FREE
SHIPPING!

on all orders above $300.00

FREE Pills!

via4gra pills

for free with every order

OUR DRUG PRICES are

70%

Less than in your
local pharmacy

Search by letter:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Calan (Verapamil Hydrochloride)
+ BONUS

Rating of sales:          

 
Calan

Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders. It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Cartia XT, Cardizem, Cardizem LA, Nifedical XL , Propranolol, Procardia, Procardia XL

 

Also known as:  Verapamil Hydrochloride.

Description

Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders.

It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Calan is also known as Verapamil, Calaptin, Isoptin, Verelan, Bosoptin, Covera-HS.

Dosage

Take Calan orally.

Do not take Calan in large amounts.

Do not crush, chew, break, or open a controlled-delivery or extended-release tablet or capsule.

Swallow the whole pill.

It is important to use verapamil regularly to get the most benefit.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Calan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Calan overdosage: slow heartbeat, fainting fit.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Calan are:

  • calan 180 mg
  • calan dosage forms
  • calan 80 mg
  • calan generic name
  • calan drug
  • calan pill
  • calan overdose
  • calan tablets
  • calan dosage
  • calan drug classification
  • calan sr dosage
  • calan eeze review
  • calan sr medication
  • calan 240 mg
  • calan medication
  • calan tab
  • calan reviews
  • calan 40 mg
  • calan 5 mg
  • calan 120 mg

Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Calan if you are allergic to Calan components.

Be careful with Calan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Calan if you have poor heart condition, low blood pressure, recent heart attack.

Be careful with Calan if you suffer from kidney, liver disease, congestive heart failure, muscular dystrophy.

Be careful with Calan if you take medications such as any other blood pressure medications; buspirone (BuSpar); carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol); cimetidine (Tagamet, Tagamet HB); cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune); digoxin (digitalis, Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps); lithium (Eskalith, LithoBid); lovastatin (Mevacor); phenobarbital (Solfoton); rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane, Rifater); theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24, Uniphyl); a sedative such as midazolam (Versed) or triazolam (Halcion); an antibiotic such as clarithromycin (Biaxin), erythromycin (E-Mycin, E.E.S., Ery-Tab, Erythrocin), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), telithromycin (Ketek), or voriconazole (Vfend); a beta-blocker such as atenolol (Tenormin), bisoprolol (Zebeta, Ziac), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol), propranolol (Inderal, InnoPran), sotalol (Betapace), timolol (Blocadren), and others; a heart rhythm medication such as amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), disopyramide (Norpace), flecainide (Tambocor), or quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex, Quin-Release); HIV/AIDS medicine such as amprenavir (Agenerase), atazanavir (Reyataz), delavirdine (Rescriptor), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), or ritonavir (Norvir, Kaletra).

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while taking Calan.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

calan eeze review

Our objective was to determine whether administration of propranolol or verapamil modifies the hemodynamic adaptation to continuous positive-pressure ventilation (CPPV), in particular the regional distribution of cardiac output (CO).

calan sr medication

TCCs could be one of the crucial factors for the abnormal excitation in OD cells. The development of OD after PBOO presumably relates to the increase in TCC current in the bladder cells, the enhancement of the Ca(2+) "window" current for Ca(2+) inflow, the prolongation of the intracellular calcium oscillations, and the acceleration of the cell depolarization.

calan dosage

The inhibitory effects of six commonly used calcium channel blockers on three major cytochrome P-450 activities were examined and characterized in human liver microsomes. All six compounds reversibly inhibited CYP2D6 (bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation) and CYP2C9 (tolbutamide methyl hydroxylation) activities. The IC(50) values for the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 for nicardipine were 3 to 9 microM, whereas those for all others ranged from 14 to >150 microM. Except for nifedipine, all calcium channel blockers showed increased inhibitory potency toward CYP3A activities (testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation and midazolam 1'-hydroxylation) after 30-min preincubation with NADPH. IC(50) values for the inhibition of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase obtained in the NADPH-preincubation experiment for nicardipine (1 microM), verapamil (2 microM), and diltiazem (5 microM) were within 10-fold, whereas those for amlodipine (5 microM) and felodipine (13 microM) were >200-fold of their respective plasma concentrations reported after therapeutic doses. Similar results also were obtained based on midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity. Unlike the observations with mibefradil, a potent irreversible inhibitor of CYP3A, the NADPH-dependent inhibition of CYP3A activity by nicardipine and verapamil was completely reversible on dialysis, whereas that by diltiazem was partially restored (80%). Additional experiments revealed that nicardipine, verapamil, and diltiazem formed cytochrome P-450-iron (II)-metabolite complex in both human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP3A4. Nicardipine yielded a higher extent of complex formation ( approximately 30% at 100 microM), and was a much faster-acting inhibitor (maximal inhibition rate constant approximately 2 min(-1)) as compared with verapamil and diltiazem. These present findings that the CYP3A inhibition caused by nicardipine, verapamil, and diltiazem is, at least in part, quasi-irreversible provide a rational basis for pharmacokinetically significant interactions reported when they were coadministered with agents that are cleared primarily by CYP3A-mediated pathways.

calan 40 mg

1. The present study was carried out to look at the effect of different calcium antagonists on the response to noradrenaline in the whole and bisected rat vas deferens considering that the response consisted of three components (I) the phasic response (II) the tonic response and (III) the spikes (rhythmic contractions). 2. Nifedipine (3 x 10(-9)-1 x 10(-7) M) inhibited all the components at the same concentration range, verapamil (1 x 10(-7)-1 x 10(-5) M) inhibited the phasic and tonic response but not the rhythmic activity. This latter component, at a certain concentration range and especially in the prostatic portion was markedly potentiated. Diltiazem and flunarizine lay in an intermediate position. 3. Papaverine, a Ca2+ antagonist that acts mainly intracellularly, inhibited preferentially the tonic component; ryanodine was practically inactive. 4. Cromakalim inhibited only partially the phasic and tonic components but totally inhibited the rhythmic contractions. 5. These results can be explained by postulating two types of calcium channels opened by alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation. The first one is verapamil- and nifedipine-sensitive and allows the entry of Ca2+ directly available for the contraction and responsible for the phasic and partially responsible for the tonic component. The second channel is merely nifedipine-sensitive and allows the entry of Ca2+ trigger which can release Ca2+ from intracellular sites: the mobilized Ca2+ is able to sustain the tonic component and is the main one responsible for the rhythmic activity. There is the possibility that this second channel is associated with ATP-sensitive K+ channels.

calan sr dosage

Various studies have shown that calcium channel blockers (CCB) affect the release of central neurotransmitters including noradrenaline (NA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), which are involved in depression. The behavioural despair test was used to investigate the effect of CCB on depression. The mice were treated acutely with CCB. Verapamil (5, 10, 20, and 40 mgkg(-1), i.p.) and diltiazem (10, 20, and 40 mgkg(-1), i.p.) produced a dose-dependent increase in immobility time, indicating the facilitation of depression, while nifedipine (12.5, 25, and 50 mgkg(-1), i.p.) significantly decreased the immobility time, indicating an antidepressant activity. Verapamil ( 40 mgkg(-1), i.p.) and diltiazem ( 40 mgkg(-1), i.p.) blocked the antidepressant effect of desipramine, clomipramine, mianserin, and tranylcypromine, indicating the involvement of various mechanisms in the facilitatory effect of verapamil and diltiazem on depression. The antidepressant effect of nifedipine may be attributed to the blockade of presynaptic alpha -2-receptors (autoreceptors), as nifedipine blocked the clonidine-induced facilitation of depression.

