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Cleocin

Generic Cleocin is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of serious infections caused by certain bacteria. Generic Cleocin acts by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Clinda derm, Clindagel, Clindets

 

Also known as:  Clindamycin.

Description

Generic Cleocin is a perfect remedy in struggle against serious infections caused by certain bacteria.

Generic Cleocin acts by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.

Cleocin is also known as Clindamycin, Clindatec, Dalacin, Clinacin, Evoclin.

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Take Generic Cleocin orally with or without food.

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If you overdose Generic Cleocin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

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Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not use Generic Cleocin if you are allergic to Generic Cleocin components or to to tartrazine.

Be very careful if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Try to be very careful with Generic Cleocin if it is given to children younger than 10 years old who have diarrhea or an infection of the stomach or bowel. Elderly patient should use Generic Cleocin with caution.

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A total of 79 Clostridium difficile strains from healthy young and elderly adults, elderly patients without gastrointestinal disease, elderly patients receiving antibiotics without gastrointestinal complications, and elderly patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea or pseudomembranous colitis were tested for their susceptibilities to 24 antimicrobial agents. All of the 79 strains were inhibited by low concentrations of rifampicin, metronidazole, fusidic acid, vancomycin, ampicillin, and penicillin G. Strains were highly resistant to aminoglycosides, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, and cycloserine and often resistant to neomycin, cefoxitin, and cefalexin. Wide variations in the susceptibility of C. difficile strains to erythromycin, clindamycin, lincomycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline were found. Strains resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, and lincomycin were more frequently found among strains isolated from elderly adults than those isolated from young adults, with particularly high frequency among strains isolated from elderly patients receiving antibiotics. None of the 23 strains isolated from healthy young adults was resistant to chloramphenicol. All of the 14 strains resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, lincomycin, and chloramphenicol were sensitive to tetracycline and all of the 15 strains resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, lincomycin, and tetracycline were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Only one out of 19 tetracycline, resistant strains was highly toxigenic, whereas 42 (70%) of the 60 sensitive strains were highly toxigenic.

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A total of 75 patients with recurrent tonsillitis, between 15 and 44 years of age, were divided into three groups, two of which were treated with antibiotics before surgery. Bacteriological specimens were collected before treatment started and the microflora of the excised tonsils were analyzed. Bacteroides species were found in the tonsils of 83% of the patients, and 50% of these microorganisms were beta-lactamase producers. Other bacteria found were Staphylococcus aureus in 45%, beta-streptococci group A in 4%, and beta-streptococci groups C and G in 24%. Hemophilus species were isolated from 50%, but no strains produced beta-lactamase. Fusobacteria were recovered from 41%; one strain produced beta-lactamase. After administration of phenoxymethylpenicillin in doses of 1 g twice a day for nine days, the beta-streptococci were eliminated, but no change of the amount of S aureus, Hemophilus, Bacteroides, or fusobacteria was seen. Clindamycin in doses of 0.15 g four times daily for nine days diminished almost all bacteria except for the Hemophilus species.

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We made a survey to investigate the incidence of clinical isolation and the trend of antimicrobial susceptibility of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), isolated in 26 clinical laboratories. Among the 26 institutions, the frequency of MRSA was 22 to 64% (average: 42.1%) in 1988, 22 to 69% (average: 55.3%) in 1989 and 29 to 76% (average: 56.9%) in 1990, and increasing year by year. MRSA showed poor sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics, gentamicin, toburamycin and clindamycin. There was a significant difference in frequency of the minocycline-resistant strains and the ofloxacin-resistant strains among the 26 institutions. Albekacin, netilmicin, and vancomycin were most active against MRSA with a MIC90 of 1, 8 and 1 microgram/ml, respectively.

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Sludge generated in waste water treatment process can be a major sink for some pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The land application of sewage sludge (in the form of biosolids in the United States) can therefore potentially introduce PPCPs into the environment. After treatment, biosolids are often subjected to a storage period before land application. However, little information is available with regard to the fate of PPCPs in biosolids during the storage. In this work, the persistence of seven pharmaceuticals and one antibacterial was evaluated using ultrasonic extraction and liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The impacts of aeration and sunlight exposure were investigated. During the experiment, no elimination was observed for carbamazepine, triclosan, and ciprofloxacin while elimination was found for tetracycline, doxycycline, clindamycin, erythromycin, and clarithromycin. Using an availability-adjusted kinetic model, the 50% dissipation time was 37 to >77d for tetracycline, 53 to >77d for doxycycline, 1.0-1.6d for clindamycin, 1.1-1.9d for clarithromycin, and 7.0-17d for erythromycin. Those compounds were found more persistent under anaerobic conditions than aerobic condition with a longer 50% dissipation time by a factor of 1.5-2. However, minor impact was observed from sunlight irradiation.

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The capacity of Staphylococcus aureus strain LUG855 to release Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of anti-staphylococcal drugs was examined. Oxacillin enhanced PVL release 2.5-fold, while clindamycin, linezolid, fusidic acid and rifampicin were inhibitory, and vancomycin, pristinamycin, tetracycline, ofloxacin and co-trimoxazole had no effect. In combination with oxacillin, sub-inhibitory concentrations of clindamycin or rifampicin inhibited PVL induction significantly, linezolid was less inhibitory, and fusidic acid did not inhibit PVL induction by oxacillin. These data support the use of oxacillin in combination with clindamycin, rifampicin or linezolid for the treatment of PVL-positive S. aureus infections.

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Randomised double-blinded trials were included.

