cozaar dosage forms
Multiple hemodynamic and electrophysiologic effects of AII may contribute to cardiac electrical instability. In the recent Losartan Heart Failure Study, Evaluation of Losartan in the Elderly (ELITE), a 722-patient trial primarily designed to assess effects on renal function, an unexpected survival benefit was observed with losartan compared with captopril, with the lower mortality using losartan primarily confined to a reduction in sudden cardiac death.
cozaar generic equivalent
Vascular expression of the B1 kinin receptor is markedly upregulated with left ventricular dysfunction and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, but its function remains unclear. Inhibitors of ACE potentiate bradykinin-mediated B2 receptor-dependent vasodilatation and tissue plasminogen activator (tissue-type plasminogen activator [t-PA]) release. We investigated the contribution of the B1 receptor to the maintenance of vascular tone and t-PA release in patients with heart failure.
The natriuretic and diuretic effect induced by carbachol (CBC) were partially inhibited by pretreatment of losartan, a specific blocker of angiotensin AT1 receptor (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that both TH-IR density and number of TH-IR positive neurons were markedly increased in PaPo, Arc, Pe and AHP of hypothalamus at 40 min after carbachol administration, as compared with NS group (P < 0.05). However, in losartan pretreated group, the number and the density of TH-IR were significantly decreased in such nuclei mentioned above except PaPo.
It has been established that the baroreflex is markedly decreased in chronic heart failure (CHF). Our recent study has indicated that activation of the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) inhibits the baroreflex in normal rats, and in the rats with CHF the CSAR is significantly enhanced, which is related to augmented central angiotensin II (Ang II) mechanism. Therefore, the hypothesis is that the augmented CSAR in the CHF state tonically inhibits the baroreflex via central AT1 receptor. To test the hypothesis, the rats with myocardial infarction-induced CHF or sham surgery were anesthetized with alpha-chloralose and urethane, vagotomized, and recordings were made of the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). We found: (1) left ventricular epicardial application of capsaicin or electrical stimulation of the central end of the left cardiac sympathetic nerve blunted the baroreflex in both sham and CHF rats; (2) left ventricular epicardial application of lidocaine had no significant effects on the baroreflex in sham rats but improved the baroreflex in CHF rats (maximum slope, 1.7+/-0.3 to 2.9+/-0.2%/mm Hg; P<0.01); and (3) intracerebral ventricular injection of losartan had no significant effect on baroreflex in sham rats but improved the baroreflex in CHF rats (maximum slope 1.9+/-0.2 to 3.1+/-0.2%/mm Hg; P<0.01). These results suggest that tonic cardiac sympathetic afferent input plays an important role in the blunted baroreflex associated with CHF, which is mediated by central AT1 receptors.
The mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, and adverse effects of candesartan cilexetil are reviewed. Candesartan is an angiotensin II-receptor blocker (ARB). It is administered as a pro-drug that undergoes activation during gastrointestinal absorption. The agent is excreted mostly unchanged and has a terminal half-life of about nine hours (slightly longer in the elderly). Candesartan differs from other agents in its class in that it is tightly bound to angiotensin II type 1 receptors, allowing prolonged activity. In clinical trials, candesartan cilexetil has produced a dose-dependent effect when given in dosages of 2-32 mg/day. Observed trough-to-peak blood pressure ratios support a once-daily dosage regimen. The antihypertensive effect of candesartan cilexetil 4-16 mg/day was as great as that of enalapril 10-20 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day and larger than that of losartan potassium 50 mg/day. Adding candesartan cilexetil to hydrochlorothiazide 12.5-25 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day led to enhanced blood-pressure reductions and was well tolerated. It appears that candesartan can decrease renal perfusion without adversely affecting renal blood flow and may mediate a decrease in albuminuria in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. No clinically important drug interactions have been reported. Adverse effects include headache, dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, and transient elevations in liver transaminases. The frequency of cough is similar to that seen with placebo. Candesartan cilexetil is an effective antihypertensive agent that can be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs. It is generally well tolerated and may be an option for patients who cannot tolerate angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors because of cough.