calan tab

The anticancer properties of ceramide, a sphingolipid with potent tumor-suppressor properties, can be dampened via glycosylation, notably in multidrug resistance wherein ceramide glycosylation is characteristically elevated. Earlier works using the ceramide analog, C6-ceramide, demonstrated that the antiestrogen tamoxifen, a first generation P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, blocked C6-ceramide glycosylation and magnified apoptotic responses. The present investigation was undertaken with the goal of discovering non-anti-estrogenic alternatives to tamoxifen that could be employed as adjuvants for improving the efficacy of ceramide-centric therapeutics in treatment of cancer. Herein we demonstrate that the tamoxifen metabolites, desmethyltamoxifen and didesmethyltamoxifen, and specific, high-affinity P-gp inhibitors, tariquidar and zosuquidar, synergistically enhanced C6-ceramide cytotoxicity in multidrug resistant HL-60/VCR acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells, whereas the selective estrogen receptor antagonist, fulvestrant, was ineffective. Active C6-ceramide-adjuvant combinations elicited mitochondrial ROS production and cytochrome c release, and induced apoptosis. Cytotoxicity was mitigated by introduction of antioxidant. Effective adjuvants markedly inhibited C6-ceramide glycosylation as well as conversion to sphingomyelin. Active regimens were also effective in KG-1a cells, a leukemia stem cell-like line, and in LoVo human colorectal cancer cells, a solid tumor model. In summary, our work details discovery of the link between P-gp inhibitors and the regulation and potentiation of ceramide metabolism in a pro-apoptotic direction in cancer cells. Given the active properties of these adjuvants in synergizing with C6-ceramide, independent of drug resistance status, stemness, or cancer type, our results suggest that the C6-ceramide-containing regimens could provide alternative, promising therapeutic direction, in addition to finding novel, off-label applications for P-gp inhibitors.

calan drug classification

The MDR human breast cancer MCF-7/ADR cells were treated with IJO, its sesquiterpene component isoalantolactone (ISO) or ADOat non- cytotoxic concentrations. The MDR ability was examined by measuring the sensitivity to doxorubicin (DOX), DOX accumulation and efflux, ABCB1 ATPase activity, ABCB1 expression, membrane fluidity, and stability and localization of lipid rafts and caveolae. Finally, the molecular modeling was performed to postulate how ISO interacts with ABCB1.

calan drug

Overexpressed ICAM-1 and MMP-9 mediated BBB dysfunction after ischemia, which induced EB leakage and (125)I-albumin uptake increase. Enhanced accumulation of verapamil in brain tissue, but intracellular concentration reduced evidently after H/R injury. Transcellular transportation of verapamil elevated when P-gp function or expression was inhibited after H/R injury.

calan overdose

The aim of the present study was to evaluate diurnal variations of the variability and irregularity of heart rate (HR) in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) with and without rate control drugs. Thirty-eight patients with permanent AF were part of an investigator-blind crossover study comparing diltiazem, verapamil, metoprolol, and carvedilol. We analyzed five Holter recordings per patient: at baseline (no rate control drug) and with each of the four drug regimens. HR, variability (SD; percentages of interval differences of successive RR intervals of >20, 50, and 80 ms; and root of the mean squared differences of successive RR intervals), and irregularity (approximate and sample entropy) parameters were computed in 20-min long nonoverlapping segments. Circadian rhythmicity was evaluated using cosinor analysis to each parameter series, which is characterized by the 24-h mean [midline statistic of rhythm (MESOR)] and excursion over the mean (amplitude). Arrhythmia-related symptoms were assessed by a questionnaire measuring symptom severity and frequency. HR and variability parameters showed a significant circadian variation in most patients, whereas only a small minority of the patients had circadian variations of irregularity parameters. Patients with circadian approximate entropy n at baseline had more severe symptoms (symptom severity: 9 ± 4 vs. 6 ± 5, P < 0.05, circadian vs. noncircadian variations). All drugs decreased the MESOR of HR and increased the MESOR of variability parameters. Only carvedilol and metoprolol decreased the normalized amplitude over 24 h of all parameters and HR. In conclusion, HR and RR variability parameters present a circadian variation in patients with permanent AF, whereas few patients demonstrated circadian fluctuations in irregularity parameters, suggesting different physiological mechanisms.

calan pill

Evaluation of the environmental risk of human pharmaceuticals is now a mandatory component in all new drug applications submitted for approval in EU. With >3000 drugs currently in use, it is not feasible to test each active ingredient, so prioritization is key. A recent review has listed nine prioritization approaches including the fish plasma model (FPM). The present paper focuses on comparison of measured and predicted fish plasma bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of four common over-the-counter/prescribed pharmaceuticals: norethindrone (NET), ibuprofen (IBU), verapamil (VER) and clozapine (CLZ). The measured data were obtained from the earlier published fish BCF studies. The measured BCF estimates of NET, IBU, VER and CLZ were 13.4, 1.4, 0.7 and 31.2, while the corresponding predicted BCFs (based log Kow at pH 7) were 19, 1.0, 7.6 and 30, respectively. These results indicate that the predicted BCFs matched well the measured values. The BCF estimates were used to calculate the human: fish plasma concentration ratios of each drug to predict potential risk to fish. The plasma ratio results show the following order of risk potential for fish: NET > CLZ > VER > IBU. The FPM has value in prioritizing pharmaceutical products for ecotoxicological assessments.

calan 240 mg

Hypertensive patients are likely to have an exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response during physical exertion. When moderate aerobic exercise was added to medical antihypertensive therapy in patients with severe hypertension, excessive elevations in BP during physical exertion were attenuated even with a modest reduction in BP at rest.

calan generic name

The outward movement (flop) of fluorescently labeled analogues of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in human and murine red blood cells (RBC) was examined. 1-Oleoyl-2-[6(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]caproyl (C6-NBD) analogues of PS and PC were incorporated in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane through the action of aminophospholipid translocase or through equilibration upon prolonged incubation, respectively. After removal of noninternalized probe, externalization of C6-NBD-PS or C6-NBD-PC from the inner to outer leaflet was monitored by continuous incubation of the cells in the presence of bovine serum albumin. Flop rates for both probes in intact human RBC were virtually identical (t1/2 approximately 1.5 h), confirming earlier findings by Bitbol et al. [Bitbol, M., et al. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 6783-6787] and Connor et al. [Connor, J., et al. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 19412-19417]. Flop activity in resealed RBC ghosts could only be found upon coinclusion of both ATP and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Furthermore, flop in intact cells was sensitive to verapamil (IC50 = 5-7 microM), vincristine (IC50 = 20 microM), and indomethacin (IC50 = 50 microM), suggesting the involvement of proteins conferring multidrug resistance (MDR). Experiments with RBC from knock-out mice for multidrug resistance P-glycoproteins (Mdr1a/1b-/- and Mdr2-/-) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1-/-) revealed that Mrp1 is responsible for the observed flop of the fluorescent lipid analogues. We found no indications for outward transport of endogenous PS by any of these drug-transporting proteins as measured by a sensitive prothrombinase assay. Neither aminophospholipid translocase nor Ca2+-induced lipid scramblase activities were affected in RBC of these knock-out mice. We conclude that lipid floppase activity, as detected with lipid probes, reflects the activity of MRP1 recognizing the modified lipid analogues as xenobiotics to be expelled from the cell.