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Although the highest burden of Streptococcus agalactiae infections has been reported in industrialized countries, studies on the characterization and epidemiology are still limited in developing countries and implementation of control strategies remains undefined. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological aspects of S. agalactiae infections in cancer patients treated at a Reference Brazilian National Cancer Institute - INCA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We reviewed the clinical and laboratory records of all cancer patients identified as having invasive S. agalactiae disease during 2010-2014. The isolates were identified by biochemical analysis and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 263 strains of S. agalactiae were isolated from cancer patients who had been clinically and microbiologically classified as infected. S. agalactiae infections were mostly detected among adults with solid tumors (94 %) and/or patients who have used indwelling medical devices (77.2 %) or submitted to surgical procedures (71.5 %). Mortality rates (in-hospital mortality during 30 days after the identification of S. agalactiae) related to invasive S. agalactiae infections (n = 28; 31.1 %) for the specific category of neoplasic diseases were: gastrointestinal (46 %), head and neck (25 %), lung (11 %), hematologic (11 %), gynecologic (4 %), and genitourinary (3 %). We also found an increase in S. agalactiae resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin and the emergence of penicillin-less susceptible isolates. A remarkable number of cases of invasive infections due to S. agalactiae strains was identified, mostly in adult patients. Our findings reinforce the need for S. agalactiae control measures in Brazil, including cancer patients.

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This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of fosmidomycin when given in combination with clindamycin at two dosage regimens in patients with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

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From October 2010 to September 2011, we collected the specimen from 361 patients with lower respiratory tract infections in 16 institutions in Japan, and investigated the susceptibilities of isolated bacteria to various antibacterial agents and patients' characteristics. All of 399 strains that were isolated from specimen (mainly from sputum) and assumed to be bacteria causing in infection, were examined. The isolated bacteria were: Staphylococcus aureus 70, Streptococcus pneumoniae 65, Haemophilus influenzae 72, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (non-mucoid) 47, P. aeruginosa (mucoid) 14, Klebsiella pneumoniae 30, and Moraxella catarrhalis 39. Of 70 S. aureus strains, those with 2 μg/mL or less of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus: MSSA) and those with 4 μg/mL or more of MIC of oxacillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus: MRSA) were 45 (64.3%) and 25 (35.7%) strains, respectively. Against MSSA, imipenem had the most potent antibacterial activity and inhibited the growth of all strains at 0.063 μg/mL or less. Against MRSA, vancomycin and arbekacin showed the potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 μg/mL. Linezolid also showed the great activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 2 μg/mL. Carbapenems and penems showed the most potent activities against S. pneumoniae and panipenem inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.125 μg/mL. Imipenem and faropenem also had a preferable activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.5 and 1 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, there were high-resistant strains (MIC: > 128 μg/mL) for erythromycin (44.6%) and clindamycin (24.6%). Against H. influenzae, levofloxacin showed the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 0.063 μg/mL or less. Meropenem showed the most potent activity against P. aeruginosa (mucoid) and its MIC90 was 0.5 μg/mL. Against the non-mucoid type of P. aeruginosa, tobramycin had the most potent activity and its MIC90 was 2 μg/mL. Against K. pneumoniae, cefozopran had the most potent activity and inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.063 μg/mL or less. All the antibacterial agents except ampicillin generally showed a potent activity against M. catarrhalis and the MIC90 of them were 2 μg/mL or less. The majority number (54.8%) of the patients with respiratory infection was aged 70 years or older. Bacterial pneumonia and chronic bronchitis accounted for 58.7% and 24.4% of all the respiratory infection, respectively. The bacteria frequently isolated from the patients with bacterial pneumonia were S. aureus (20.6%), S. pneumoniae (18.0%), H. influenzae (13.6%), and P. aeruginosa (13.6%). S. aureus (17.2%), H. influenzae (20.2%), and P. aeruginosa (17.2%) also were frequently isolated from the patients with chronic bronchitis. The bacteria frequently isolated from the patients were S. pneumoniae (20.0%) and H. influenzae (20.0%) before administration of the antibacterial agents. The bacteria frequently isolated from the patients previously treated with cephems were S. aureus and H. influenzae, and the isolation frequencies were 25.0% and 20.0%, respectively. The bacteria frequently isolated from the patients previously treated with macrolides were P. aeruginosa and H. influenzae, the isolation frequencies were 25.9% and 22.2%, respectively.

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Orthopedic surgeons at our institution have noticed an increase in the number of infections due to Propionibacterium acnes, especially following operations on the shoulder. We collected P. acnes isolates from our hospital microbiology laboratory for 1 year and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing on 28 strains from the shoulder. Antibiotics with the lowest MIC values against P. acnes (MIC50 and MIC90) included penicillin G (0.006, 0.125), cephalothin (0.047 and 0.094), and ceftriaxone (0.016, 0.045), while others also showed activity. Strains resistant to clindamycin were noted.

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The purpose of our study was to determine retrospectively the risk factors for the acquisition of Enterococcus faecalis vs E. faecium bacteraemia, as well as the clinical outcomes of these patients. 62 patients with Enterococcus faecalis bacteraemia were compared to 31 patients with E. faecium bacteraemia. Haematologic malignancies, neutropenia, high-risk source and previous use of aminoglycosides, carbapenems, cephalosporins and clindamycin were significantly associated with E. faecium bacteraemia. Instead, urinary catheterization was found to be related to Enterococcus faecalis bacteraemia. The mortality rates within 7 d and 30 d were 13% and 27%, respectively, in patients with E. faecalis bacteraemia and 6% and 29%, respectively, in patients with E. faecium bacteraemia. There was no difference in mortality between E. faecalis and E. faecium bacteraemia, nor was there a difference in seriousness of disease at the time of bacteraemia. In the subgroups of patients with monomicrobial or clinically significant E. faecalis vs E. faecium bacteraemia, the mortality rates were similar to the results of all subjects. Our results do not support the theory that E. faecium would be a more virulent organism than E. faecalis.

