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Epicardial application of amiodarone-releasing adhesive hydrogel is a less invasive, well-tolerated, quick, and effective therapeutic option for preventing POAF at minimal risk of extracardiac adverse side effects.
to study the association between the presence of the metabolic syndrome or right-sided heart failure and the prevalence of amiodarone induced liver disease.
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Several mechanisms have been anticipated for the toxicity of amiodarone, such as oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, phospholipidosis, free radical generation, etc. Amiodarone is structurally similar to benzbromarone, an uricosuric agent, which was withdrawn from European markets due to its idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. A proposed reason behind the toxicity of benzbromarone was the production of a reactive ortho-diquinone metabolite, which was found to form adducts with glutathione. Therefore, taking a clue that a similar diquinone metabolite of amiodarone may be the reason for its hepatotoxicity, metabolite identification studies were carried out on the drug using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) tools.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited cardiac disease characterized by unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, typically involving the interventricular septum. Hypertrophy may be present in infants, but commonly develops during childhood and adolescence. Management of children with HCM aims to provide symptomatic relief and prevention of sudden death, which is the primary cause of death. Unfortunately, no randomized comparative trials to date have assessed different treatment options in HCM. Medical treatment with negative inotropic agents (beta-adrenoceptor antagonists [beta-blockers], verapamil) is the first therapeutic choice in all symptomatic patients. Beta-blockers also appear to have prognostic merit in children. Surgical myectomy is effective in reducing symptoms in children with left ventricular (LV) obstruction who are unresponsive to medical treatment, although a repeat operation may be needed in a substantial proportion of patients due to relapse of LV obstruction. The recently introduced percutaneous septal ablation can also be regarded as a feasible alternative in this cohort. Technical limitations of both invasive therapeutic options should be carefully considered, preferably in experienced centers. Results of recent randomized trials indicate that dual chamber pacing, once considered a therapeutic option for patients with HCM, should only be used as treatment for conduction abnormalities. Regular clinical risk stratification for sudden death is of vital importance for the prevention of sudden death in young patients. Familial history of sudden death at a young age, LV hypertrophy >3 cm, unexplained syncope, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in Holter monitoring, and abnormal blood pressure response during exercise are currently considered clinical risk factors for sudden death. Each factor has a low positive predictive accuracy, but patients having two or more of these risk factors are deemed as high risk. Secondary prevention of sudden death in patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest and/or sustained ventricular tachycardia warrants treatment with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Primary prevention of sudden death in patients considered to be at high risk should aim at the management of obvious arrhythmogenic mechanisms (paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, conduction system disease, accessory pathway, myocardial ischemia), and the prevention and/or management of ventricular tachyarrhythmias with amiodarone and/or ICD implantation, respectively. The choice of treatment in children is greatly influenced by technical aspects, such as adverse effects of amiodarone, and ICD implantation difficulties or complications. Amiodarone could also be used as a bridge in children at high risk, until they reach adulthood, possibly achieving a lower risk status, or until their physical growth permits ICD implantation as long-term therapy.
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Effectiveness of cordarone treatment was estimated in 25 patients with atrioventricular nodal tachycardia (AVNT) and in 33 patients with WPW syndrome and reciprocal atrioventricular tachycardia (RAVT) with frequent paroxysms of tachycardia 1-5 times per week. Transesophageal left atrial pacing (TELAP) was performed before antiarrhythmic treatment and on cordarone treatment day 14-18. Cordarone was given for two months in common regimen (the first 10 days--600 mg/day, the next 10 days--400 mg/day and then 200 mg/day).
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Acute caffeine poisoning may result in atrial fibrillation, especially in predisposed patients with underlying hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Because the etiology of TIC is different from dynamic cardiomyoplasty (DCMP), differential parameters may be present.
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A high-performance liquid chromatographic technique is described for the measurement of amiodarone and its desethyl metabolite in plasma. Preliminary observations are presented on the concentrations of metabolite found during the early stages of chronic amiodarone therapy. A case history is outlined in which noncompliance during treatment with amiodarone was confirmed by measurement of the ratio of desethylamiodarone to amiodarone concentrations.
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The SAMe-TT2R2 score has been recently proposed to predict the quality of anticoagulation control in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA). We aimed at calculating this score in a cohort of patients with Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) and determine its usefulness.
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Electrical cardioversion is very efficient in the short-term, despite numerous relapses. Patient age and the size of left atrium are associated with acute and long-term success of cardioversion.
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The development of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) can threaten the hemodynamic stability of adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Here, we describe the natural history and treatment response of AIT in this at-risk population.