calan medication

In this study, we chose three of the flavonoids isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside(IRR) diosmetin-7-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside(DXG) and morin, which showed obvious efflux, to test the hypothesis that a specific efflux transporter is responsible for their transportation.

calan 180 mg

We studied the effect of Russian preparation of porcine calcitonin (calcitrin, 1 U/100 g) and blockers of Ca(2+) channels nifedipine (1 mg/kg, blocker of chemosensitive Ca(2+) channels) and isoptin (5 mg/kg, blocker of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels) on glucose metabolism. Calcitonin produced a pronounced hyperglycemic effect in rats. A close negative correlation was found between glucose level and total calcium content. Injection of calcitonin reduced glucose tolerance in rats. Isoptin and nifedipine reduced plasma calcium level and did not affect significantly the blood glucose levels, did not change the pattern of alimentary hyperglycemia in response to glucose load, completely abolished the hyperglycemic effect of calcitonin, and prevented calcitonin-induced impairment of glucose tolerance.

calan tablets

We designed the present study to examine whether diabetes mellitus affects the antiarrhythmic effect of flecainide, a sodium channel blocker, E-4031, a potassium channel blocker, and verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, in diabetic rats. The experiments were performed in intact and diabetic rats 2, 4, and 6 wk after administration of streptozotocin. Rats were anesthetized with halothane and monitored continuously for arterial blood pressure and premature ventricular contractions. The arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine was defined as the smallest dose producing 3 or more premature ventricular contractions within a 15-s period. The arrhythmogenic doses of epinephrine in the presence of flecainide were 8.2 +/- 2.2 (mean +/- sd), 7.4 +/- 6.1, 5.5 +/- 2.8, and 2.0 +/- 0.5 microg/kg in intact and diabetic rats 2, 4, and 6 wk after streptozotocin administration, respectively. Similarly, the arrhythmogenic doses of epinephrine in the presence of E-4031 were 7.7 +/- 2.6, 2.3 +/- 0.7, 2.0 +/- 0.7, and 1.2 +/- 0.5 microg/kg, and those in the presence of verapamil were 8.2 +/- 2.1, 3.1 +/- 1.2, 2.3 +/- 0.9, and 1.5 +/- 0.5 microg/kg. Insulin partially recovered the antiarrhythmic effect of the blockers. We concluded that diabetes mellitus reduces the antiarrhythmic effects of flecainide, E-4031, and verapamil.

calan 120 mg

The Caco-2 intracellular accumulation of Rho123 in clemastine and verapamil treated cells was 90.8 ± 9.8 and 420.6±25.4 pg/mg protein, respectively which was significantly higher than that in control cells (50.2±6.0; P<0.05). Immunoblotting results indicated that clemastine decreased expression of P-gp in Caco-2 cells in vitro. More over effective intestinal permeability (Peff) of digoxin in the presence of clemastine, was significantly increased compare to control group.

calan reviews

Rabbit duodenum, jejunum and ileum segments were prepared. The spontaneous contractions of longitudinal and circular smooth muscle were recorded using a computer via an isometric force transducer. The specific agonists and antagonists of tachykinin receptors were added into the organ bath.

calan dosage forms

The freshwater common pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis produces embryos that complete direct development, hatching as shell-bearing individuals within 10 days despite relatively low ambient calcium and carbonate availability. This development is impaired by removal of ambient total calcium but not by removal of bicarbonate and/or carbonate. In this study we utilized pharmacological agents to target possible acquisition pathways for both Ca(2+) and accumulation of carbonate in post-metamorphic, shell-laying embryos. Using whole egg mass flux measurements and ion-specific microelectrode analytical techniques, we have demonstrated that carbonic anhydrase-catalyzed hydration of CO(2) is central in the acquisition of both shell-forming ions because it provides the hydrogen ions for an electrogenic vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase that fuels the uptake of Ca(2+) via voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and possibly an electrogenic Ca(2+)/1H(+) exchanger. Additionally, CO(2) hydration provides an endogenous source of HCO(3)(-). Thus, hydration of endogenous CO(2) forms HCO(3)(-) for calcification while hydrogen ions are excreted, contributing to continued Ca(2+) uptake, as well as creating favorable alkaline internal conditions for calcification. The connections between Ca(2+) and HCO(3)(-) acquisition mechanisms that we describe here provide new insight into this efficient, embryonic calcification in freshwater.

calan 5 mg

The purpose of this study was to characterize blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of oxycodone, a cationic opioid agonist, via the pyrilamine transporter, a putative organic cation transporter, using conditionally immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cells (TR-BBB13). Oxycodone and [3H]pyrilamine were both transported into TR-BBB13 cells in a temperature- and concentration-dependent manner with Km values of 89 and 28 microM, respectively. The initial uptake of oxycodone was significantly enhanced by preloading with pyrilamine and vice versa. Furthermore, mutual uptake inhibition by oxycodone and pyrilamine suggests that a common mechanism is involved in their transport. Transport of both substrates was inhibited by type II cations (quinidine, verapamil, and amantadine), but not by classic organic cation transporter (OCT) substrates and/or inhibitors (tetraethylammonium, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, and corticosterone), substrates of OCTN1 (ergothioneine) and OCTN2 (L-carnitine), or organic anions. The transport was inhibited by metabolic inhibitors (rotenone and sodium azide) but was insensitive to extracellular sodium and membrane potential for both substrates. Furthermore, the transport of both substrates was increased at alkaline extracellular pH and decreased in the presence of a protonophore (carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone). Intracellular acidification induced with ammonium chloride enhanced the uptakes, suggesting that the transport is driven by an oppositely directed proton gradient. The brain uptake of oxycodone measured by in situ rat brain perfusion was increased in alkaline perfusate and was significantly inhibited by pyrilamine. These results suggest that blood-brain barrier transport of oxycodone is at least partly mediated by a common transporter with pyrilamine, and this transporter is an energy-dependent, proton-coupled antiporter.

calan 80 mg

Successful radiofrequency ablation of ILVT could result in morphology changes in limb leads of ECG, especially in inferior leads. The combined changes in inferior leads can be used as an effective endpoint in ablation of this ILVT.