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GV129606 is a new parenteral trinem antibiotic belonging to the beta-lactam class. It combines broad-spectrum activity (against gram-negative and -positive bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes), with high potency and resistance to beta-lactamases. Comparative in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities were determined for GV129606 against more than 400 recent clinical isolates (aerobes, including beta-lactamase producers, and anaerobes), using representative antibacterial agents (meropenem, piperacillin, ceftazidime, cefpirome, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin for aerobes and metronidazole, cefoxitin, piperacillin, and clindamycin for anaerobes). Against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and streptococci, GV129606 and meropenem were the most active of the drugs tested. GV129606 showed an MIC for 90% of strains tested (MIC90) ranging from < or =0.015 to 0.06 microg/ml against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae. Against penicillin-susceptible and -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, GV129606, meropenem, and cefpirome showed MIC90s of < or =0.015 and 1 microg/ml, respectively. Meropenem was the most active compound against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae with MIC90s of < or =0.5 microg/ml. Against these species, GV129606 possessed activity superior to those of piperacillin, ceftazidime, cefpirome, and gentamicin, with MIC90s of < or =8 microg/ml, but its activity was two- to sixfold less than that of ciprofloxacin (with the exception of Proteus rettgeri and Providencia stuartii). Haemophilus spp., Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also included in the spectrum of GV129606. GV129606 showed good antianaerobe activity, similar to metronidazole. It was stable against all clinically relevant beta-lactamases (similar to meropenem). The in vitro activity was confirmed in vivo against septicemia infections induced in mice by selected gram-positive and -negative bacteria with 50% effective doses (ED50s) of < or =0.05 and < or =0.5 mg/kg of body weight/dose, respectively. GV129606 was as effective as meropenem against septicemia in mice caused by ceftazidime-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, exhibiting an ED50 of 0.33 mg/kg/dose.

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A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay method has been developed for determining pirlimycin in human serum and urine. The method involves chloroform extraction of pirlimycin free base followed by derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate to form a carbamate ester. The reaction is rapid, reproducible, and quantitative. 9-Fluorenylmethylchloroformate reacts with amines to form derivatives sensitive to both ultraviolet and fluorescence detection. Human serum and urine samples following 50-mg and 500-mg single oral doses of pirlimycin were analyzed. The samples were chromatographed on an RP-18 Spherisorb 5-micron, 250 X 4.6 mm I.D. reversed-phase HPLC column. The eluent for the serum assay was acetonitrile-water (58:42) containing 0.02% acetic acid, and for the urine assay was acetonitrile-methanol-tetrahydrofuran-water (48:2:1:49). Fluoranthene was used as an internal standard. The assay sensitivity by ultraviolet detection (lambda max = 264) was about 5 ng/ml and by fluorescence detection (lambda excitation = 270 nm, lambda emission = 300 nm) was 0.1 ng/ml. Statistical analysis indicates an average drug recovery of 101 +/- 4.2% from serum and 102.0 +/- 2.62% from urine.

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Forty-one periodontal abscess samples were cultivated on selective and non-selective culture media to isolate the oral anaerobes. Their antibiotic susceptibilities to clindamycin, doxycycline, amoxicillin, imipenem, cefradine, cefixime, roxithromycin, and metronidazole were determined using the agar dilution method, and polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to detect the presence of the ermF, tetQ, nim, and cfxA drug resistance genes.

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We studied S. aureus-positive skin swabs (n=583) from the lesional skin of infants, children, and adults who presented to our outpatient clinic with AD from July 2009 to April 2012.

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This study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the strains of coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) isolates from urine at Juntendo University Hospital in Tokyo from 1989 to 1994. The susceptibility testing were performed according to the broth dilution method standerdized by the Japan Society of Chemotherapy. The following bacteria were tested; Staphylococcus epidermidis (59 strains), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (42 strains), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (30 strains). The antimicrobial agents tested wre as follows; Oxacillin, Cefazolin, Imipenem, Flomoxef, Gentanicin, Tobramycin, Arbekacin, Clindamycin, Tetracycline, Minicycline, Vancomycin, Sulfamethoxaxole-Trimethoprim and, Ofloxacin. 1. 100% of S. caprae, 62% of S. haemolyticus and 42% of S. epidermidis were resistant to Oxacillin. All strains of S. saprophyticus were sensitive to Oxacillin. 2. S. saprophyticus showed the highest sensitivities to all anti-microbial agents. 3. All strains of S. caprae were resistant to Tobramycin and Clindamycine. 4. Vancomycin and Arbecacin has strong antimicrobial activities to all CNS. S. saprophyticus, which is the pathogen of acute urinary tract infections, showed high sensitivities to many antimicrobial agents. On the other hand, S. haemolyticus and S. caprae, which are the predominate microorganisms of bacteriuria of inpatients, showed high resistance rates to antimicrobial agents.

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The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) has increased over the past few years and more severe cases of CDAD have been reported. This changing epidemiology is possibly a result of the emergence of a more virulent strain of C difficile that is more resistant to fluoroquinolones and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Because of advanced age and frequent courses of antibiotic therapy, patients in long-term care facilities are at increased risk of C difficile infection. In addition to beta-lactams and clindamycin, the fluoroquinolones have recently been associated with increased rates of CDAD. Early identification of C difficile infection and prompt initiation of therapy with the most appropriate agent are critical to minimize morbidity and mortality in this era of increasingly severe CDAD. Metronidazole and vancomycin have been the mainstays of therapy, and recent data support the expanding role of vancomycin in the treatment of severe CDAD. Adjunctive therapy with probiotics, intravenous immunoglobulin, or rifampin has been used in refractory or recurrent CDAD. Adherence to the recommended infection control measures and the judicious use of antibiotics should also be part of the global management of CDAD in long-term care facilities.

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Childhood acute septic arthritis is most often of hematogenous origin, and usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Characteristic symptoms and signs include a swollen, red painful joint, and fever. The diagnosis is confirmed by a joint aspiration. Following a brief 2- to 4-day intravenous phase, the antibiotic course is completed orally to a total of 10 to 14 days. Cephalosporins, clindamycin or staphylococcal penicillins, administered every 6 hours, are recommended as first-line antibiotics because of their appropriate spectrum, excellent penetration, good tolerability in large doses, and moderate price. Operative treatment (arthroscopy, arthrotomy) is not needed routinely, unless the response is tardy.

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In this study we outline a consistent management protocol for type I open pediatric forearm fractures that has not previously been documented in the literature. Our results corroborate the those reported in the literature that pediatric type I open fractures may be managed safely in a non-operative manner. There were no infections in our prospective series of 45 consecutive type I open pediatric forearm fractures using our protocol. Using a protocol of only four doses of intravenous antibiotics (one in the emergency department and three additional doses during a 24-h hospital admission) is a safe and efficient method for managing routine pediatric type I open fractures non-operatively.

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To estimate the efficacy of different therapeutic modalities on proven cases of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in patients at high risk of preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes.

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This pilot study provides encouraging evidence of the efficacy and safety of a 3 day course of 2% clindamycin cream in bacterial vaginosis.

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Cross-resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics is mainly mediated by the erm (erythromycin ribosome methylation) genes that encode 23S rRNA methylases in enterococi, and various mechanisms are involved in the streptogramin B resistance. Prevalence of MLSB resistance and its genetic mechanisms were analyzed for a total of 159 strains of Enterococcus faecium isolated from clinical specimens in a university hospital in Japan from 1997 to 2006. Resistance to erythromycin (EM) and clindamycin was detected in 88.1% and 89.9% of all the strains examined, respectively, and expression of resistance was totally constitutive. Although none of the strain was resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D), 28 strains (17.6%) showed intermediate resistance to Q/D (MIC: 2 μg/ml). The erm(B) gene was detected in 139 strains (87.4%), and msrC was found in all the strains examined, whereas no other known MLSB resistance genes were identified. The erm(B) regulator region (RR) containing a coding region of the leader peptide was classified into 13 genetic variations (L1-L3, M, S1-S7, D, and R genotypes) in 56 strains. However, no relatedness was identified between the erm(B) RR genotype and EM resistance, or reduced susceptibility to Q/D, although most of Q/D-intermediate strains were assigned to the L1, L2, and S1 genotypes. Q/D-intermediate strains were classified into five multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) types, including four types of clonal complex (CC)-C1, five sequence types (STs), including four STs of CC-17, and several resistance gene/virulence factor profiles. The present study revealed the occurrence of Q/D-intermediate E. faecium, which are composed of heterogeneous strains in Japan, and more genetic diversity in the erm(B) RRs than those reported previously.

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Worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance has become one of the major problems. Optimal and rationale use of antibiotic is important to prevent resistance against most of the bacteria including Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS), which has now been recognized as an important pathogen for nosocomial infections. This study was carried out to determine efficacy of vancomycin and linezolid against CoNS in various clinical specimens.

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This study has shown that inducible clindamycin resistance in staphylococci can be detected by disk testing on sheep blood agar inoculum purity plates used with the bioMerieux VITEK 2. Tests of 150 erythromycin-resistant isolates correlated with standard D-zone tests on Mueller-Hinton agar and with PCR for erm(A), erm(C), and msr(A).

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Antimicrobial stewardship has been shown to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use, but there are few data on the long-term benefits of such a programme. Antimicrobial use over a 13-year period since implementing an antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP) at our institution was examined. Nosocomial rates of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of common nosocomial micro-organisms over the same period were also reviewed. Total antimicrobial use decreased by 62.8% (P<0.0001). There were decreases in use of aminoglycosides (-91.3%; P<0.0001), cephalosporins (-68.3%; P<0.0001), extended-spectrum penicillins (-77.7%; P<0.0001), macrolides (-27.2%; P=0.002), clindamycin (-95.9%; P<0.0001) and quinolones (-78.7%; P<0.0001). Antifungal use decreased by 71.0% (P<0.0001). There were increases in the use of carbapenems (+736%, P<0.0001) and anti-MRSA drugs (+73.3%; P<0.0001). There was a 56.7% (P=0.007) reduction in nosocomial MRSA infections. Nosocomial CDI rates decreased by 42.6% (P=0.005) between 2003 and 2010 and then increased to near baseline levels following implementation of more sensitive testing for detection of CDI in 2011. There were decreases in the rate (-71.9%; P=0.001) and percentage (-51.4%; P<0.0001) of quinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There were decreases in the rate (P<0.0001) and percentage (P=0.02) of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa following implementation of a policy restricting ciprofloxacin use. We have demonstrated sustained reductions in both antimicrobial use and drug-resistant organisms following implementation of an ASP.

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Group B streptococcus is the leading cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis in the United States. Universal screening is recommended for pregnant women at 35 to 37 weeks' gestation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated its guideline for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The new guideline contains six important changes. First, there is a recommendation to consider using sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests, rather than just routine cultures, for detection of group B streptococcus in rectal and vaginal specimens. Second, the colony count required to consider a urine specimen positive is at least 104 colony-forming units per mL. Third, the new guideline presents separate algorithms for management of preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes, rather than a single algorithm for both conditions. Fourth, there are minor changes in the recommended dose of penicillin G for intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. Fifth, the guideline provides new recommendations about antibiotic regimens for women with penicillin allergy. Cefazolin is recommended for women with minor allergies. For those at serious risk of anaphylaxis, clindamycin is recommended if the organism is susceptible [corrected] and vancomycin is recommended if there is clindamycin resistance or if susceptibility is unknown. [corrected]. Finally, the new algorithm for secondary prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal disease in newborns should be applied to all infants, not only those at high risk of infection. The algorithm clarifies the extent of evaluation and duration of observation required for infants in different risk categories.

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During the study period nationwide non-prescription sales of antibiotics increased threefold and reached nearly 2% prevalence in 2004. Substantial interregional differences were detected in both the level and the share of non-prescription antibiotics sales. Ten drugs were responsible for 90% of non-prescription antibiotic sales in 2004 (doxycyline, co-amoxiclav, co-trimoxazole, penamecillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, clarithromycin, norfloxacin, and cefuroxime); of these, doxycycline was the number one nonprescription antibiotic in all five years. A relationship was found between price and non-prescription antibiotic use (R = -0.732, P = 0.016).

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Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) is a promising new artemisinin combination treatment. There are no published data on the intentional use of the drug in pregnancy. Between June 2006 and January 2007, 50 Karen pregnant women with recurrent P. falciparum infections, despite 7-day treatments with quinine or artesunate (+/-clindamycin) or both, were treated with DHA-PPQ. This rescue treatment was effective and well tolerated and there was no evidence of toxicity for the mothers or the fetus. The PCR adjusted cure rate by Kaplan Meier analysis at day 63 was 92.2% (95% CI: 76.9-97.4).

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The present study establishes a data compilation on biochemical features and natural antibiotic susceptibilities of Moellerella wisconsensis strains. 17 moellerellae isolated from humans (n = 11), food (n = 5) and water (n = 1) were tested. Identification was carried out using two commercially available systems and conventional tests. MIC determinations of 74 antibiotics were performed applying a microdilution procedure in Cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton broth and IsoSensitest broth. M. wisconsensis was naturally sensitive to doxycycline, minocycline, all tested aminoglycosides, numerous beta-lactams, all fluoroquinolones, folate-pathway inhibitors, chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin. Natural resistance was found with oxacillin, penicillin G, all tested macrolides, lincomycin, streptogramins, ketolides, glycopeptides, fusidic acid, linezolid and rifampicin. Medium-dependent differences in susceptibility affecting clinical assessment criteria were seen with tetracycline, clindamycin and fosfomycin. From the data of the present study it is possible that some moellerellae are misidentified as Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae.

cleocin 1 gel

It has been widely reported that the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have increased dramatically in North America and Europe. However, little is known about CDI in Mainland China. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of CDI and the main epidemic and drug-resistant strains of C. difficile in Mainland China through meta-analysis of related studies published after the year 2010. A total of 51 eligible studies were included. The pooled incidence of toxigenic C. difficile among patients with diarrhoea was 14% (95% CI = 12-16%). In Mainland China, ST-37 and ST-3 were the most prevalent strains; fortunately, hypervirulent strains, such as ST-1 (BI/NAP1/027) and ST-11 (RT 078), have only occurred sporadically to date. The rates of C. difficile resistance to ciprofloxacin (98.3%; 95% CI = 96.9-99.7%), clindamycin (81.7%; 95% CI = 76.1-87.3%) and erythromycin (80.2%; 95% CI = 73.5-86.9%) are higher than in other counties; however, none of the C. difficile isolates reported in Mainland China were resistant to metronidazole (n/N = 0/960), vancomycin (n/N = 0/960), tigecycline (n/N = 0/41) or piperacillin/tazobactam(n/N = 0/288).

cleocin cream dosage

Samples were taken from the urethra in men and from the cervix and urethra in women by universal swab (Biolab®) into Urea-Myco DUO kit (Bio-Rad®) and were incubated for 48 hours at 37 C°. Antibiotic sensitivity of positive samples was determined in U9 bouillon using SIR Mycoplasma kit (Bio-Rad®).

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cleocin 300 mg 2017-09-05

In children, acute bacterial rhinosinusitis is a common infection and although rare, carries a potential for serious, life threatening complications. Bacterial rhinosinusitis usually buy cleocin online follows a viral infection or allergic rhinitis. Early, effective antibacterial therapy is essential to shorten the duration of infection and illness, to diminish mucosal damage, and to prevent contiguous infectious involvement of the orbit or central nervous system. Because the signs and symptoms of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis are similar to those of viral upper respiratory tract infection, establishing an accurate diagnosis in children poses a clinical challenge. Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae accounts for 30-66% of episodes of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in children. Other important pathogens include Haemophilus influenzae (20-30%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (12-28%). In selecting initial antimicrobial therapy, priority should be given to drugs with activity against S. pneumoniae. The oral agents that currently offer the greatest activity against this pathogen include amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefdinir, cefpodoxime proxetil, and cefuroxime axetil; all are considered appropriate for the initial treatment of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in children. Amoxicillin is customarily used as first-line therapy for uncomplicated acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. For patients who are allergic to amoxicillin, second- or third-generation oral cephalosporins may be used as first-line therapy. Clarithromycin has been suggested as an alternative to amoxicillin or cephalosporins in beta-lactam allergic patients. Clindamycin may also be indicated as first-line treatment in patients who have culture-proven penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae. If no clinical response occurs within 72 hours, the choice of a second-line antibiotic is governed by the drug's known antimicrobial efficacy, resistance patterns, dosing schedules, the potential for compliance, and knowledge of the patient's drug allergies. High-dose amoxicillin-clavulanate (90 mg/kg/d of the amoxicillin component) has been recommended for high-risk children (e.g. those in day care, and those who have recently received antibiotics) who show no improvement after treatment with the usual dose of amoxicillin (45 mg/kg/d). Broad-spectrum, third-generation oral cephalosporins, such as cefdinir, should be considered as second-line agents when standard therapy has failed or when patients show hypersensitivity to penicillin. Intramuscular ceftriaxone may be appropriate for patients who fail on a second course of antibiotic treatment.

cleocin loading dose 2015-01-25

Babesiosis is a tick-borne, malaria-like illness known to be enzootic in southern New England. A course of clindamycin and quinine is the standard treatment, but this regimen frequently causes adverse reactions and occasionally fails. A promising alternative treatment buy cleocin online is atovaquone plus azithromycin.

cleocin maximum dose 2016-12-12

Prevalence of MRSA in our hospital was 39. buy cleocin online 48%. Most of these isolates were resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, cotrimoxazole, and ciprofloxacin, whereas high sensitivity was seen to vancomycin followed by gentamicin. CDD and MIC for cefoxitin showed 100% sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV as compared to PCR for mecA gene. In maximum number of isolates PFGE type A pattern was seen suggesting clonal relatedness.

cleocin 200 mg 2017-10-29

We investigated whether a subinhibitory concentration of clindamycin (Cli), corresponding to 1/2 the strain-specific minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), could affect expression and stability of transcripts from genes coding for specific adhesins such as fibronectin binding proteins A (fnbA) and B (fnbB) as well as coagulase (coa) in Staphylococcus aureus strain Newman. Furthermore, the effect of 1/2 MIC of Cli on adherence properties and expression of type 5 capsular polysaccharides (CP5) was investigated. Northern slot blot experiments confirmed that the amount of coa- and fnbB-specific mRNA, in contrast to that of fnbA-specific mRNA, was increased 2-fold after treatment of S. aureus Newman with 1/2 MIC of Cli. Analysis of RNA stability revealed that the increased amounts of transcripts of coa and fnbB were due to stabilization of the respective mRNAs. However, when treated with 1/2 MIC of Cli, S. aureus Newman showed no significant changes neither in its adherence patterns to fibrinogen buy cleocin online - or fibronectin-coated micotitre plates, nor to epithelial HEp-2 cells and also not in its CP5 expression. Therefore, we conclude that increased mRNA stability of fnbB and coa by 1/2 MIC Cli, in contrast to the situation seen with the protein biosynthesis inhibiting antibiotic florfenicol, does not result in an increase in adherence of S. aureus Newman.

cleocin drug 2016-06-30

The role of bacterial colonization in hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) lesions is poorly understood. To date, data buy cleocin online on the related microbial profile and especially on bacterial resistance rates are scarce.

cleocin medication 2016-11-16

The adult male Wistar rats divided into three groups were used in the experiment. The group 1 was the control one (after partial colon resection, colonic anastomoses performed were not treated), while to the group 2 and the group 3 were applied fibrin glue and fibrin glue with antibiotics (clindamycin and ceftriaxon) on the site of anastomoses, respectively. Quality of colonic anastomoses were estimated by means of determination of collagen (L-hydroxyproline) amount in the collon wall with buy cleocin online anastomoses and histological analysis of this colon segment using light and electronic microscope on the days 5, 7 and 13 postoperatively.

cleocin 900 mg 2016-06-09

The MIC was determined buy cleocin online with a broth microdilution assay.

cleocin suspension strength 2017-09-15

Prevalence of S. pyogenes was found to be 22%. buy cleocin online The proportion of carriers in 1st to 6th grade was 28%, compared with 11% in 7th to 10th grade students. The highest proportion was in 1st grade, 45%. The proportion S. pyogenes resistant to erythromycin was 17%, to tetracycline 13% and clindamycin 2%. All strains were susceptible to penicillin. No MRSA strains were found.

cleocin cream dosage 2015-12-26

Daptomycin was found to be equally effective in treating CP- buy cleocin online MRSA and OP-MRSA infections in this selected group of patients.

cleocin gel dosage 2016-09-02

Three-month estimated treatment costs were as follows: topical retinoids ($14.40-$73.80), benzoyl peroxide (BPO; $6.75), fixed-dose BPO-clindamycin ($40.95-$44.10) and BPO-adapalene ($73.80), oral antibiotics ($25.20 for tetracycline 250 mg qid; $52.20 and $52.74 for doxycycline 50 mg bid and 100 mg od, respectively), and hormonal therapy ($26.46-$37.80 for ethinyl estradiol [EE] 0.030 mg/drospirenone 3mg and $75.60-108.99 for EE 0.035 mg/cyproterone acetate 2 mg buy cleocin online ). Oral isotretinoin 3-month costs ranged from $393.96 to $478.80.

cleocin topical reviews 2017-02-12

High morbidity and mortality rates are associated with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) because of development of multidrug resistance. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has the ability to colonize and form biofilms on biomaterials which is causing resistance towards antimicrobials buy cleocin online and thus making them difficult to eradicate from the infected hosts.

cleocin reviews bv 2015-02-22

Campylobacterjejuni is one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne infection in the United States, and there are reports of resistance of Campylobacter spp. to antimicrobial agents used for the treatment of gastroenteritis. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from hog, beef, and chicken carcasses from provincially inspected abattoirs in Ontario. The agar dilution method was performed to measure antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolates from hogs (n = 401), beef (n = 21), and chicken (n = 435) to ampicillin, azithromycin buy cleocin online , chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and tetracycline was determined. Resistance of chicken, hog, and beef isolates was 14.3, 18.2, and 9.5% to ampicillin; 17.9, 67.3, and 38.1% to azithromycin; 0, 0.5, and 0% to chloramphenicol; 3.7, 1.2, and 0% to ciprofloxacin; 2.3, 46.6, and 4.8% to clindamycin; 6.7, 43.6, and 4.8% to erythromycin; 0.2, 0, and 0% to gentamicin; 5.1, 10.7, and 0% to nalidixic acid; 13.6, 57.4, and 4.8% to streptomycin; and 52.6, 44.1, 42.9% to tetracycline, respectively. The hog isolates had the greatest resistance to seven of the ten antimicrobials tested. Results of this study confirm the existence of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter to various antimicrobial agents,especially ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, commonly used for treatment of campylobacteriosis in humans.

cleocin dosing 2017-10-23

To evaluate the contribution of transoral ultrasonography (TUS) in the diagnosis buy cleocin online and treatment of peritonsillar abscess.

cleocin generic name 2015-12-27

Clinical findings were consistent with dermatitis ( buy cleocin online right facial lesion) and a coalescing subdermal granuloma (ventral keel lesion). Hematologic analysis revealed monocytosis and mild anemia. Histologic evaluation of the ventral keel lesion revealed evidence of chronic heterophilic dermatitis with multinucleated giant cells and bacterial rods and cocci. An unspeciated gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium was isolated via aerobic bacterial culture. Results of bacterial biochemical tests suggested the organism was a type of Actinomyces. A 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was performed; results indicated the organism was Lactobacillus jensenii.

cleocin topical dosage 2015-05-30

All tested MRSA isolates were susceptible to daptomycin, linezolid, and vancomycin. In addition, community-associated MRSA isolates were significantly (all p < or = 0.05) more susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (99%), clindamycin (96%), and a fluoroquinolone (76%) than hospital-associated Inderal 60 Mg MRSA isolates. Inducible resistance to clindamycin was demonstrated in 8.4% of community-associated MRSA isolates versus 50% of hospital-associated MRSA isolates (p < or = 0.001). Of interest, 35% of the MRSA isolates collected from hospitalized patients (> 48 hrs after admission and according to the CDC definition) possessed SCCmec type IV.

cleocin suspension dosage 2017-07-03

Antibiograms created by aggregating hospital-wide susceptibility data from diverse patients can be misleading. To demonstrate the utility of age- and location-stratified antibiograms, we compared Oxytrol Reviews Uk stratified antibiograms for three common bacterial pathogens, E. coli, S. aureus, and S. pneumoniae. We created stratified antibiograms based on patient age (<18 years, 18-64 years, >/=65 years), and inpatient or outpatient location using all 2009 E. coli and S. aureus, and all 2008-2009 S. pneumoniae isolates submitted to our clinical microbiology laboratory. We compared susceptibility rates among cumulative and stratified antibiograms using descriptive statistics.

cleocin lotion dosage 2016-03-24

A high consumption of clindamycin Prilosec Dogs Dose was noted in an orthopedics ward with high rates of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We restricted clindamycin for the entire ward. A reduction of 88% in CDI (1.07 to 0.12 × 1,000 patients-days, P = .056) and 84% for all-cause diarrhea (2.40 to 0.38 × 1,000 patients-days, P = .021) was achieved. Clindamycin was reduced 92.61% without an increase in other antibiotics. We identified high consumption of clindamycin as a risk factor for CDI.

cleocin drug classification 2016-10-19

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is a rapidly emerging tick-borne Luvox Ocd Dosage infection which presents as an acute febrile illness and is associated with hematologic abnormalities, elevated hepatic transaminase levels, and characteristic intracellular organisms in peripheral blood granulocytes. Although HGE has been successfully treated with tetracyclines, its susceptibility to other antibiotics remains unknown. No clear treatment alternative exist for young children, pregnant women, or allergic individuals, in whom tetracyclines are contra-indicated. We performed in vitro antibiotic susceptibility tests with this recently isolated agent grown in the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60. Doxycycline (MIC, 0.25 micrograms/ml), rifampin (MIC, 0.5 micrograms/ml), rifabutin (MIC, < or = 0.125 micrograms/ml), ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin (both with MICs of 2 micrograms/ml), and trovafloxacin (MIC, < or = 0.125 micrograms/ml) ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin (both with MICs of 2 micrograms/ml), and trovafloxacin (MIC, < or = 0.125 micrograms/ml) demonstrated significant activity against the HGE agent. These agents were also bactericidal. The HGE agent was resistant to clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and imipenem-cilastatin, as well as to ampicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, and azithromycin, antibiotics commonly used to treat Lyme disease. Both chloramphenicol and gentamicin had weak inhibitory activities but were not bactericidal. Our findings confirm the observed clinical efficacy of doxycycline and further suggest that the rifamycins and quinolones, particularly trovafloxacin, hold promise as alternative agents for treating this new infection.

cleocin user reviews 2016-07-23

Recommendations of the Swiss Working Group for Prophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis. Despite the lack of definitive evidence for the efficacy of antibiotics in the prevention of bacterial endocarditis (BE) in man, it is accepted practice for antibiotics to be administered to patients at risk of developing BE following a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure which may cause bacteremia. The prophylactic regimens so far recommended are cumbersome and compliance is poor. An attempt is made to unify and simplify Swiss recommendations, taking into account the authors' own recent experimental results, pharmacological data, and clinical experience. It is proposed that Medicine Zithromax the patients be classified into two risk groups: First, patients with congenital and acquired heart disease, previous palliative or non-definitive cardiac surgery, mitral valve prolapse with mitral insufficiency, and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy should be considered at moderate risk. For those patients a single dose of an orally administered antibiotic should be given 1 h before the procedure. The first choice antibiotic should be amoxicillin (3 g orally) for all procedures, except when S. aureus is likely to cause bacteremia (i.e. after drainage of abscesses, where flucloxacillin (2 g orally) should be used 1 h before the procedure). Amoxicillin is also recommended for patients receiving penicillin during the days prior to the procedure (for prevention of rheumatic fever, or for any other reason). Patients allergic to penicillin should be given 600 mg clindamycin orally 1 h before the procedure. Second, patients with valvular prosthesis or previous BE should be considered at high risk.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

cleocin name brand 2015-06-10

Seventy-five strains of Clostridium difficile were recovered from 1,276 stools from patients. Fifty-six of these strains were found to be toxigenic. The rate of isolation of C. difficile was high in culture of stools from patients in surgical intensive care units and in pediatrics units. The susceptibility of these isolates to 13 antimicrobial agents was tested by agar dilution technics. Vancomycin, metronidazole, penicillin Bystolic Max Dose and ampicillin at 4 micrograms/ml inhibited all the strains. Cefoxitin, cefotaxim and lincomycin were never active against C. difficile. Only 13.3% of the strains were inhibited by clindamycin at 4 micrograms/ml.

cleocin dose 2015-01-11

Preterm delivery (PD) is the most important cause of neonatal mortality, particularly before the 32(nd) week of pregnancy. A short cervix is the most important quantitative marker for predicting PD. However, there are other qualitative markers such as cervical gland area, cervical funneling, and sludge. We present the case of a pregnant woman who was diagnosed with a short cervix at 14-weeks and demonstrate the use of triple therapy, which helped to achieve a good perinatal result. A 37-year-old pregnant woman (G3P0) was referred to our service at 14-weeks of pregnancy presenting with a short cervix (20 mm) and a positive sludge sign. She was hospitalized; a pessary was inserted, and started on antibiotic therapy (clindamycin and cefalotin for 10 days). At 20 weeks, she was again admitted to the hospital, and this time presented with a further shortened cervix (9 mm), cervical funneling, and a positive sludge sign, with the pessary in position. The following procedures were performed: Amniocentesis on the sludge (negative bacterioscopy), another cycle of antibiotics, administration of oral progesterone, and imaging to determine retention of pessary position. The patient was placed in the Trendelenburg position and remained hospitalized for 82 days. At 32 + 1 weeks, the fetus presented distress (tachycardia). C-section was performed, producing a live female newborn weighing 2,180 g and presenting Apgar indexes of 8/8. This case report demonstrates the importance of magnetic resonance imaging to assess the Evista 60 Mg position of pessary in a pregnant woman with short cervix.

cleocin t cost 2015-01-11

Thirty-six hospitalized patients, 18 in each of two groups, with postpartum upper genital tract infection were enrolled in a randomized, prospective Levaquin Brand Name study comparing treatment with sulbactam/ampicillin, to treatment with clindamycin/gentamicin. One (5.5%) clinical failure was reported in each group. Side effects were minimal in both groups and did not warrant discontinuation of treatment. The in vitro activity of ampicillin versus sulbactam/ampicillin (1:2) was evaluated and these data were compared with data from other drugs commonly used for aerobic and anaerobic infections. Sulbactam eliminated resistance to ampicillin in all anaerobic and most aerobic isolates.

cleocin 100 mg 2016-03-12

Surgical debridement of the involved area of necrotizing fasciitis and intravenous antibiotic treatment with clindamycin and penicillin.

cleocin vaginal gel 2017-10-10

The identification of S. lugdunensis was based on Gram staining, catalase and coagulase test results, and 26 biochemical reactions that were included in the database of the MicroScan Walkaway 96 commercial system. The susceptibility pattern was performed with the same commercial system according to CLSI recommendations.

cleocin dosage forms 2016-09-30

We studied women who had pelvic infection and fever that persisted after 5 days despite adequate antimicrobial therapy with clindamycin, gentamicin, and ampicillin. After giving consent study participants underwent abdominopelvic computed tomographic imaging. Women with pelvic thrombophlebitis were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 management schemes that included continuation of antimicrobial therapy, either alone or with the addition of heparin, until the temperature was

cleocin oral dose 2017-10-08

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the administration of clindamycin to women with abnormal vaginal flora at <22 weeks of gestation reduces the risk of preterm birth and late miscarriage. We conducted a systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials of the early administration of clindamycin to women with abnormal vaginal flora at <22 weeks of gestation. Five trials that comprised 2346 women were included. Clindamycin that was administered at <22 weeks of gestation was associated with a significantly reduced risk of preterm birth at <37 weeks of gestation and late miscarriage. There were no overall differences in the risk of preterm birth at <33 weeks of gestation, low birthweight, very low birthweight, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, stillbirth, peripartum infection, and adverse effects. Clindamycin in early pregnancy in women with abnormal vaginal flora reduces the risk of spontaneous preterm birth at <37 weeks of gestation and late miscarriage. There is evidence to justify further randomized controlled trials of clindamycin for the prevention of preterm birth. However, a deeper understanding of the vaginal microbiome, mucosal immunity, and the biology of BV will be needed to inform the design of such trials.

cleocin 75 mg 2017-04-08

Clindamycin, metronidazole, and chloramphenicol are three antimicrobial agents useful in the treatment of anaerobic infections. Clindamycin is effective in the treatment of most infections involving anaerobes and gram-positive cocci, but emerging resistance has become a problem in some clinical settings. Metronidazole is effective in the treatment of infections involving gram-negative anaerobes, but it is unreliable in the treatment of gram-positive anaerobic infections and is ineffective in treating aerobic infections. Additionally, metronidazole is often the drug of choice in treating infections in which Bacteroides fragilis is a serious concern. Chloramphenicol is effective in the treatment of a wide variety of bacterial infections, including serious anaerobic infections, but is rarely used in Western countries because of concerns about toxicity, including aplastic anemia and gray baby syndrome.

cleocin brand name 2015-03-16

These data suggest that patients with acne are receiving a suboptimal initial choice of ARMs, longitudinal care and prescribing.

cleocin elixir dosage 2016-05-23

Periodic sampling of surfaces for S. aureus may be a useful adjunct to standard infection control practices in dental health care settings.

cleocin pediatric dosing 2017-07-30

The influence of thirteen commonly used antibacterial drugs on the phagocytic and oxidative burst responsiveness of human blood monocytes in vitro was investigated. Cefotaxime and rifampicin produced a significant inhibition of monocyte oxidative metabolism at therapeutic concentrations with increasing inhibition at higher concentrations. The effect of rifampicin was irreversible, which may reflect intracellular accumulation of the drug. Tetracycline, clindamycin, chloramphenicol and tobramycin at high concentrations produced a significant inhibition of monocyte superoxide anion release after stimulation, whereas normal therapeutic concentrations produced insignificant inhibition. Benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, fusidic acid, metronidazole, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim did not alter monocyte oxidative metabolism in vitro. Phagocytosis of yeast cells was significantly suppressed by high concentrations of tobramycin, but otherwise unaffected by the drugs mentioned. These observations suggest that cefotaxime and rifampicin may interfere with blood monocyte oxidative metabolism in vivo, whereas it can be expected that at normal dosage it is unlikely that the other drugs will affect monocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity.

cleocin gel generic 2015-04-08

Obligate anaerobic bacteria were isolated from 199 (15.7%) and 69 (28.4%) specimens obtained from dogs and cats, respectively. More than half of the specimens that contained obligate anaerobic bacteria were from draining tracts (exclusively dogs), pleural fluid, abscesses, bones, the respiratory tract, or the abdominal cavity. The most commonly isolated obligate anaerobic bacteria (approx 70% of all isolates) were Bacteroides spp, Peptostreptococcus spp, Fusobacterium spp, and Porphyromonas spp. Eighty percent of the specimens that contained obligate anaerobic bacteria also contained facultative anaerobic or aerobic organisms. The organisms most commonly isolated in association with obligate anaerobic bacteria were members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli was the most common), Pasteurella spp, and Staphylococcus intermedius. Ninety-seven obligate anaerobic isolates were tested for susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and metronidazole. All were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and chloramphenicol, and most were susceptible to metronidazole. Only 71% of the Bacteroides isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, and only 83% were susceptible to clindamycin. Only 80% of the Clostridium isolates were susceptible to clindamycin, but all were susceptible to ampicillin.

cleocin iv dosage 2015-12-28

The encapsulation of antiacne drugs in vesicular and particulate delivery systems represents an innovative alternative to minimize side effects, while preserving their efficacy. This can be obtained by the capacity of these systems to provide controlled release or to improve the drug penetration into skin or even into the pilosebaceous unit.