting that the transport is driven by an oppositely directed proton gradient. The brain uptake of oxycodone measured by in situ rat brain perfusion was increased in alkaline perfusate and was significantly inhibited by pyrilamine. These results suggest that blood-brain barrier transport of oxycodone is at least partly mediated by a common transporter with pyrilamine, and this transporter is an energy-dependent, proton-coupled antiporter.
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Successful radiofrequency ablation of ILVT could result in morphology changes in limb leads of ECG, especially in inferior leads. The combined changes in inferior leads can be used as an effective endpoint in ablation of this ILVT.
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Myocardial cellular [Ca(2+)]i became much higher in concent after being in cubated with sera, especially with 6hBS, than that in normal myocardial cells (P < 0.01). But the effect of 6hBS could be significantly inhibited by verapamil (30 nmol/L), the calcium channel antagonist and procaine (2 mmol/L), the inhibitor of rynodine receptor (P < 0.01) by 47.7% and 67.6%, respectively. Ca -- L was evidently increased by the stimulation of 2 hBS and 6 hBS, by 50 -- 80% and 1.5 -- 2.5 folds, respectively. It was indicated by I -- V curves that every ICa caused by depolarizaton and clamp voltage was increased by burn sera, which further made the maximal activating voltage ahead of time. All the burn sera effects on calcium current could be removed by extracellular lavage.
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74% of patients had no clinical effects, 4% minor effects, 2% moderate effects, and 20% other. No deaths or major effects were reported.
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane protein that functions as an adenosine triphosphate-dependent efflux pump for xenobiotics at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Polymorphisms of MDR1 gene have been reported to be associated with the expression level of P-gp. (11)C-Verapamil is considered to be one of the suitable radioligands for evaluating P-gp functions. However, the metabolites of verapamil might complicate the quantitative analysis because of their possible brain penetration. In the present study, we investigated the P-gp functional differences at the BBB between the haplotypes (1236TT, 2677TT, 3435TT vs. 1236CC, 2677GG, 3435CC) of the MDR1 gene with different quantitative analyses of (11)C-verapamil.
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Prostate epithelial cells isolated from prostate tissue obtained from patients with BPH after transurethral resection of the prostate were stained with Hoechst 33342. The Hoechst 33342 Red/Blue flow cytometry profile was then determined. Hoechst 33342 and Pyronin Y staining was used to determined the cell cycle status.
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Sertraline is often prescribed to patients suffering with end stage renal disease, but its action on kidney has not been investigated. We aimed to investigate the pharmacological action of sertraline on rat kidney with emphasis on the underlying mechanisms involved in the vascular actions of the drug.
2',3'-Dideoxycytidine (ddC) and azidothymidine (AZT) inhibit HIV-1 replication and currently are used in AIDS therapy. Long-term use of the drugs is associated with the selection of drug-resistant HIV strains, thus limiting their effectiveness. Another mechanism, associated with their altered metabolism in host cells, also can cause "cellular" drug resistance. Human lymphocytic H9 cell lines (H9-ddC0.5w and H9-ddC5.0w) selected for ddC resistance by exposure to 0.5 and 5.0 microM ddC were found to be cross-resistant to AZT. Compared with controls, the thymidine kinase (TK) activities in H9-ddC0.5w and H9-ddC5.0w cells were 56.7 and 51.4% (with thymidine as a substrate) and 50.3 and 42% (with AZT as a substrate). Consequently the cellular incorporation of AZT and thymidine (24-hr incubation) also was reduced to 51.3 and 70.0% in H9-ddC0.5w cells and to 12.1 and 17.3% in H9-ddC5.0w cells. A 3-hr incubation with 25 microM AZT and ddC decreased their cellular incorporation to 50.5 and 76.15% in H9-ddC0.5w cells and to 12.95 and 47.8% in H9-ddC5.0w cells compared with H9 cells. Thus, the change in AZT accumulation did not correlate exactly with the decrease in TK activity and far exceeded the effect on ddC accumulation. Evidence is presented that ddC, in addition to deoxycytidine kinase, affected TK1 activity. The involvement of multidrug resistance proteins in the mechanism of the resistance was ruled out by the failure of trifluoperazine and verapamil to alter cellular accumulations of AZT, ddC, daunorubicin, and rhodamine-123. Development of cellular ddC and AZT cross-resistance may affect the therapeutic efficacy of these antiviral agents.
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1. The pharmacokinetics, particularly the hepatobiliary transport of T-5557 ((3-methyl-2-oxo-piperadin-3-yl)-acetic acid N'-(3-thieophen-2-yl-8-methoxy-quinazolin-1-yl)-hydrazide), a novel anti-inflammatory agent, has been examined in normal and adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats. 2. Following oral administration of T-5557, the absolute bioavailability in AA rats was increased by sixfold compared with normal rats. The extent of binding T-5557 to plasma proteins obtained from AA rats was markedly greater than in normal rats (97.0 versus 88.2%). The biliary clearance in AA rats was significantly lower than that in normal rats (1.186 versus 5.621 ml min(-1) kg(-1)), and lower intrinsic biliary clearance was also observed in AA rats (40.33 versus 69.83 ml min(-1) kg(-1)). 3. Concomitant administration of T-5557 with quinidine, a potent P-glycoprotein inhibitor, to normal rats caused a significant decrease in the biliary clearance of T-5557 by 37.9%. Moreover, the transport of T-5557 for the apical-to-basal compartment in a Caco-2 cells' monolayer was fourfold lower than that for the opposite direction, and was increased in the presence of quinidine and verapamil. 4. These results suggest that P-glycoprotein is involved in the biliary excretion of T-5557 and the decrease in the transport activity as well as the increase in plasma protein binding caused the elevated plasma concentration and bioavailability of T-5557 in AA rats.
To investigate the effect of acute hypoxia and concomitant changes in portal blood flow on the disposition of drugs mainly metabolized by the cytochrome P(450) enzymes (CYP) 3A4 (verapamil) and CYP1A2 (theophylline).
Acquired resistance to chemotherapy is a major problem during cancer treatment. One mechanism for drug resistance is overexpression of the MDR (multidrug resistance)1 gene encoding the transmembrane efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Calcium channel blockers such as verapamil, nifedipine and nicardipine have been shown to reverse cellular drug resistance by inhibiting P-gp drug efflux. This study evaluated whether a new calcium channel blocker, lomerizine, influenced doxorubicin (Dox) cytotoxicity and P-gp activity in a P-gp-expressing cell line compared to a non-expressing subline. Verapamil, and even more markedly, lomerizine, increased cellular uptake of calcein transported by P-gp in a P-gp-expressing erythroleukemia cell line, K562-Dox. Ten microM of lomerizine reduced the IC50 of doxorubicin in the K562-Dox from 60000 ng/ml to 800 ng/ml, whereas the IC50 of doxorubicin in the K562 subline was only marginally affected by these drugs. Lomerizine showed greater reduction in P-gp efflux than verapamil at an equimolar concentration. These results suggest that lomerizine has the clinical potential to reverse tumor MDR involving the efflux protein P-gp.
In Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, the outflow concentration-time curve and the residual amount in cardiac tissue of IDA and its active metabolite idarubicinol (IDOL) were measured after 0.5 mg dose of IDA in the absence and presence of the P-gp inhibitors verapamil and PSC 833.
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K1 values of [11C]verapamil were not changed by clinical dose administration of clarithromycin, suggesting that a clinical dose of clarithromycin does not affect P-gp function at the blood-brain barrier.
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We describe two cases of no reflow phenomenon in the setting of primary PCI for ST elevation myocardial infarction successfully managed with intracoronary vasodilator therapy via a Clearway™ balloon catheter, where vasodilator therapy via the guiding catheter had been ineffective. Traditionally, if not given via the guiding catheter, vasodilators have been administered via an over-the-wire balloon catheter, which can be cumbersome and time consuming. The Clearway catheter is a rapid exchange balloon catheter affording rapid delivery of vasodilators to the distal infarct related artery without risk of loss of wire position. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
In the courses of in vitro screening for the vasorelaxant effect of the various extracts from medicinal plants, an ethyl acetate-soluble extract of Selaginella tamariscina was found to exhibit distinctive vasorelaxant activity. Further purifications of the extract as guided by in vitro vasorelaxant assay afforded an active biflavonoid, amentoflavone. Amentoflavone induced concentration-dependent relaxation of the phenylephrine-precontracted aorta, which disappeared by removal of functional endothelium. Pretreatment of the aortic tissues with N(G)-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), methylene blue, or 1 H- -oxadiazolo[4,3- a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) inhibited the relaxation induced by amentoflavone. Amentoflavone-induced relaxations were also markedly attenuated by addition of tetraethylammonium (TEA) or verapamil. However, the relaxant effect of amentoflavone was not blocked by pretreatment with indomethacin, glibenclamide, atropine, or propranolol. Incubation of endothelium-intact aortic rings with amentoflavone increased the production of cGMP, but this effect was blocked by endothelium-denudation or pretreatment with L-NAME or ODQ. These results suggest that amentoflavone relaxes vascular smooth muscle via endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-cGMP signaling, with possible involvement of non-specific K (+) and Ca (2+) channels. Abbreviations. EDRF:endothelium-derived relaxing factor EDHF:endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor NO:nitric oxide cGMP:guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate DMSO:dimethyl sulfoxide L-NAME: N(G)-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester ODQ:1 H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole-[4,3- a]-quinoxalin-1-one IBMX:3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine K (Ca):Ca (2+)-dependent K (+) channel K (ATP):adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K (+) channel TEA:tetraethylammonium
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We have evaluated the protein kinase C (PKC) activity in two series of cultured cell lines presenting the multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype and in the corresponding wild-type cells: the human KB 3.1, KB A1 and KB 8.5 cell lines, and the rat C6, C6 0.5 and C6 1V cell lines. We have observed an increase in PKC activity in the MDR cell lines of the KB cell lineage, proportional to their degree of resistance to doxorubicin. In contrast, the MDR cell lines of the C6 cell lineage presented no change (C6 0.5) or even decrease (C6 1V) in PKC activity; the basal level of PKC activity in C6 cells was, however, 50-fold higher than in KB 3.1 cells. We have tested, in these lines, the effect of four modulators of MDR: verapamil, cyclosporin A, quinine and S-9788, on doxorubicin acytotoxicity and on PKC activity. We observed that cyclosporin A and S-9788, which were the most active on MDR reversal, were able to inhibit PKC activity in the KB resistant lines as well as in all C6 lines, whereas verapamil and quinine had only marginal effects on PKC activity. The distribution of PKC isoenzymes was studied by Western blots. The PKC alpha, gamma and delta isoforms were increased in the KB resistant lines as compared to wild-type cells, which could account for the increase PKC activity we observed. In contrast, PKC alpha and gamma were decreased in C6 1V cells, as expected from the results obtained for total PKC activity, but we also noticed an important decrease in PKC delta in the C6 0.5 line. Our results suggest that an increase in PKC activity is not an absolute requirement for expression of MDR, provided that the basal level be high enough; and that some modulators may act on MDR, not only through direct P-glycoprotein interaction, but also through P-glycoprotein phosphorylation or expression. The distribution of PKC isoenzymes revealed that the modifications encountered between sensitive and resistant cells mainly concerned alpha, gamma and delta isoenzymes of PKC.
This systematic review aims to synthesize the data on the effectiveness of pharmacological modulation of stress response in minimally invasive surgery. Eligible trials were clinical trials randomized or not or experimental trials that investigated the effect of pharmacological agents on modulation of surgical stress response to minimally invasive surgery. No clinical trials were identified. Eight experimental trials met the inclusion criteria and were obtained in full text. Experimental models were rats or rabbits subjected to pneumoperitoneum, or pneumoretroperitoneum, not to a whole operation. Pharmacological modulation of surgical stress response was attempted with erythromycin, melatonin, mesna, verapamil, pentoxifylline, N-acetylcysteine, and zinc. All the pharmacological agents, except pentoxifylline, seemed to reduce oxidative stress markers. However, only mesna pretreatment prevented oxidative stress, because oxidative stress markers remained in the sham levels. Contrasting data were obtained for pentoxyphilline. In conclusion, available data suggest that pharmacological modulation of surgical stress response to minimally invasive surgery might be feasible.
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Fifty-six radial artery ring segments from 14 patients (n = 7 rings for each contraction-relaxation curve) were studied. Equilibrated resting tension was 9.6 +/- 0.3 mN (5.9 +/- 0.2 g), and resting internal circumference was 6.4 +/- 0.2 mm. Absolute maximum contraction to potassium was significantly less in rings stored in normal saline solution than in rings stored in control solution (10.7 +/- 0.6 g vs 14.5 +/- 0.6 g, P <.01; 95% confidence intervals, 0.9-6.9). There was no difference in the contraction to norepinephrine (P =.11) and serotonin (P =.25) among the 3 solutions compared with the control solution. Rings stored in heparinized whole blood had significantly greater endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (P <.007), whereas those stored in normal saline solution had reduced responses. Endothelium-independent relaxation to verapamil and nitroprusside were similar among the 3 solutions.