calan eeze review

Myocardial cellular [Ca(2+)]i became much higher in concent after being in cubated with sera, especially with 6hBS, than that in normal myocardial cells (P < 0.01). But the effect of 6hBS could be significantly inhibited by verapamil (30 nmol/L), the calcium channel antagonist and procaine (2 mmol/L), the inhibitor of rynodine receptor (P < 0.01) by 47.7% and 67.6%, respectively. Ca -- L was evidently increased by the stimulation of 2 hBS and 6 hBS, by 50 -- 80% and 1.5 -- 2.5 folds, respectively. It was indicated by I -- V curves that every ICa caused by depolarizaton and clamp voltage was increased by burn sera, which further made the maximal activating voltage ahead of time. All the burn sera effects on calcium current could be removed by extracellular lavage.

calan sr medication

74% of patients had no clinical effects, 4% minor effects, 2% moderate effects, and 20% other. No deaths or major effects were reported.

calan dosage

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane protein that functions as an adenosine triphosphate-dependent efflux pump for xenobiotics at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Polymorphisms of MDR1 gene have been reported to be associated with the expression level of P-gp. (11)C-Verapamil is considered to be one of the suitable radioligands for evaluating P-gp functions. However, the metabolites of verapamil might complicate the quantitative analysis because of their possible brain penetration. In the present study, we investigated the P-gp functional differences at the BBB between the haplotypes (1236TT, 2677TT, 3435TT vs. 1236CC, 2677GG, 3435CC) of the MDR1 gene with different quantitative analyses of (11)C-verapamil.

calan 40 mg

Prostate epithelial cells isolated from prostate tissue obtained from patients with BPH after transurethral resection of the prostate were stained with Hoechst 33342. The Hoechst 33342 Red/Blue flow cytometry profile was then determined. Hoechst 33342 and Pyronin Y staining was used to determined the cell cycle status.

calan sr dosage

Sertraline is often prescribed to patients suffering with end stage renal disease, but its action on kidney has not been investigated. We aimed to investigate the pharmacological action of sertraline on rat kidney with emphasis on the underlying mechanisms involved in the vascular actions of the drug.

calan tab

2',3'-Dideoxycytidine (ddC) and azidothymidine (AZT) inhibit HIV-1 replication and currently are used in AIDS therapy. Long-term use of the drugs is associated with the selection of drug-resistant HIV strains, thus limiting their effectiveness. Another mechanism, associated with their altered metabolism in host cells, also can cause "cellular" drug resistance. Human lymphocytic H9 cell lines (H9-ddC0.5w and H9-ddC5.0w) selected for ddC resistance by exposure to 0.5 and 5.0 microM ddC were found to be cross-resistant to AZT. Compared with controls, the thymidine kinase (TK) activities in H9-ddC0.5w and H9-ddC5.0w cells were 56.7 and 51.4% (with thymidine as a substrate) and 50.3 and 42% (with AZT as a substrate). Consequently the cellular incorporation of AZT and thymidine (24-hr incubation) also was reduced to 51.3 and 70.0% in H9-ddC0.5w cells and to 12.1 and 17.3% in H9-ddC5.0w cells. A 3-hr incubation with 25 microM AZT and ddC decreased their cellular incorporation to 50.5 and 76.15% in H9-ddC0.5w cells and to 12.95 and 47.8% in H9-ddC5.0w cells compared with H9 cells. Thus, the change in AZT accumulation did not correlate exactly with the decrease in TK activity and far exceeded the effect on ddC accumulation. Evidence is presented that ddC, in addition to deoxycytidine kinase, affected TK1 activity. The involvement of multidrug resistance proteins in the mechanism of the resistance was ruled out by the failure of trifluoperazine and verapamil to alter cellular accumulations of AZT, ddC, daunorubicin, and rhodamine-123. Development of cellular ddC and AZT cross-resistance may affect the therapeutic efficacy of these antiviral agents.

calan drug classification

1. The pharmacokinetics, particularly the hepatobiliary transport of T-5557 ((3-methyl-2-oxo-piperadin-3-yl)-acetic acid N'-(3-thieophen-2-yl-8-methoxy-quinazolin-1-yl)-hydrazide), a novel anti-inflammatory agent, has been examined in normal and adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats. 2. Following oral administration of T-5557, the absolute bioavailability in AA rats was increased by sixfold compared with normal rats. The extent of binding T-5557 to plasma proteins obtained from AA rats was markedly greater than in normal rats (97.0 versus 88.2%). The biliary clearance in AA rats was significantly lower than that in normal rats (1.186 versus 5.621 ml min(-1) kg(-1)), and lower intrinsic biliary clearance was also observed in AA rats (40.33 versus 69.83 ml min(-1) kg(-1)). 3. Concomitant administration of T-5557 with quinidine, a potent P-glycoprotein inhibitor, to normal rats caused a significant decrease in the biliary clearance of T-5557 by 37.9%. Moreover, the transport of T-5557 for the apical-to-basal compartment in a Caco-2 cells' monolayer was fourfold lower than that for the opposite direction, and was increased in the presence of quinidine and verapamil. 4. These results suggest that P-glycoprotein is involved in the biliary excretion of T-5557 and the decrease in the transport activity as well as the increase in plasma protein binding caused the elevated plasma concentration and bioavailability of T-5557 in AA rats.

calan drug

To investigate the effect of acute hypoxia and concomitant changes in portal blood flow on the disposition of drugs mainly metabolized by the cytochrome P(450) enzymes (CYP) 3A4 (verapamil) and CYP1A2 (theophylline).

calan overdose

Acquired resistance to chemotherapy is a major problem during cancer treatment. One mechanism for drug resistance is overexpression of the MDR (multidrug resistance)1 gene encoding the transmembrane efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Calcium channel blockers such as verapamil, nifedipine and nicardipine have been shown to reverse cellular drug resistance by inhibiting P-gp drug efflux. This study evaluated whether a new calcium channel blocker, lomerizine, influenced doxorubicin (Dox) cytotoxicity and P-gp activity in a P-gp-expressing cell line compared to a non-expressing subline. Verapamil, and even more markedly, lomerizine, increased cellular uptake of calcein transported by P-gp in a P-gp-expressing erythroleukemia cell line, K562-Dox. Ten microM of lomerizine reduced the IC50 of doxorubicin in the K562-Dox from 60000 ng/ml to 800 ng/ml, whereas the IC50 of doxorubicin in the K562 subline was only marginally affected by these drugs. Lomerizine showed greater reduction in P-gp efflux than verapamil at an equimolar concentration. These results suggest that lomerizine has the clinical potential to reverse tumor MDR involving the efflux protein P-gp.

calan pill

In Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, the outflow concentration-time curve and the residual amount in cardiac tissue of IDA and its active metabolite idarubicinol (IDOL) were measured after 0.5 mg dose of IDA in the absence and presence of the P-gp inhibitors verapamil and PSC 833.

calan 240 mg

K1 values of [11C]verapamil were not changed by clinical dose administration of clarithromycin, suggesting that a clinical dose of clarithromycin does not affect P-gp function at the blood-brain barrier.