cozaar 600 mg
Chronic heart failure is often associated with sympathoexcitation and blunted arterial baroreflex function. These phenomena have been causally linked to elevated central ANG II mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of ANG II signaling and therefore might play an essential role in these interactions. The aims of this study were to determine whether central subchronic infusion of ANG II in normal animals has effects on O2- production and expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits as well as ANG II type 1 (AT1) receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Twenty-four male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups and separately received a subchronic intracerebroventricular infusion of saline alone, ANG II alone, ANG II with losartan, and losartan alone for 1 wk. On day 7 of intracerebroventricular infusion, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) values were recorded, and arterial baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated while animals were in the conscious state. We found that ANG II significantly increased baseline RSNA (161.9%; P < 0.05), mRNA and protein expression of AT1 receptors (mRNA, 66.7%; P < 0.05; protein, 85.1%; P < 0.05), NAD(P)H oxidase subunits (mRNA, 120.0-200.0%; P < 0.05; protein, 90.9-197.0%; P < 0.05), and O2- production (83.2%; P < 0.05) in the RVLM. In addition, impaired baroreflex control of HR (Gain(max) reduced by 48.2%; P < 0.05) and RSNA (Gain(max) reduced by 53.6%; P < 0.05) by ANG II was completely abolished by losartan. Losartan significantly decreased baseline RSNA (-49.5%; P < 0.05) and increased baroreflex control of HR (Gain(max) increased by 64.8%; P < 0.05) and RSNA (Gain(max) increased by 67.9%; P < 0.05), but had no significant effects on mRNA and protein expression of AT1 receptor and NAD(P)H oxidase subunits and O2- production in the RVLM. These data suggest that in normal rabbits, NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS play an important role in the modulation of sympathetic activity and arterial baroreflex function by subchronic central treatment of exogenous ANG II via AT1 receptors.
cozaar brand name
ARB/CCB combination therapy reduced blood pressure more effectively than the maximal doses of ARB or CCB with HCTZ in stage 2 hypertensive patients within this period of study.
cozaar 100mg tab
Combined therapy with an angiotensin-II type I receptor (AT1) antagonist and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor results in more complete suppression of the renin-angiotensin system. Accordingly, the blood-pressure response and safety of combining AT1-receptor blockade with losartan for ACE inhibition were evaluated in patients with congestive heart failure who were already treated with maximally recommended or tolerated doses of an ACE inhibitor. Forty-three patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure were evaluated biweekly for 1 month before addition of losartan and weekly during administration of losartan at a daily dose of 25 mg for the first week and 50 mg for the second week. Systolic blood pressure, which remained unchanged before addition of losartan, decreased from 122 +/- 18 mm Hg to 112 +/- 17 and 107 +/- 17 mm Hg (p < 0.001) after 1 week of 25 mg and 1 week of 50 mg losartan, respectively. Diastolic blood pressure also significantly decreased. The decreases in blood pressure were well tolerated by all patients, even by those in whom symptomatic hypotension developed during uptitration of ACE inhibition. Serum potassium and sodium and parameters of renal function remained unchanged. Combining AT1-receptor blockade with losartan to maximally recommended or tolerated ACE inhibition appears safe and leads to further vasodilatation in symptomatic patients with congestive heart failure.
cozaar name brand
In a double-blind, randomised trial 18 patients aged > or =65 years with symptomatic heart failure were allocated to treatment with losartan (10 patients) or captopril (eight patients). Patients underwent assessment at baseline, after the first dose, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks.
cozaar missed dose
Post hoc analysis.
cozaar xq dosage
Thus, treatment with simvastatin and losartan lowered oxidative stress and improved endothelial function. Simvastatin significantly reduced the effect of losartan on vascular reactivity in mesenteric arteries, suggesting that their combination may be contraindicated.
cozaar water pill
In this experimental study, our aim was to determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockade affect the apoptotic changes in contralateral testis following unilateral testicular torsion (UTT).