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A cohort study sample was drawn from an administrative database comprising medical and pharmacy claims for 1.7 million health plan members. A health plan member was defined as anyone who was eligible for pharmacy and medical benefits at any time from October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004. To be included in the study, a member must have received at least 1 pharmacy claim for warfarin during the study period and been younger than 100 years. Hemorrhage was defined as a diagnosed bleeding episode recorded on a medical claim within 7 calendar days of a fill date for a pharmacy claim (new or refill) for warfarin. The following variables were used to predict the outcome measures: type of drug-drug or drug-disease interaction, patient age and gender, number of unique prescribers during the year for all drugs, specialty of the first prescriber for warfarin, average dose of warfarin, and days of warfarin therapy. Because individuals were followed only during the calendar year under study, the authors have interpreted the days of therapy measured primarily as a control on exposure. The outcome measures are prevalence of drug and disease interactions among members receiving warfarin therapy and the per-patient-per-year and per-member-per-month (PMPM) cost of medical treatment of hemorrhage associated with warfarin therapy including drug and disease interactions. Costs are defined as the total paid amount for a procedure or service after negotiated provider discounts and subtraction of patient copay and deductibles. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relative risk of hemorrhage in users of warfarin monotherapy and of warfarin users with drug-drug and drug-disease interactions. The comparison group in the logistic regression comprised the members who were not diagnosed with either HF or liver disease and who received warfarin therapy but none of the drugs under study known to cause drug interactions. Therefore, the odds ratios [ORs] produced were estimates of the relative risk of hemorrhage when taking warfarin concomitant with selected drugs and diseases.
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Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a 60% reduction in the risk of death from any cause in the group treated with the combination of dobutamine and amiodarone, compared with the group treated with placebo and amiodarone (hazard ratio, 0.403; 95% confidence interval, 0.164 to 0.992; p = 0.048). The 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 69% and 44%, respectively, in the dobutamine-treated group, vs 28% and 21%, respectively, in the placebo-treated group (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). Median survival times were 574 and 144 days, respectively, for groups 2 and 1. At 6 months, the New York Heart Association functional class was significantly improved in the patients who survived from both groups.
Three patients with amiodarone induced optic neuropathy presented with mildly decreased vision, visual field defects, and bilateral optic disc swelling. Upon discontinuing the medication, visual function and optic disc swelling slowly improved in all three patients.
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A positive association was identified between amiodarone and thyroxine in all settings with a pooled ASR 2.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-4.72). Temporal analysis showed the effect occurred within the first few weeks of treatment. No significant associations were found for the negative controls in any setting; pooled ASR were 0.76 (95%CI 0.62-0.93) and 0.98 (95%CI 0.85-1.12) for amiodarone-allopurinol and thyroxine-allopurinol, respectively.
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While it remains uncertain, the pathophysiology of amiodarone induced epididymitis is likely related to its high concentration in testicular tissue. Recognition that amiodarone is a rare but significant cause of epididymitis in children is important to prevent unnecessary surgery in high risk patients. Amiodarone induced epididymitis in children tends to be a self-limited process and of secondary importance to the serious cardiac disease. Whereas discontinuing amiodarone risks sudden cardiac death, a reduction in dosage or temporary cessation of the drug may result in rapid resolution of the epididymitis.
The author reviews the history of atrial fibrillation, the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. The chaotic irregularity of arterial pulse was clearly acknowledged by most of physicians of the ancient China, Egypt and Greece. William Harvey (1578-1657), who first described the circulatory system appropriately, was probably the first to describe fibrillation of the auricles in animals in 1628. The French "clinical pathologist", Jean Baptist de Sénac (1693-1770) was the first who assumed a correlation between "rebellious palpitation" and stenosis of the mitral valve. Robert Adams (1791-1875) also reported in 1827 the association of irregular pulses and mitral stenosis. The discovery of digitalis leaf in 1785 by William Withering (1741-1799) brought relief to patients with atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure by reducing the ventricular rate. From an analysis of simultaneously recorded arterial and venous pressure curves, the Scottish Sir James Mackenzie (1853-11925) demonstrated that a presystolic wave cannot be seen during "pulsus irregularis perpetuus", a term very first used by Heinrich Ewald Hering (1866-1948). Arthur Cushny (1866-1926) noted the similarity between pulse curves in clinical "delirium cordis" and those in dogs with atrial fibrillation. The first human ECG depicting atrial fibrillation was published by Willem Einthoven (1860-1927) in 1906. The proof of a direct connection between absolute arrhythmia and atrial fibrillation was established by two Viennese physicians, Carl Julius Rothberger and Heinrich Winterberg in 1909. Sir Thomas Lewis (1881-1945), the father of modem electrocardiography, studied electrophysiological characteristics of atrial fibrillation and has shown that its basic perpetuating mechanism is circus movement of electrical impulse (re-entry). After him, the major discoveries relating to the pathophysiology and clinical features of atrial fibrillation in the 20th century stemmed from Karel Frederick Wenckebach (1864-1940), Gordon Moe (1915-1989), Bernhard Lown (*1921) and Maurits Allessie. Over the past ten years, awareness has increased of transcatheter radiofrequency and cryoablation of non-valvular atrial fibrillation and the battle against formation of intraatrial thrombi for preventing cerebral thromboembolism.
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There were no hospital deaths. Postoperative in-hospital complications were minimal. Mean postoperative length of stay was 3.4 +/- 1.7 days. Cumulative follow-up was 2,106.3 (mean 23.1) patient months, with a maximum follow-up of 39.8 months. There were three late deaths (3.0%). In nine patients (9.0%), the thoracoscopic box lesion pulmonary vein isolation operation and subsequent electrophysiological intervention failed, and a Cox-Maze operation was performed. Follow-up was 100% complete, with 42.0% (37 of 88) patients in normal sinus rhythm. Two patients (2.3%) experienced a transient ischemic attack and two (2.3%) a cerebral vascular accident. Twenty-seven patients (30.7%) required electrophysiological intervention post procedure. Ten patients (11.4%) were on amiodarone and 48 (54.5%) were on coumadin at follow-up.
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Newer drug therapy for patients with cardiomyopathies has been introduced with standard one. Beta-blocker therapy improves the prognosis in patients with ischemic and non-ischemic DCM and even in asymptomatic ones with LV dysfunction. The combined therapy of ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker, the intermittent intravenous infusion of inotropic agents and the supplement of phosphodiesterase inhibitor on induction of beta-blocker therapy also elucidate the effectiveness in DCM patients.
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The prognostic value of heart rate turbulence for predicting mortality after acute myocardial infarction is well established. This study investigates a new measure of heart rate turbulence, termed turbulence dynamics, which quantifies the relationship between turbulence slope and underlying heart rate (HR(VPC)).
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Formulated to reduce some of the adverse effects associated with amiodarone by removing the iodine component, dronedarone has improved clinical outcomes over placebo when used in paroxysmal or persistent AF; however, it is less efficacious than amiodarone. Worse outcomes with dronedarone have been seen in patients with heart failure or permanent AF. It has not been compared to antiarrhythmic agents other than amiodarone, and pharmacoeconomic evaluations are lacking. Dabigatran 150 mg is superior to warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism and has been associated with lower rates of vascular-associated mortality. Although the rates of major bleeding were not significantly different between the 2 agents, gastrointestinal bleeding and myocardial infarction occurred more frequently with dabigatran. Dabigatran appears to have the most pharmacoeconomic benefit over warfarin in patients with a higher risk of stroke. Rivaroxaban is noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism, with no difference in the rates of major bleeding. Cost-effectiveness studies have not been performed with this agent at this time. In patients with AF who were not suitable candidates for warfarin, apixaban is superior to aspirin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism without increasing the risk for major bleeding. Additionally, apixaban is superior to warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism, results in fewer bleeding events, and is associated with lower mortality. Apixaban is not cost-effective against aspirin when used for a short duration but gains superiority with prolonged use or in patients with higher risks of stroke. Additionally, apixaban appears to offer a pharmacoeconomic advantage over warfarin at no to minimal cost. Each new anticoagulant lacks a reversal agent and an assay to detect the presence of the anticoagulant, as well as long-term data when used in the clinical setting.
High defibrillation threshold (DFT) with an inadequate defibrillation safety margin remains an infrequent but troubling problem associated with defibrillator implantation. Dofetilide is a selective class III antiarrhythmic drug that reduces DFTs in a canine model. We hypothesized that dofetilide would reduce DFTs in humans, obviating the need for complex lead systems.
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and biochemical features and risk factors of amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction in Taiwan.
The evidence that antiarrhythmic compounds that act by slowing conduction velocity increase mortality in patients with cardiac disease is now compelling. Emphasis is now shifting to agents that act by lengthening repolarization and have additional antiadrenergic properties. There is preliminary evidence that pure Class III agents devoid of antisympathetic activity may also increase rather than decrease mortality in certain patients. Thus, in recent years, sotalol and amiodarone have emerged as the preferred agents for the control of most ventricular arrhythmias occurring in the setting of significant heart disease. Sotalol has not been widely studied in postinfarct patients; one trial indicated that the drug did reduce total mortality but the difference did not reach statistical significance. A number of studies with amiodarone in the postmyocardial infarction patients have revealed benefit, but these were from nonblinded studies. Two blinded, placebo-controlled studies are currently ongoing. A potential new indication of amiodarone is in patients with arrhythmias in heart failure in whom amiodarone markedly increased left ventricular ejection fraction, with a pronounced suppressant effect on premature ventricular complexes and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and a trend for a decrease in mortality in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. The most promising indication of amiodarone in low doses is in the maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with atrial flutter and fibrillation. For the present, amiodarone appears to be the best prototype of a desirable complex antiarrhythmic compound, if its variegated side effect profile can be favorably modified from knowledge of structure-activity relationships.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of intravenous amiodarone in facilitating defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation refractory to lidocaine and epinephrine plus direct current countershocks in experimental acute myocardial infarction.
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In patients with severe chronic heart failure, many deaths are sudden due to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Supraventricular arrhythmias such as paroxysmal or chronic atrial fibrillation may also cause serious complications in those patients due to acute loss of atrial contraction, pump failure during rapid ventricular response and embolic events. Two therapeutic strategies are currently available for therapy and prevention of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and subsequent sudden arrhythmic death: antiarrhythmic drug therapy and implantable defibrillators. However, selection of the most beneficial strategy for the individual patient to reduce the risk of sudden death remains a major challenge in cardiology. Betablockers exert a favorable antiarrhythmic action without increasing proarrhythmia, thus betablockers may serve as a basic medication in patients at risk for sudden death. However, the general use of antiarrhythmic drug therapy for symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias is not recommended, as these drugs have been shown to increase mortality in patients with severe congestive heart failure due to proarrhythmic or negative inotropic effects (e.g. class Ia antiarrhythmics). Even class III antiarrhythmic drugs such as amiodarone, which has been studied sufficiently in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, is not effective enough for significant reduction of cardiac mortality in patients with symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias and depressed ventricular function (e.g. EMIAT, CAMIAT). But as a positive result of available studies, amiodarone does not increase mortality in those patients. Dofetilide has also not been shown to prolong life significantly by suppressing malignant ventricular arrhythmias (DIAMOND-Study). In patients with symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias or aborted sudden death, ICD therapy has been proven to be superior to antiarrhythmic drug therapy in cardiac mortality reduction as a secondary prevention strategy (e.g. AVID, CASH, CIDS). For primary prevention of sudden arrhythmic death in high risk patients, 2 studies (MADIT, MUSST) have already demonstrated favorable results, decreasing mortality by ICD therapy in selected patient populations with partly-reduced ventricular function and unsustained but inducible ventricular tachycardias. This topic is, however, undergoing further evaluation by ongoing trials (e.g. MADIT II, SCD-HeFT). From available data, antiarrhythmic drug therapy in high risk patients is not justified on a routine basis, whereas ICD therapy as a secondary and perhaps primary prevention strategy will significantly reduce cardiac mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Sotalol, a class III antiarrhythmic agent, has recently been shown to reduce ICD-shock delivery which indicates that concomitant drug therapy in patients with an ICD device already implanted may be beneficial in terms of reducing ICD discharges due to ventricular and supraventricular tachycardias. In patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure, restitution of sinus rhythm is the primary therapeutic goal which can be safely achieved by amiodarone and dofetilide (DIAMOND). In the latter, continuous monitoring of the patient is mandatory because of increased risk of torsade de pointes arrhythmias during the first days of drug administration. In patients with chronic atrial fibrillation rate control and anticoagulation with warfarin is the primary therapeutic option, which can be achieved with either drug treatment (Digoxin, betablockers, amiodarone) or by His bundle ablation with subsequent pacemaker insertion.
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Complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAEs) have shown promise as target sites for ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF); however, the data are limited with regard to patients with a large left atrium (LA) (>5 cm), and/or a permanent AF duration of >2 years. We tested the hypothesis that ablation of user-defined, computer-generated CFAE and pulmonary vein isolation, without additional lines would help long-term maintenance of sinus rhythm (SR). A total of 21 patients, 9 men and 12 women, aged 32 to 78 years (mean 44 +/- 3.3) were selected. All had chronic AF for >2 years (range 2 to 20; mean 3.8) and a LA of 5.3 to 11.3 cm (mean 6.4 cm). The underlying structural heart disease was rheumatic mitral valve disease in 18, aortic stenosis in 1, and hypertension in 2. Mapping and ablation was done using the NAVx Ensite system and a 2-mm-tip IBI Therapy Cool Path ablation catheter. The target included circumferential pulmonary vein ablation and elimination of areas in the LA and proximal coronary sinus showing CFAEs. During ablation, 3 patients converted to SR. In 15 others, significant organization of the atrial activity occurred. They then underwent successful electrical cardioversion. Three patients showed no change in atrial activity nor had electrical cardioversion. No procedural complications occurred. Patients took oral amiodarone for 3 months after the procedure. At 3 to 12 months (mean 9.8) of follow-up, 3 patients who were in AF at the end of the ablation procedure continued to be in AF. Of the rest, all but 3 were able to maintain SR without antiarrhythmic drugs. In conclusion, ablation using a 2-mm tip irrigation catheter, targeting user-defined CFAEs and pulmonary vein isolation facilitated maintenance of SR in most patients with a LA >5 cm and an AF duration of >2 years.
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Dronedarone on top of SOC appears to be a cost-effective treatment for atrial fibrillation compared with SOC alone. Despite the differences in the local settings considered, the results were consistent among all the countries included in the study. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00174785.
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6-Hydroxy-5,7,8-trimethyl-benzopyran derivatives and 5,7,8-trimethyl-1,4-benzoxazine analogues substituted by the lidocaine pharmacophore aminoamide functionality at C4 or N4, respectively, were synthesized and evaluated against arrhythmias associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury. The antiarrhythmic effect of substitutents at positions C2 and C6 was examined. Six out of the 11 new derivatives, exhibited arrhythmia scores 1.0-1.3 versus the control (4.5 +/- 1.2), which was also reflected to the % premature beats (0.5-3.9), control (13.7 +/- 3.6). Selected compounds were further studied by a conventional microelectrode method. 2-Diethylamino-1-(5,7,8-trimethyl-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]oxazin-4-yl)-ethanone (50) and the trolox-inspired 4-(2-diethylamino-acetyl)-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[1,4]oxazine-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (62) suppress reperfusion arrhythmias and reduce malondialdehyde (MDA) content, leading to a fast recovery of the heart after ischemia-reperfusion. They exhibit combined class IB and class III antiarrhythmic properties, which constitutes them as promising compounds for further studies because, due to their multichannel "amiodarone like" effect, less proarrhythmic complications can be expected.
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As dronedarone a new noniodinated antiarrhythmic agent structurally related to amiodarone could inhibit CYP2D6 and is planned to be associated with beta-blockers, interactions with CYP2D6 metabolized beta-blockers such as metoprolol, have to be studied. Forty-nine healthy male subjects genotyped for CYP2D6 were included in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Metoprolol was administrated during 13 days (200 mg/day). After the initial 5 days, subjects received placebo (n = 12), 800 mg (n = 6), 1200 mg (n = 9), or 1600 mg (n = 17) of dronedarone daily during eight additional days. Pharmacokinetic parameters of metoprolol were investigated at day 5 and at day 13 in 44 subjects, 39 extensive metabolizers and five poor metabolizers for CYP2D6. Cardiac contractility function was evaluated by the rate-corrected electromechanical systole duration (QS2i) and the mean velocity of endocardial circumferential fiber shortening (Vcfmean). Cmax and AUC0--24 h of metoprolol increased from days 5 to 13 in proportion to dronedarone dose only in CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers genotyped subjects (P < 0.001). In all subjects, from days 5 to 13, Vcfmean decreased and QS2i significantly increased in dronedarone groups. The Vcfmean changes were however significant only with the 1600 mg dronedarone dose compared with placebo while QS2i changes induced by addition of dronedarone were significant compared with placebo at all dose levels. Between days 5 and 13, QS2i and Vcfmean changes were significantly correlated with both dronedarone concentrations at day 13 and with metoprolol concentration changes between days 5 and 13. Plasma metoprolol concentrations were highest in poor metabolizer subjects and dronedarone did not further increase their level but increased QS2i in the two subjects receiving the 1600 mg dose. Addition of dronedarone (800-1600 mg daily) to metoprolol (200 mg daily) increases bioavailability of metoprolol in CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers and induces an additive dronedarone dose-dependent negative inotropic effect. Nevertheless at 800 mg daily (anticipated therapeutic dose) these effects were modest.
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The clinical data of Korean patients who met the Task Force Criteria for ARVC were analyzed.
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To assess by means of transesophageal left atrial pacing the effectiveness of cordarone treatment for arrhythmias caused by re-entry mechanism.