calan generic name

We describe two cases of no reflow phenomenon in the setting of primary PCI for ST elevation myocardial infarction successfully managed with intracoronary vasodilator therapy via a Clearway™ balloon catheter, where vasodilator therapy via the guiding catheter had been ineffective. Traditionally, if not given via the guiding catheter, vasodilators have been administered via an over-the-wire balloon catheter, which can be cumbersome and time consuming. The Clearway catheter is a rapid exchange balloon catheter affording rapid delivery of vasodilators to the distal infarct related artery without risk of loss of wire position. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

calan medication

In the courses of in vitro screening for the vasorelaxant effect of the various extracts from medicinal plants, an ethyl acetate-soluble extract of Selaginella tamariscina was found to exhibit distinctive vasorelaxant activity. Further purifications of the extract as guided by in vitro vasorelaxant assay afforded an active biflavonoid, amentoflavone. Amentoflavone induced concentration-dependent relaxation of the phenylephrine-precontracted aorta, which disappeared by removal of functional endothelium. Pretreatment of the aortic tissues with N(G)-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), methylene blue, or 1 H- -oxadiazolo[4,3- a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) inhibited the relaxation induced by amentoflavone. Amentoflavone-induced relaxations were also markedly attenuated by addition of tetraethylammonium (TEA) or verapamil. However, the relaxant effect of amentoflavone was not blocked by pretreatment with indomethacin, glibenclamide, atropine, or propranolol. Incubation of endothelium-intact aortic rings with amentoflavone increased the production of cGMP, but this effect was blocked by endothelium-denudation or pretreatment with L-NAME or ODQ. These results suggest that amentoflavone relaxes vascular smooth muscle via endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-cGMP signaling, with possible involvement of non-specific K (+) and Ca (2+) channels. Abbreviations. EDRF:endothelium-derived relaxing factor EDHF:endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor NO:nitric oxide cGMP:guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate DMSO:dimethyl sulfoxide L-NAME: N(G)-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester ODQ:1 H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole-[4,3- a]-quinoxalin-1-one IBMX:3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine K (Ca):Ca (2+)-dependent K (+) channel K (ATP):adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K (+) channel TEA:tetraethylammonium

calan 180 mg

We have evaluated the protein kinase C (PKC) activity in two series of cultured cell lines presenting the multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype and in the corresponding wild-type cells: the human KB 3.1, KB A1 and KB 8.5 cell lines, and the rat C6, C6 0.5 and C6 1V cell lines. We have observed an increase in PKC activity in the MDR cell lines of the KB cell lineage, proportional to their degree of resistance to doxorubicin. In contrast, the MDR cell lines of the C6 cell lineage presented no change (C6 0.5) or even decrease (C6 1V) in PKC activity; the basal level of PKC activity in C6 cells was, however, 50-fold higher than in KB 3.1 cells. We have tested, in these lines, the effect of four modulators of MDR: verapamil, cyclosporin A, quinine and S-9788, on doxorubicin acytotoxicity and on PKC activity. We observed that cyclosporin A and S-9788, which were the most active on MDR reversal, were able to inhibit PKC activity in the KB resistant lines as well as in all C6 lines, whereas verapamil and quinine had only marginal effects on PKC activity. The distribution of PKC isoenzymes was studied by Western blots. The PKC alpha, gamma and delta isoforms were increased in the KB resistant lines as compared to wild-type cells, which could account for the increase PKC activity we observed. In contrast, PKC alpha and gamma were decreased in C6 1V cells, as expected from the results obtained for total PKC activity, but we also noticed an important decrease in PKC delta in the C6 0.5 line. Our results suggest that an increase in PKC activity is not an absolute requirement for expression of MDR, provided that the basal level be high enough; and that some modulators may act on MDR, not only through direct P-glycoprotein interaction, but also through P-glycoprotein phosphorylation or expression. The distribution of PKC isoenzymes revealed that the modifications encountered between sensitive and resistant cells mainly concerned alpha, gamma and delta isoenzymes of PKC.

calan tablets

This systematic review aims to synthesize the data on the effectiveness of pharmacological modulation of stress response in minimally invasive surgery. Eligible trials were clinical trials randomized or not or experimental trials that investigated the effect of pharmacological agents on modulation of surgical stress response to minimally invasive surgery. No clinical trials were identified. Eight experimental trials met the inclusion criteria and were obtained in full text. Experimental models were rats or rabbits subjected to pneumoperitoneum, or pneumoretroperitoneum, not to a whole operation. Pharmacological modulation of surgical stress response was attempted with erythromycin, melatonin, mesna, verapamil, pentoxifylline, N-acetylcysteine, and zinc. All the pharmacological agents, except pentoxifylline, seemed to reduce oxidative stress markers. However, only mesna pretreatment prevented oxidative stress, because oxidative stress markers remained in the sham levels. Contrasting data were obtained for pentoxyphilline. In conclusion, available data suggest that pharmacological modulation of surgical stress response to minimally invasive surgery might be feasible.

calan 120 mg

Fifty-six radial artery ring segments from 14 patients (n = 7 rings for each contraction-relaxation curve) were studied. Equilibrated resting tension was 9.6 +/- 0.3 mN (5.9 +/- 0.2 g), and resting internal circumference was 6.4 +/- 0.2 mm. Absolute maximum contraction to potassium was significantly less in rings stored in normal saline solution than in rings stored in control solution (10.7 +/- 0.6 g vs 14.5 +/- 0.6 g, P <.01; 95% confidence intervals, 0.9-6.9). There was no difference in the contraction to norepinephrine (P =.11) and serotonin (P =.25) among the 3 solutions compared with the control solution. Rings stored in heparinized whole blood had significantly greater endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (P <.007), whereas those stored in normal saline solution had reduced responses. Endothelium-independent relaxation to verapamil and nitroprusside were similar among the 3 solutions.

Target Point Shipping Method Tracking Delivery Time Price
Worldwide shipping

Worldwide shipping

Registered Mail  Not trackable 14-21 business days USD 20.00 per order
EMS  Trackable, where available 5-9 business days USD 30.00 per order

Delivery time is:

Registered Mail - 14-21 business days, prices - USD 20.00, no signature is required on delivery.
EMS - 5-9 business days, prices - USD 30.00, signature is required on delivery.
Your order will be packed safe and secure and dispatched within 24 hours.

front back side

This is exactly how your parcel will look like (pictures of a real shipping item). It has a look of a regular private letter and does not disclose its contents. Size - 9.4x4.3x0.3 inches (24x11x0.7cm).