cozaar 50mg medication
To observe the effects of Shenshuai II Recipe (SSR) on the fibrosis of remnant nephridial tissue and expressions of Ang II and nNOS in the chronic renal failure (CRF) rats induced by 5/6 ablation/infarction (A/I), and to preliminarily investigate its mechanism of action.
cozaar overdose treatment
(1) Angiotensin II cause a concentration-dependent increase of the level of LOX1 mRNA. (2) Losartan, the inhibitor of AT1 receptor subtypes, inhibited this effects.
cozaar 10 mg
Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD) in the brachial artery are well-known indices for evaluating endothelial function (ECF). The blood pressure-lowering effects of the combination of losartan (ARB) and low-dose hydrochlorothiazide (H: ARB-H; ARB, 50 mg and H, 12.5 mg) are useful. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the combination of losartan and low-dose hydrochlorothiazide could improve ECF.
cozaar 5 mg
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that women with a history of preeclampsia have a two-fold increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in later life. It is not known whether or not this risk is associated with angiotensin II receptor type 1 autoantibody (AT1-AA), an agonist acting via activation of AT1 receptor (AT1R), which is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The objective of the present study was to confirm the hypothesis that AT1-AA exposure during pregnancy may change the maternal cardiac structure and increase the susceptibility of the postpartum heart to ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). In the present study, we first established a preeclampsia rat model by intravenous injection of AT1-AA extracted from the plasma of rats immunized with AT1R, observed the susceptibility of the postpartum maternal heart to IRI at 16 weeks postpartum using the Langendorff preparation, and examined the cardiac structure using light and transmission electron microscopy. The modeled animals presented with symptoms very similar to the clinical symptoms of human preeclampsia during pregnancy, including hypertension and proteinuria. The left ventricular weight (LVW) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in AT1-AA treatment group were significantly increased as compared with those of the control group (p < 0.01), although there was no significant difference in final weight between the two groups. AT1-AA acting on AT1R not only induced myocardial cell hypertrophy, mitochondrial swelling, cristae disorganization and collagen accumulation in the interstitium but affected the left ventricular (LV) function and delayed recovery from IRI. In contrast, co-treatment with AT1-AA + losartan completely blocked AT1-AA-induced changes in cardiac structure and function. These data indicate that the presence of AT1-AA during pregnancy was strongly associated with the markers of LV geometry changes and remodeling, and increased the cardiac susceptibility to IRI in later life of postpartum maternal rats.
cozaar usual dosage
Previously, we have demonstrated that pressure-ejected application of angiotensin II onto some neurons in the anterior hypothalamic area (AHA) of rats increases their firing rate. In contrast, pressure application of the angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist losartan onto AHA neurons blocked the basal firing of the neurons. To investigate possible participation of these AHA neurons in the brain angiotensin system, we examined whether intracerebroventricular injection of angiotensin II results in an activation of angiotensin II-sensitive neurons in the AHA of rats. Intracerebroventricular injection of angiotensin II increased the firing rate of AHA angiotensin II-sensitive neurons. The angiotensin II-induced increase of unit firing in AHA neurons was abolished by pressure application of losartan onto the same neurons. In addition, the angiotensin II-induced increase of firing in AHA neurons was abolished by pressure application of N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W7), a calmodulin inhibitor, onto the same neurons. Pressure application of W7 onto AHA neurons affected neither the basal firing rate nor the increase in unit firing induced by pressure application of angiotensin II onto the same neurons. Intracerebroventricular injection of the cholinergic agonist carbachol did not affect the firing rate of angiotensin II-sensitive neurons in the AHA. These findings suggest that intracerebroventricular injection of angiotensin II activates AHA angiotensin II-sensitive neurons via angiotensinergic inputs to the neurons.