Testimonials
Best
 Show Hide 
calan sr medication 2015-05-10

The effects of the addition of a calcium channel blocker, verapamil (20 mg/kg/day) to an ACE inhibitor, trandolapril (0.7 mg/kg/day) in a 6-month treatment on renal insufficiency development in rats with 5/6th nephrectomy, were studied. Every month we measured heart rate and arterial pressure by the tail-cuff method. Renal function studies were performed in metabolic cages. At the end of the study, renal tissue was prepared for light microscope analysis. Renal lesions were assessed by semiquantitative scores in a blind fashion. Corpuscular section area, intraglomerular and tubulointerstitial fibrosis were determined by digital image analysis with a specific software (Fibrosis HR) on syrium red-stained renal sections. buy calan online Trandolapril markedly increased the survival ratio that after 6 months reached 87% in comparison with 61% in untreated rats. No mortality was observed in rats treated with the combination of verapamil and trandolapril. Trandolapril treatment prevented the development of hypertension. The combination verapamil-trandolapril did not induce further reduction on blood pressure. The untreated group showed a marked proteinuria, that in the trandolapril group showed an important reduction. The verapamil + trandolapril group showed a proteinuria significantly smaller than that of all the other groups. Light microscopy semiquantitative studies of the renal injury showed that the trandolapril and verapamil + trandolapril groups had a marked reduction in glomerular and tubulointerstitial alterations, compared with untreated animals. Quantitative determinations of glomerular and interstitial fibrosis performed on syrium red-stained renal sections demonstrated that fibrosis was reduced when rats when treated with trandolapril and even more with verapamil + trandolapril when they were compared to untreated animals' values. In conclusion, long-term treatment with verapamil given in addition to trandolapril produces additional protection against progressive renal injury associated to subtotal nephrectomy.

calan 240 mg 2016-11-09

A buy calan online near-normal life expectancy and a highly satisfactory quality of life are now realistic treatment goals for patients with HCM.

calan pill 2016-10-07

Parasitic sea lice are a major challenge for salmon aquaculture. This is especially due to the buy calan online recent development of resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB) in the parasite. We investigated: (1) whether EMB treatment success in Grand Manan, Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada can be explained through EMB bioassay and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mRNA expression studies; (2) if other populations of sea lice not under EMB selective pressure possess similar EMB sensitivity as Grand Manan sea lice populations; and (3) the heritability of EMB resistance in Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

calan sr dosage 2017-09-25

Tendencies in real life treatment of buy calan online patients with hypertension in Russia should be considered positive. Basic antihypertensive therapy included agents (mostly long-acting) from 4 main classes and the use of outdated drugs such as clonidine and reserpine was low.

calan 120 mg 2015-07-30

High voltage activated calcium channels have been implicated buy calan online in nociceptive transmission in several animal pain models. To our knowledge this is the first study to evaluate the ability of various high voltage activated calcium channel blockers to inhibit the transmission of noxious stimuli from the bladder at the level of the spinal cord.

calan tablets 2017-06-05

This study demonstrates that exercise buy calan online -provocable tachycardia resembling right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia may originate from the anterobasal left ventricle.

calan eeze review 2015-12-10

We aimed at assessing changes in AV nodal properties during administration of the beta blockers metoprolol and carvedilol, and buy calan online the calcium channel blockers diltiazem and verapamil from electrocardiographic data.

calan dosage 2016-12-24

We evaluated buy calan online 7,218 patients with prior MI enrolled in the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril (INVEST) substudy randomized to verapamil-sustained release (SR)- or atenolol-based strategies. Primary outcome was time to first occurrence of death (all-cause), nonfatal MI, or nonfatal stroke. Secondary outcomes included death, total MI (fatal and nonfatal), and total stroke (fatal and nonfatal) considered separately.

calan 180 mg 2015-12-10

Various potential molecules with putative positive role in stroke pathology have failed to confer neuro-protection in animal models due to their insufficient bioavailability in brain. Efflux of these molecules by P-glycoprotein (P-gp), on blood brain barrier (BBB) is one of the reasons of their poor bioavailability. Berberine, have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic properties, but also having low oral bioavailabilty. Verapamil, which increased the central nervous system uptake of few drugs, when concomitantly administered with berberine was evaluated in this animal model. Wistar rats were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce acute cerebral ischemia for 15 min followed by reperfusion resulting in transient global cerebral ischemia. For 19 days berberine (5 buy calan online , 10, 20mg/kg, p.o.) alone and in similar doses concomitantly with verapamil (2mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated employing various neuro-behavioral test, biochemical parameters and molecular estimations. The adjunction of berberine with verapamil improved the neurological outcome in a battery of behavioral paradigms, improved spatial memory in Morris water maze task, ameliorated the oxidative-nitrosative stress, increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, as well as improved mitochondrial complex (I, II, and IV) activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta and caspase-3 levels in brain tissues as compared to berberine alone group in ischemic rats. There is a strong possibility of improved brain bioavailabity of berberine when combined with verapamil. The findings suggested that the combination of berberine with verapamil, which could enhance its brain uptake, will surely provide a greater impact in neroprotection drug discovery for search of such combination.

calan drug 2016-03-09

Transcript for all three P-glycoprotein isoforms was detected with RT-PCR buy calan online , but only mdr1a and mdr2 could be detected by Northern blot analysis. P-glycoprotein was localized in the plasma membrane of lens epithelial and fiber cells. Treatment of organ-cultured lenses with increasing doses of the P-glycoprotein inhibitor tamoxifen for 18 hours showed that two distinct damage phenotypes were evident. At a dose of 20 micro M tamoxifen, tissue damage was found in a discrete zone that initially started approximately 100 micro m from the capsule, whereas at higher doses (60-100 micro M tamoxifen), extensive vesiculation of fiber cell membranes occurred throughout the entire lens cortex. Decreasing tamoxifen (100 micro M) exposure to 6 hours showed that the inner zone of damage was caused by the dilation of extracellular space between fiber cells. The extracellular space dilution and fiber cell vesiculation could be reproduced by varying the concentrations of other P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil and DDKF.

calan reviews 2016-06-17

This study indicates that P-gp plays a key role in the stereoselectivity of fexofenadine pharmacokinetics, since the pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine enantiomers were altered by the P-gp inhibitor verapamil, and this effect was greater for S buy calan online -fexofenadine compared with R-fexofenadine.

calan medication 2017-05-01

We have previously shown that in the canine small bowel autotransplantation model, adding alpha - tocopherol to Euro Collins solution for perfusion enhanced the integrity of the small bowel mucosa for up to 12 buy calan online hours in the posttransplantation period. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of verapamil and a tocopherol on reperfusion injury in the canine small bowel autotransplantation model.

calan tab 2015-04-21

BRAF V600E mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC): prevalence buy calan online and detection in fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens.

calan 80 mg 2016-07-02

P-gp limited the brain uptake of morphine and colchicine in a concentration-independent way up to 2 mM. In contrast, vinblastine inhibited its own P-gp transport with an IC50 of approximately 56 microM and a Hill coefficient of approximately 4. The vinblastine efflux by P-gp was described by buy calan online a Km at 16 microM and a maximal efflux velocity, Jmax, of approximately 8 pmol s(-1) g(-1) of brain. Similarly, vinblastine brain transport was increased by inhibiting P-gp as shown by the IC50 ranking, which was PSC833 < verapamil < vinblastine < progesterone.

calan dosage forms 2016-08-02

In young children with incessant ventricular tachycardia and severe ventricular dysfunction, the management of tachycardia with conventional antiarrhythmic drugs remains a major therapeutic challenge because most of these drugs can further depress myocardial function. We report a four year old boy with verapamil responsive incessant ventricular tachycardia and severe ventricular dysfunction in whom oral verapamil treatment eliminated both the arrhythmia and the picture of dilated cardiomyopathy. On oral verapamil, the patient remains asymptomatic without recurrence of the ventricular tachycardia over a Topamax Positive Reviews follow up period of 10 months.

calan drug classification 2017-01-28

Transdermal iontophoresis is an effective treatment for pain control in early stages of Peyronie's disease. Efficacy in reducing penile curvature seems to be limited. Controlled clinical trials are needed, and perhaps reviewing indications Buspar High Dose in order to obtain more relevant clinical effects.

calan overdose 2015-11-10

Following culture 16-23S PCR ribotyping Augmentin 625 Mg was used to determine genomic relationships between A- B+ C. difficile isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined using Etests in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitors reserpine (20 microg/mL), L-phenylalanine-L-arginine-beta-naphthylamide (PAbetaN; 20 microg/mL) and verapamil (100 microg/mL). Genomic regions including the quinolone-resistance-determining-region (QRDR) of gyrA and gyrB were amplified and characterized.

calan generic name 2016-05-15

Mouse mammary Periactin Migraine Reviews epithelial cells were stained with Hoechst 33342. Light scatter, PI staining and clonogenicity of different regions of the Hoechst profile were examined. Time-course analyzes of Hoechst 33342 loading were carried out.

calan 40 mg 2015-10-21

Energy levels for electrocardioversion in atrial Cleocin Generic fibrillation (AF) have been empiric, and the influence of antiarrhythmic therapy compared with placebo is largely unknown.

calan 5 mg 2015-05-19

This represents a novel treatment strategy for fetal cardiovascular disease which may Nexium 80 Mg improve maternal and fetal outcomes.

calan sr medication 2017-02-24

The initial events in signal transduction were found to be different when capacitive coupling was compared with inductive coupling and with combined electromagnetic fields; the initial event with capacitive coupling is Ca(2+) ion translocation through cell-membrane voltage-gated calcium channels, whereas the initial event with inductive coupling and Detrol User Reviews with combined electromagnetic fields is the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. The final pathway, however, is the same for all three signals-that is, there is an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) and an increase in activated cytoskeletal calmodulin.

calan 240 mg 2015-06-07

Forty type-2 diabetic patients with never-treated hypertension were randomly assigned to two groups. One group (FDTV) received 2/180 mg once a day; the other group received T 2 mg once a day. Study drugs were administered for three months in both groups. VCAM-1, ICAM, and E-selectin were measured by ELISA at the beginning and end of Norvasc Medicine the study. Patients were evaluated monthly for blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, and adverse events. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA.

calan pill 2016-09-16

The activity of the hydantoin derivatives were investigated in another MDR cancer model, namely Colo 205/S sensitive and Colo 320/R resistant colon carcinoma cells respectively, having normal or overexpressed ABCB1 systems.

calan sr dosage 2017-02-26

The stem bark of Terminalia superba (Combretaceae) (TS) is used in traditional Cameroonian medicine as antihypertensive remedy. In the present study, we investigated the vasorelaxant properties of different extracts of TS and their underlying mechanisms.

calan 120 mg 2017-04-03

The purpose of this review is to discuss the evolution of OROS technology and examine the many therapeutic areas where OROS products are being used.

calan tablets 2016-06-09

Infusion of L-NMMA (50 mg/min for 5 min, n = 7, protocol 2) increased MAP by 17% (86 +/- 8 to 100 +/- 11 mmHg; P < 0.0001) and decreased CBF by 20% (45 +/- 8 to 36 +/- 6 ml. 100 g-1. min-1; P < 0.005) for 10 min. Intracarotid l-arginine infusion after L-NMMA (protocol 3) reversed the effect of L-NMMA. Bolus L-NMMA (protocol 4) increased MAP by 20% (80 +/- 11 to 96+/-13 mmHg; P< 0.005), but there was no significant decrease in CBF. Intracarotid verapamil increased CBF by 41% (44+/- 8 to 62 +/- 9 ml. 100 g-1. min-1; P< 0.005). Phenylephrine-induced hypertension increased MAP by 20% (79 +/- 9 to 95 +/- 6 mmHg; P = 0.001) but did not affect CBF.

calan eeze review 2016-11-06

Gastrodin (GAS) is the major bioactive component of the extracts from the rhizome of Gastrodia elata Blume. The aim of this study is to investigate the transport of GAS in Caco-2 cells and the interaction of P-glycoprotein and GAS. The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) of GAS were measured as a function of directions and concentrations. It was demonstrated that the efflux ratio was < 2.0 over the range of 50-500 micromol x L(-1) of GAS from bi-directional transport studies. The transport rate of GAS was dependent on the concentrations. Papp of GAS was not affected by transport directions, GAS concentration or the classical inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (verapamil and GF 120918). The cellular accumulation of GAS in Bcap37/MDR1 cells transected with hMDR1 gene, was similar to that in Bcap37 cells. The accumulation in both cell lines was concentration dependent. GAS did not affect the accumulation of Rhodamine 123 in Bcap37/MDR1 cells over the range of 50-500 micromol x L(-1). It indicated that the transport of GAS in Caco-2 cell monolayers mainly is by passive paracellular transport pathway. P-glycoprotein did not participate in the absorption of GAS in the intestine or the transport across the blood-brain barrier.

calan dosage 2015-03-01

In this article we studied in vitro and in vivo the effect of calcium channel blockers (verapamil and amlodipine) on erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I activity, on carbonic anhydrase I isolated from vascular smooth muscles, and on arterial blood pressure values in human beings and in animals. Our in vitro and in vivo results have shown that verapamil and amlodipine are strong inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase I both in erythrocytes (in human beings) and in vascular smooth muscles (in animals). In human beings calcium channel blockers reduce arterial blood pressure in subjects with hypertension and progressively reduce erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I activity. We assume that verapamil and amlodipine possess a dual mechanism of action: the first mechanism consists of their action on calcium channels, and the second mechanism, proposed by us, shows that verapamil and amlodipine inhibit vascular smooth muscle carbonic anhydrase I activity with consecutive pH increase. The increase of pH might be an additional factor involved in intracellular calcium influx through calcium channels. This dual mechanism of action would bring new data regarding the hypotensive effect of verapamil and amlodipine, effects that might also be parallel and dependent on carbonic anhydrase I inhibition.

calan 180 mg 2015-08-24

A total of 130 patients affected with Peyronie's disease were entered into a prospective trial. Patients with completely calcified plaques as determined by ultrasound evaluation were excluded. We divided the patients into three treatment groups: (A) shock waves alone in 21 patients; (B) a combination of shock waves and verapamil (perilesional injection) in 36 patients, and (C) verapamil alone in 73 patients. First, we treated all groups A and B patients 3 times, 20 min each time, with a Minilith SL1, and then only the patients of the second group received a complete cycle of twelve injections of verapamil (10 mg) every 2 weeks for 6 months. The group of 73 patients (group C) treated during the previous 2 years with a medical therapy (only injection of verapamil) was used as a control group.