Rats were made hypertensive via continuous infusion of either Ang II or NE for up to seven days. Renal cell apoptosis and proliferation were analyzed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique and staining with antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), respectively. In some experiments, an inducer or inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was administered to investigate the possible role of HO-1 in renal cell homeostasis.
cozaar starting dose
Atherosclerosis was induced in New Zealand white rabbits by high-cholesterol diet for 3 months. An Angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blocker (losartan, 25 mg/kg/d) was given for 3 months. ACE2 activity was measured by fluorescence assay and the extent of atherosclerosis was evaluated by H&E and Oil Red O staining. In addition, the effect of losartan on ACE2 activity in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vitro was also evaluated.
cozaar tabs 100mg
Fourteen healthy male participants were evaluated, none of whom were genetically defined as poor CYP2C9, 2C19, and CYP2D6 metabolizers based on genotyping. Before and after RG administration, the geometric least-square mean metabolic ratio (90% CI) was 0.870 (0.805-0.940) for caffeine to paraxanthine (CYP1A2), 0.871 (0.800-0.947) for losartan (CYP2C9) to EXP3174, 1.027 (0.938-1.123) for omeprazole (CYP2C19) to 5-hydroxyomeprazole, 1.373 (0.864-2.180) for dextromethorphan to dextrorphan (CYP2D6), and 0.824 (0.658-1.032) for midazolam (CYP3A4) to 1-hydroxymidazolam. The geometric mean ratio of the area under the curve of the last sampling time (AUClast) for fexofenadine (P-gp) was 0.963 (0.845-1.098). Administration of concentrated RG for 2 wk weakly inhibited CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 and weakly induced CYP2D6. However, no clinically significant drug interactions were observed between RG and CYP and P-gp probe substrates.
The proposed protocol appears to be safe, simple and fast for the pharmacological screening of AT(1) antagonists and enables the evaluation of new antagonists using lower doses than any other reported in the literature.
Losartan in the form of Lozap or Lozap is a safe and effective treatment of patients with hypertensive disease. It is effective and safe beginning with the dose of 50 mg and its combination with a diuretic represents a good and safe therapy in patients with insufficient BP response to a 50 mg dose of losartan alone. In case of poor blood pressure response the dose has to be titrated to 100 mg.
cozaar double dose
At 9 months, aortic diameter in untreated group was increased by 40% relative to control. Losartan potassium or doxycycline reduced aortic diameter by 10% to 16% versus untreated aortas. Losartan potassium and doxycycline combined completely prevented thoracic aortic aneurysm and improved elastic fiber organization, also downregulating matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and transforming growth factor beta and normalizing aortic contractile and relaxation functions to control values.
cozaar 20 mg
We provided evidence, that physiological concentrations of angiotensin II can induce apoptosis of human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. This effect is mediated via AT2 receptors.
normal cozaar dose
The result of this survey indicates that, substandard medicines are available in Nepalese market. Moreover, there is weak regulation and no uniformity in similar pharmaceutical products. A larger study is required to access the quality of pharmaceutical products in the Nepalese market with testing of products in more than two independent laboratories.
Regional perfusion is reduced and the renin-angiotensin system is activated in rats with aortocaval fistula. The effects of captopril (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor), losartan (AT1 receptor antagonist), and PD 123319 (AT2 receptor antagonist) on regional blood flow and vascular conductance were assessed in rats with aortocaval fistula and sham-operated rats. Control of blood flow and vascular conductance by angiotensin II was evaluated by serial bolus injections of captopril, losartan, and PD 123319 in anaesthetized rats. In rats with fistula, PD 123319 significantly decreased, while captopril and losartan increased, mesenteric blood flow. The decrease in mesenteric blood flow by PD 123319 was significantly greater in rats with fistula compared to sham. Captopril and PD 123319 significantly decreased renal blood flow compared to losartan which increased it. In sham rats, captopril and losartan significantly increased, while PD 123319 decreased, mesenteric and renal conductance. In rats with fistula, captopril and losartan significantly increased, while PD 123319 decreased, mesenteric conductance. The significant increase produced by losartan on mesenteric conductance was greater in rats with fistula compared to sham. PD 123319 produced a significantly greater decrease in renal conductance of aortocaval fistula compared to sham rats. Captopril, losartan and PD 123319 did not significantly affect perfusion in hindquarter in rats with fistula or sham. The renin-angiotensin system is more active in the control of regional haemodynamics in rats with aortocaval fistula, and acts as mechanism of maintaining normal arterial blood pressure in these animals. In rats with fistula, AT1 receptors predominate in regulating regional haemodynamics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Angiotensin II (10(-8)-10(-6) M) exerted a dose-dependent inhibition of collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activities, associated with reduction of protein degradation rate. In addition angiotensin II stimulated protein synthesis in the cells. These combined effects on protein turnover resulted in an increase in both cell size and cell protein content (31.7% after 48 h). However, the rise of cell protein content was only partly (48.0%) prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (10(-5)M), which supports the role of decreased protein degradation in the angiotensin-II-induced cell hypertrophy. The angiotensin-II-induced effects on proteolytic activities as well as on cell protein content could be abolished by coincubation with the angiotensin II type I-receptor antagonist DuP 753 (10(-6)M). The calcium-channel blocker verapamil (10(-6)M) ameliorated the impairment of collagenolytic activity. On the contrary the calcium ionophore A23187 (10(-6)M) mimicked the action of angiotensin II on this enzyme activity (control 34.5 +/- 1.9; angiotensin II 24.0 +/- 2.0; A23187 23.0 +/- 2.2 and angiotensin II+verapamil, 33.8 +/- 2.6 pmol/min/micrograms DNA). The role of cytosolic [Ca2+] in the actions of angiotensin II could be finally shown by a dose-dependent rise which was partly blunted by verapamil.
cozaar 60 mg
Between Dec 1, 2011, and May 1, 2013, 318 patients were screened. 133 patients (mean age 52 years [SD 13], 35% women) consented and were randomly assigned to placebo (n=69) or losartan (n=64). 124 (93%) patients completed the study and were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis for the primary endpoint. After 12 months we noted no significant difference in the change in left ventricular mass between the placebo group and the losartan group (mean difference 1 g/m(2), 95% CI -3 to 6; p=0·60). A decrease in systolic blood pressure in the losartan group (from mean 127 mm Hg [SD 12] to 121 mm Hg ; p=0·0001) confirmed drug compliance; blood pressure did not decrease in the placebo group. Two (2%) patients, both in the placebo group, died from sudden cardiac death during follow-up. In the losartan group, one (1%) patient had angioedema, one (1%) had deterioration of renal function, and one (1%) had hyperkalaemia. Treatment was well tolerated by patients with left ventricular outflow obstruction at baseline.
cozaar generic medication
Scotland has introduced a number of initiatives to enhance the prescribing of low-cost generic drugs versus originators and patent products in a class where these are seen as similar. The objective of this review is to appraise the influence of the various measures on subsequent utilization patterns and expenditure in high-volume classes to provide guidance. This review is principally a narrative review of published studies. The authors' found supply-side measures resulted in generic prices as low as 3% of pre-patent loss prices. Multiple demand-side measures resulted in high international non-proprietary name prescribing, and a considerable increase in prescribing efficiency for the proton pump inhibitors, statins, renin-angiotensin inhibitor drugs and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. There were no specific activities encouraging the prescription of losartan versus other angiotensin receptor blockers or risperidone versus other atypical antipsychotic drugs following generics and no change in their utilization patterns post generics. The authors can conclude multiple measures are needed to change physician prescribing habits. Authorities cannot rely on any 'spillover' effects to affect future prescribing, even in closely related classes.
cozaar generic name
Intracerebroventricular injections of [Arg8]vasopressin (500 ng/rat) or endothelin-1 (70 ng/rat) into the right lateral ventricle induced rotation along the long axis of the body (barrel rotation) in rats. Losartan (10-200 microg/rat), an angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist, also evoked barrel rotation, which was not inhibited by vasopressin and endothelin receptor antagonists. However, barrel rotation was not observed after injections of high doses of another angiotensin II receptor antagonist, [Sar1,Ile8]angiotensin II (100 microg/rat), or after angiotensin II (10 microg/rat). The results indicate that losartan does evoke barrel rotation which may be not mediated via vasopressin and endothelin receptors.