calan drug 2016-12-20

High levels of calcium have been reported in pigmented tissues of the vertebrate eye, such as retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Melanin granules also have high calcium concentrations, suggesting that melanin granules may be a calcium reservoir. Here we characterized the uptake and release of calcium in a pure melanosomal fraction obtained from frog RPE. Melanosomes take up 45Ca by a saturable system with an apparent KM of 0.5 mM. About 40% of 45Ca accumulation was insensitive to low temperature. 45Ca uptake was not affected by verapamil, nifedipine, dantrolene, vanadate, thapsigargin or cyclopiazonic acid, but it was reduced by 50% by ruthenium red, and increased by the ionophore A23187 and nigericin. Release of 45Ca-loaded was stimulated by caffeine and inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3). Caffeine stimulated release of calcium was blocked by either ryanodine or ruthenium red, but calcium released by IP3 was not affected by heparin. No binding of 3H-IP3 was observed. The 3H-ryanodine binding sites exhibited a KB of 1.3 nM and a Bmax of 12.1 fmol/mg protein. Thus, our results suggest that melanosomes may function as intracellular organelles that regulate calcium concentration in RPE.

calan reviews 2016-12-11

MP is associated with improved early and long term renal function. Moreover, PGE1 augments MP in improving graft function. The combination of MP+PGE1 may be important in optimizing the ability to use extended donor criteria kidneys and, thereby, improve the overall efficiency of cadaveric renal transplantation.

calan medication 2017-03-27

The time depended hi-directional transport of EHPO in Caco-2 monolayer model was investigated with the factors of concentration, pH and verapamil. EHPO concentration was measured by HPLC assay and the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated.

calan tab 2016-11-06

The protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) has been implicated in airway inflammation. Here, we examined the interaction between PAR-2 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major proinflammatory factor, using cultured guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells. In fura2-loaded cells, LPS (1 microg/ml) transiently increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i), this effect being abolished by a Ca(2+) channel blocker, verapamil, and Ca(2+) removal. Prestimulation of PAR-2 with trypsin (0.1-1 U/ml) or an agonist peptide (SLIGRL-NH(2), 1 microM) for 60 min inhibited the LPS-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase. Such an inhibitory effect of trypsin was abolished by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), chelerythrine and staurosporine. A PKC activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutylate, also reduced the LPS response. Trypsin also inhibited a transient increase in [Ca(2+)]i caused by a Ca(2+) channel opener, Bay K 8644. When the trypsin-pretreated cells were incubated in normal buffer for 10-60 min before LPS exposure, the effect of trypsin on the Ca(2+) response to LPS diminished in a time-dependent manner. Such a recovery was slowed by incubation with a protein phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid. Further, trypsin induced sustained activations of PKCalpha and -epsilon. Thus, PAR-2 stimulation reduced the epithelial cell response to LPS, probably through the inactivation of Ca(2+) channels via PKC-mediated phosphorylation.

calan 80 mg 2017-01-29

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle to successful chemotherapy for cancer; thus, novel MDR reversers are urgently needed. In the present study, we assessed whether two synthetic derivatives of 23-hydroxybetulinic acid, 3,23-O-diacetyl-17-1,4'-bipiperidinyl betulinic amide (DABB) and 3,23-O-dihydroxy-17-1,4'-bipiperidinyl betulinic amide (DHBB), could reverse MDR induced by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Using the MTT assay, we found that DABB and DHBB could enhance the cytotoxicities of ABCB1 substrates doxorubicin, vincristine, and paclitaxel in ABCB1-overexpressing HepG2/ADM and MCF-7/ADR cells, whereas that of a non-ABCB1 substrate cisplatin was unaffected. The ABCB1 substrate accumulation and efflux assay showed that DABB and DHBB not only enhanced the retention of doxorubicin and rhodamine123 but also inhibited the efflux of rhodamine123. Further mechanistic studies by reverse transcription PCR, western blot, and ABCB1 ATPase activity assay indicated that DABB and DHBB suppressed ABCB1 ATPase activity, but did not alter mRNA or protein expression of ABCB1. ABCB1 siRNA pretreatment attenuated the reversal effect of DABB and DHBB, indicating that their reversal effects were partially dependent on ABCB1. Docking analysis also implied that DABB and DHBB bind directly to ABCB1 at a site partly overlapped with that of verapamil. Taken together, our findings suggest that two bipiperidinyl derivatives of 23-hydroxybetulinic acid reverse ABCB1-mediated MDR through modulation of ABCB1 ATPase activity, thereby inhibiting its efflux function in both HepG2/ADM and MCF-7/ADR cells. These findings may contribute toward the development of novel MDR reversers using DABB and DHBB as adjuvant anticancer chemotherapy.

calan dosage forms 2016-05-23

We subjected three human leukaemia cell lines HL-60, K562 and K562/HHT to treatment with micromolar concentrations of IB-MECA. Although all cell lines used expressed A3AR, there was a large difference in their sensitivity to IB-MECA. While HL-60 and K562 cells were almost equally sensitive, the K562/HHT cells, which exhibit a multi-drug resistance phenotype because of overexpression of P-gp, were significantly more resistant. We found that the intracellular level of IB-MECA in K562/HHT cells was approx. 10 times lower than those in HL-60 or K562 cells. Inhibitors of P-gp, including cyclosporine A (CsA) and verapamil (Vpa), increased the intracellular level of IB-MECA and reversed the resistance of K562/HHT cells to this drug. Accordingly, shRNA-mediated down-regulation of P-gp significantly increased the intracellular level of IB-MECA in K562/HHT cells which simultaneously exhibited reduced resistance to this A3AR agonist. In addition, an in vitro enzyme-based assay provided evidence that IB-MECA might serve as a substrate for P-gp.

calan drug classification 2017-05-16

An in vitro model that might be relevant to cancer cell chemoresistance in vivo was generated by exposing the human lung carcinoma clonal cell line DLKP-SQ to 10 sequential pulses of pharmacologically attainable doses of doxorubicin. The resistant variant, DLKP-SQ/10p, was found to be cross-resistant to doxorubicin (10x), vincristine (43x), etoposide (3x), sodium arsenate (3x), paclitaxel (38x) [which could imply overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and possibly increased multidrug resistance-associated protein activity] and 5-fluorouracil (4x), but slightly sensitized to carboplatin. Analysis of mRNA levels in the resistant variant revealed overexpression of mdr1 mRNA without significant alteration in mrp, Topo. IIalpha, GSTpi, dhfr or thymidylate synthase mRNA levels. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic bcl-xL transcript and the pro-apoptotic bax mRNA was also detected but no alterations in bcl-2 or bag-1 mRNA levels were observed. Resistance to a P-gp-associated drug, doxorubicin, could be reversed with P-gp circumventing agents such as cyclosporin A and verapamil, but these substances had no effect on resistance to 5-fluorouracil. Overexpression of the pro-apoptotic bcl-xS gene in the DLKP-SQ/10p line partially reversed resistance not only to P-gp-associated drugs but also to 5-fluorouracil, indicating that the ratio of bcl family members may be important in determining sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis.