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Cytoxan (Cyclophosphamide)
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Cytoxan

Cytoxan is used for treating certain types of the following cancers: lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, mycosis fungoides, neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, eye cancer, and breast cancer. It is usually used in combination with other medicines. It may also be used to treat certain kidney problems (nephrotic syndrome) in children or for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Xeloda, Paclitaxel

 

Also known as:  Cyclophosphamide.

Description

Cytoxan is an antineoplastic. It works by stopping or slowing the growth or spread of certain cancer cells.

Generic name of Cytoxan is Cyclophosphamide.

Cytoxan is also known as Cyclophosphamide, Cycloxan.

Brand name of Cytoxan is Cytoxan.

Dosage

Take Cytoxan tablets by mouth.

Swallow Cytoxan with water.

Take your doses at regular intervals.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Cytoxan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature at or below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. This medicine can be stored at room temperatures of up to 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) for a short time. Protect from temperatures above 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cytoxan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Cytoxan if you are allergic to Cytoxan components or to other similar medicines.

Do not take Cytoxan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Cytoxan if you are taking tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking medicines (etanercept).

Cytoxan may reduce the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your blood. To prevent bleeding, avoid situations in which bruising or injury may occur.

Cytoxan may lower your body's ability to fight infection. Prevent infection by avoiding contact with people with colds or other infections.

Use Cytoxan with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Cytoxan may decrease your body's ability to heal wounds.

Cytoxan may increase your chance of developing a second cancer, sometimes even years after stopping treatment with Cytoxan.

Cytoxan may cause infertility that is sometimes permanent.

Be very careful receiving any vaccinations while you are using Cytoxan.

The use of birth control is recommended while using Cytoxan.

Lab tests, including complete blood cell counts, platelet counts, and urine tests, may be performed to monitor your progress or to check for side effects.

Elderly people hould be very careful with Cytoxan because they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.

cytoxan tablet dosage

Studies have shown that cancer requires two conditions for tumor progression: cancer cell proliferation and an environment permissive to and conditioned by malignancy. Chemotherapy aims to control the number and proliferation of cancer cells, but it does not effectively control the two best-known conditions of the tumor-permissive environment: neoangiogenesis and tolerogenic immunity. Many malignant diseases exhibit poor outcomes after treatment with chemotherapy. Therefore, we investigated the potential benefits of adding an induction regimen of antiangiogenesis and antitumor immunity to chemotherapy in poor outcome disease. In a prospective, randomized trial, we included patients with advanced, unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinomas, non-small cell lung cancer, or prostate cancer. Two groups of each primary condition were compared: group 1 (G1), n = 30, was treated with the standard chemotherapy and used as a control, and group 2 (G2), n = 30, was treated with chemotherapy plus an induction regimen of antiangiogenesis and antitumor immunity. This induction regimen included a low dose of metronomic cyclophosphamide, a high dose of Cox-2 inhibitor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, a sulfhydryl (SH) donor, and a hemoderivative that contained autologous tumor antigens released from patient tumors into the blood. After treatment, the G2 group demonstrated significantly longer survival, lower blood level of neoangiogenesis and immune-tolerance mediators, and higher blood levels of antiangiogenesis and antitumor immunity mediators compared with the G1 group. Toxicity and quality of life were not significantly different between the groups. In conclusion, in several advanced malignancies of different primary localizations, an increase in survival was observed by adding an induction regimen of antiangiogenesis and antitumor immunity to standard chemotherapy.

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Previous studies have demonstrated that glial cells play an important role in the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Activated glial cells produce numerous mediators such as proinflammatory cytokines that facilitate neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity. Similarly, bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis shares many characteristics of neuropathic pain. However, related report on the involvement of spinal glia in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis-associated pathological pain and the underlying mechanisms are still lacking. The present study investigated spinal glial activation and underlying molecular mechanisms in a rat model of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

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The duration of grade 3-4 neutropenia in the PEG-rhG-CSF 100 μg/kg and PEG-rhG-CSF 6 mg groups were similar with that in the rhG-CSF 5 μg/kg group (P>0.05 for all). The incidence rate of grade 3-4 neutropenia in the PEG-rhG-CSF 100 μg/kg group, PEG-rhG-CSF 6 mg group, and G-CSF 5 μg/kg group were 69.7%, 68.4%, and 69.5%, respectively, with a non-significant difference among the three groups (P=0.963). The incidence rate of febrile neutropenia in the PEG-rhG-CSF 100 μg/kg group, PEG-rhG-CSF 6 mg group and G-CSF 5 μg/kg group were 6.1%, 6.4%, and 5.5%, respectively, showing no significant difference among them (P=0.935). The incidence rate of adverse events in the PEG-rhG-CSF 100 μg/kg group, PEG-rhG-CSF 6 mg group and G-CSF 5 μg / kg group were 6.7%, 4.1%, and 5.5%, respectively, showing a non-significant difference among them (P=0.581).

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A 39-year-old man presented to the hospital in April 2011 with a 2-month history of tonsillitis, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, shortness of breath on exertion and a dry cough. He was a non-smoker, previously fit and well with no regular medication. Examination of the respiratory, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems was normal; he appeared generally well. C reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were raised. A CT of the thorax showed mediastinal thickening and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Whole body (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed diffuse tracheobronchial activity. Tracheal and lymph node biopsies showed non-specific features. Lung function tests showed an obstructive picture. A diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis was made. Immunosuppressive treatment was started, initially with oral methotrexate and prednisolone, later progressing to intravenous methylprednisolone and intravenous cyclophosphamide. Repeat bronchoscopy showed improvement in inflammation; however, the patient's symptoms were not improved. The patient's symptoms and lung function currently remain stable on maintenance oral prednisolone.

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Nongestational choriocarcinoma is very rare and carries a poor prognosis in female patients. In this report, the authors present a case of nongestational choriocarcinoma with brain metastasis in a female. A 58-year-old female with intermittent back pain was referred to a private hospital. On examination, a mediastinal tumor and a pancreatic tumor were detected. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of the tumor was performed for histological evaluation. Pathological diagnosis was difficult because only a small amount of tissue was collected. Head MRI showed multiple metastatic tumors in the brain. The patient was diagnosed with primary mediastinal choriocarcinoma with brain metastasis. She was treated with one course of an etoposide, methotrexate, dactinomycin, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine regimen, but her general condition gradually deteriorated, and she died on day 41. Nongestational choriocarcinoma is drug resistant, whereas gestational choriocarcinoma has better chemotherapeutic sensitivity.

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Newly diagnosed patients with histologically proven Hodgkin lymphoma were staged according to the Ann Arbor classification and divided into favorable (stage I, stage IIA, and IIIA) and unfavorable (stage IIB, IIIB, and IV) groups. Subjects classified as group 1 (favorable) were treated with six 28-day cycles of chemotherapy (COPP/COPP ± ABV). Subjects classified as group 2 (unfavorable) were treated with eight 28-day cycles of COPP/ABV chemotherapy.

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Immunoablation by cyclophosphamide and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is safe and effective to induce remission of refractory Crohn's disease, and should be further evaluated in randomised controlled trials.

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This is a noncomparative, randomized, phase II trial of preoperative taxane-anthracycline in combination with trastuzumab, lapatinib, or combined trastuzumab plus lapatinib in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive, stage II to IIIA operable breast cancer. The primary aim was to estimate the percentage of pathologic complete response (pCR; no invasive tumor in breast and axillary nodes).

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Our patient was a 22-year-old white woman who met the American Thoracic Society criteria for refractory asthma that had remained poorly controlled for 5 years despite progressive escalation to step 6 treatment as recommended by National Institutes of Health-National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines, including high-dose oral corticosteroids, high-dose inhaled corticosteroid plus long-acting β2-agonist, leukotriene receptor antagonist, and monthly omalizumab. Separate trials with azithromycin therapy and roflumilast did not improve her asthma control, nor did bronchial thermoplasty help. Additional consultations with two other university health systems left the patient with few treatment options for asthma, which included cyclophosphamide. Instead, the patient underwent a LINX® procedure after failure of maximal medical therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease with the additional aim of improving asthma control. After she underwent LINX® treatment, her asthma improved dramatically and was no longer refractory. She had normal exhaled nitric oxide levels and loss of peripheral eosinophilia after LINX® treatment. Prednisone was discontinued without loss of asthma control. The only immediate adverse effects due to the LINX® procedure were bloating, nausea, and vomiting.

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A total of 134 participants (92 DOC and 42 PIVC) were included. Participants in the DOC group were treated for longer (174 v. 101 days; p<0.01) and with higher cumulative doses (17 276 v. 3 327 mg; p<0.01). Risk of infection was similar in the two groups, although there were 6 deaths from leucopenic sepsis in the DOC group (v. 0; p=0.18). Nadir leucocyte counts were also lower in the DOC group (median 3.8 v. 5.3 × 109/L; p=0.02).

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No statistically significant difference between the intervention group and the control group on the incidence of admission due to FN, the self-efficacy in self-management, and the knowledge on prevention of FN. The self-care behavior adherence was significant at cycle 4 of AC regimen in favor of the intervention group (P = 0.036). Handwashing competence improved more significantly among subjects in the intervention group than the control group (P = 0.009).

cancer drug cytoxan

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changes in the left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) can be detected in dogs with malignant lymphoma undergoing a cyclic combination chemotherapy protocol including doxorubicin.

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The OR (95% credible interval) of inducing an sCr remission at 6 months was 1.70 (0.51, 6.87) for mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) versus cyclophosphamide (CYC); 2.16 (0.38, 13.36) for tacrolimus (Tac) versus CYC; and 1.25 (0.13, 10.51) for Tac versus MMF. For proteinuric remission the OR was 1.46 (0.81, 3.04) for MMF versus CYC; 1.96 (0.80, 5.11) for Tac versus CYC; and 1.34 (0.43, 3.90) for Tac versus MMF. The probability (95% credible interval) of inducing a creatinine remission at 6 months was Tac 56% (19%, 88%); MMF 51% (23%, 79%); and CYC 37% (28%, 47%). The probability of inducing a proteinuric remission was Tac 41% (23%, 63%); MMF 34% (23%, 50%); CYC 26% (20%, 32%); azathioprine 10% (1%, 55%); prednisone 11% (2%, 38%). None of the results were conclusive when examined in a sensitivity analysis.

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Studies published in English between January 1, 1984 and October 31, 2014 that reported PML in adult SLE patients were included. Immunosuppression was defined as exposure to ≥1 immunosuppressant drug of interest at PML diagnosis: belimumab, rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and high-dose corticosteroids (>15 mg/day). Minimal immunosuppression was defined as low-dose corticosteroids (≤15 mg/day) and/or anti-malarials.

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We report an adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) patient suffering from fatal reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after treatment with the anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) monoclonal antibody, mogamulizumab. HBV reactivation occurred without liver damage in this hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative patient, who was seropositive for antibodies against the viral core and surface antigens at baseline, after two cycles of CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone) followed by six cycles of THP-COP regimen (cyclophosphamide, pirarubicin, vincristine and prednisolone). Unexpectedly, mogamulizumab monotherapy for relapsed CCR4 positive ATL induced sudden and fatal liver failure due to HBV reactivation, despite antiviral prophylaxis with entecavir. This clinical course may not only offer important suggestions to prevent critical HBV reactivation in HBsAg positive cancer patients who receive immune-enhancing drugs such as anti-CCR4 antibody, but also provide a clue to understanding the pathogenesis of HBV reactivation following systemic chemotherapy.

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The urothelium is a frontline sensor of the lower urinary tract, sampling the bladder lumen and stimulating an immune response to infectious and noxious agents. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize such agents and coordinate the innate response, often by forming inflammasomes that activate caspase-1 and the release of interleukin-1. We have shown the presence of one PRR (NLRP3) in the urothelia and its central role in the inflammatory response to cyclophosphamide. The purpose of this study was to (1) assess the likely range of the PPR response by assessing the repertoire present in the rat bladder and (2) determine the utility of the MYP3 rat urothelia cell line for in vitro studies by assessing its PPR repertoire and functional responsiveness.

cytoxan dosage forms

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by acute thunderclap headache, evidence of vasoconstriction in conventional angiography or magnetic resonance angiography and reversibility of these phenomena within 12 weeks. Some triggering factors, for example drugs such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, sumatriptan, tacrolimus, cyclophosphamide and cocaine, or states such as pregnancy, puerperium or migraine have been described. We describe the case of a 29-year-old woman with RCVS associated with fingolimod three months after childbirth. This case represents the first report of RCVS in fingolimod treatment.

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Rituximab is effective in relapse prevention, but B cell repopulation creates a risk of relapse. Redosing before B cell repopulation could reduce the relapse risk further.

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Thirty-four subjects (68 cycles of AC) were enrolled. Mean (range) maximum nausea score in the first AC cycle was 58 (40-90). Thirty-three subjects (97 %) received the same AC doses in the second as in the third cycle. Mean (±standard error) maximum nausea scores in patients receiving ginger and placebo were 35.36 (±4.43) and 32.17 (±3.71), respectively. The difference in mean maximum nausea scores was 3 (95 % confidence interval, -3 to 9; P = 0.3). There were no significant differences between ginger and placebo in terms of vomiting incidence and severity, rescue medication use, chemotherapy compliance, and adverse events.

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One hundred twenty two patients were studied although the majority had low grade or mantle cell lymphoma. All had received at least two or more prior therapies.

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Of the 560 patients enrolled, 532 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis for response, and 485 in the primary analysis for response. The median age was 70 years. Although complete-remission rates were similar with R-FC and R-CHOP (40% and 34%, respectively; P=0.10), progressive disease was more frequent with R-FC (14%, vs. 5% with R-CHOP). Overall survival was significantly shorter with R-FC than with R-CHOP (4-year survival rate, 47% vs. 62%; P=0.005), and more patients in the R-FC group died during the first remission (10% vs. 4%). Hematologic toxic effects occurred more frequently in the R-FC group than in the R-CHOP group, but the frequency of grade 3 or 4 infections was balanced (17% and 14%, respectively). In 274 of the 316 patients who were randomly assigned to maintenance therapy, rituximab reduced the risk of progression or death by 45% (in remission after 4 years, 58%, vs. 29% with interferon alfa; hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.87; P=0.01). Among patients who had a response to R-CHOP, maintenance therapy with rituximab significantly improved overall survival (4-year survival rate, 87%, vs. 63% with interferon alfa; P=0.005).

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Our systematic review demonstrates that CNIs are promising alternatives to CTX for IMN patients, primarily due to their better short-term efficacy and safety. Well-designed clinical trials are needed to further evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of CNIs and CTX.

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We enrolled IPF patients who received mechanical ventilation and high-dose corticosteroids between April 2010 and March 2013. Records were extracted from a Japanese nationwide inpatient database. We conducted a retrospective epidemiologic and prognostic analysis.

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In this issue of Blood, Kanakry and coworkers report on the use of posttransplant cyclophosphamide (Cy) as sole immunoprophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in HLA-matched related or unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT).

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Cancer immune escape is frequently associated with the induction of an inappropriate immune response, i.e., a response that does not inhibit but perhaps even promotes the tumor. Indeed, increased frequencies of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Tregs) are associated with an impaired prognosis in several cancers. Thus, depletion of Tregs, e.g., by cyclophosphamide, was proposed as a means to boost immune responses to cancer. In the present issue of the Journal, Sevko et al., however, provide evidence that cyclophosphamide exerted the unexpected effect of induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

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cytoxan and alcohol 2015-01-15

The incidence of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is increasing in the elderly population, which is a more challenging population to buy cytoxan online treat because of comorbidities and enhanced sensitivity to chemotherapy toxicities. This analysis evaluated the impact of age group on assessment of febrile neutropenia (FN) risk, supportive care management, and chemotherapy delivery.

cytoxan 600 mg 2016-08-19

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents the cornerstone of treatment in pediatric high-risk and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The aim of the present study was to compare outcomes of pediatric patients with AML undergoing HSCT using 3 different conditioning regimens: total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclophosphamide (Cy); busulfan (Bu) and Cy; or Bu, Cy, and melphalan (Mel). In this retrospective study, registry data for patients > 2 and <18 years age undergoing matched allogeneic HSCT for AML in first complete remission (CR1) in 204 European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation centers between 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. Data were available for 631 patients; 458 patients received stem cells from a matched sibling donor and 173 from a matched unrelated donor. For 440 patients, bone marrow was used as stem cell source, and 191 patients received peripheral blood stem cells. One hundred nine patients received TBICy, 389 received BuCy, and 133 received BuCyMel as their preparatory regimen. Median follow-up was 55 months. Patients receiving BuCyMel showed a lower incidence of relapse at 5 years (14.7% versus 31.5% in BuCy versus 30% in TBICy, P < .01) and higher overall survival (OS) (76.6% versus 64% versus 64.5%, P = .04) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) (74.5% versus 58% versus 61.9%, P < .01), with a comparable nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (10.8% versus 10.5% versus 8.1%, P = .79). Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades III and IV but not chronic GVHD, was higher in patients receiving BuCyMel. Older age at HSCT had an adverse impact on NRM and the use of peripheral blood as stem cell source was associated with increased chronic GVHD and NRM as well as lower LFS and OS. Among pediatric patients receiving HSCT for AML in CR1, the use of BuCyMel conditioning proved superior to buy cytoxan online TBICy and BuCy in reducing relapse and improving LFS.

cytoxan 100 mg 2015-01-27

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare multisystemic autoimmune disorder predominantly affecting the upper and lower respiratory tracts and the kidneys, and rarely affecting other organ systems. Tuberculosis can mimic the presentation of granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and both can occur simultaneously in the same patient. Here we report what we believe to be the first case of concurrent granulomatous breast lesions and hemorrhagic retinal angiopathy in a Sri Lankan woman with refractory granulomatosis with polyangiitis buy cytoxan online complicated by probable tuberculosis.

cytoxan oral dosing 2015-09-01

Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive diffuse large B-cell buy cytoxan online lymphoma variant that is most frequently observed in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, in recent years, some cases have emerged in patients without HIV infection and involve other sites like stomach, lung, nasal cavity, and jejunum. We report a rare case of PBL in the maxillary anterior area of a 62-year-old man without HIV infection. The tumor cells were characterized by non-cohesive round or oval shape cells with eccentrically-placed nuclei with a prominent perinuclear halo. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumor cells were strongly positive for MUM1, VS38c, VMT, and κ light chain, focally positive for LCA and CD79a, and negative for CD3, CD20, CD56, λ light chain, CK-pan, EMA, and HMB45. The patient was treated with chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. The lesion showed partial remission.

cytoxan chemo drug 2017-12-24

This present case pertains to a 48-year-old woman with a history of antiphospholipid syndrome, who presented with progressive fatigue, generalized weakness, and orthopnea acutely. She had a prior diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome with recurrent deep vein thromboses (DVTs) and repeated demonstration of lupus anticoagulants. She presented in cardiogenic shock with markedly elevated troponin and global myocardial dysfunction on echocardiography, and cardiac catheterization revealed minimal disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was buy cytoxan online performed, which revealed findings of perfusion defects and microvascular obstruction, consistent with the pathophysiology of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS). Diagnosis was made based on supportive imaging, including head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealing multifocal, acute strokes; microvascular thrombosis in the dermis; and subacute renal infarctions. The patient was anticoagulated with intravenous unfractionated heparin and received high-dose methylprednisolone, plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin, and one dose each of rituximab and cyclophosphamide. She convalesced with eventual myocardial recovery after a complicated course. The diagnosis of CAPS relies on the presence of (1) antiphospholipid antibodies and (2) involvement of multiple organs in a microangiopathic thrombotic process with a close temporal association. The myocardium is frequently affected, and heart failure, either as the presenting symptom or cause of death, is common. Despite echocardiographic evidence of myocardial dysfunction in such patients, MRIs of CAPS have not previously been reported. This case highlights the utility in assessing the involvement of the myocardium by the microangiopathic process with MRI. Because the diagnosis of CAPS requires involvement in multiple organ systems, cardiac MRI is likely an underused tool that not only reaffirms the pathophysiology of CAPS, but could also clue clinicians in to the possibility of a diffuse thrombotic process.

cytoxan dose calculator 2016-04-10

Overall, 56 and 30 patients were treated at Tsukuba University Hospital and branch hospitals, respectively. Forty-seven, 18 and 21 patients were classified with good-, intermediate- and poor-prognosis disease, respectively, according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group criteria. Eighteen of the 21 patients (86%) with poor-prognosis disease were treated at Tsukuba University Hospital from the beginning of induction chemotherapy. Induction chemotherapy with a high relative dose intensity was possible in most patients. The average relative dose intensity of each drug was >0.96. Treatment procedures other than induction chemotherapy buy cytoxan online were efficiently centralized; 74% of post-chemotherapy surgery and all second-line or subsequent chemotherapies were performed at Tsukuba University Hospital. The 5-year overall survival rates of the good-, intermediate- and poor-prognosis groups were 97, 93 and 84%, respectively.

cytoxan overdose 2015-10-02

Disease activity and therapy show an impact on cellular and serological parameters in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). buy cytoxan online This study was performed to compare the influence of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and cyclophosphamide (CYC) therapy on these parameters in patients with flaring, organ-threatening disease.

cytoxan dosage forms 2016-06-09

Remission of disease was induced in diseased (NZBxNZW) F1 mice with an established CTX regimen consisting of a single dose of glucocorticosteroids followed by five day course with daily injections of CTX. Five days after the last CTX injection, differing amounts of purified CD4+Foxp3+CD25+ Treg were adoptively transferred and clinical parameters, autoantibody titers, the survival and changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were determined at different time points during the study. The influence of CTX on the numbers, frequencies buy cytoxan online and proliferation of endogenous Treg and Tcon was analyzed in lymphoid organs by flow cytometry.

cytoxan 1000 mg 2015-09-25

To analyze factors associated with survival, rejection and graft versus host disease in aplastic anaemia patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) from HLA matched buy cytoxan online sibling donors.

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The majority of patients with POAML showed behavior consistent with that of localized, indolent diseases. Thirty gray of local irradiation seems to be quite effective. The initial bilateral involvement and contralateral orbital relapses can be also buy cytoxan online controlled with radiation therapy alone. Lens shielding reduces the risk of cataract.

cytoxan lupus dose 2017-11-06

A total of 511 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL treated at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 2003 and December 2012 were included in the study. Among these patients, 376 received R-CHOP regimen (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) as primary treatment, and 135 received CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) as primary treatment. Intrathecal chemotherapy prophylaxis (methotrexate plus cytarabine) was administered to those who were deemed at high risk for CNS relapse. In the entire cohort and in the R-CHOP set in particular, the Kaplan-Meier method coupled with the log-rank test was used for univariate analysis, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis. Differences were evaluated using a two-tailed test, and P < 0.05 buy cytoxan online was considered significant.

cytoxan maximum dose 2016-04-17

A 65-year-old man with entero-Behçet's disease (BD) being treated with mesalazine was presented to our hospital complaining of dyspnea. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed ground-glass opacities and he was initially diagnosed with mesalazine-induced interstitial pneumonitis (IP). Besides the discontinuation of mesalazine, a high dose of oral prednisolone was administered and the patient seemed to recover. However, four months later, dyspnea recurred and repeated CT revealed more extensive pulmonary infiltration despite steroid therapy. After the exclusion of infections, we suspected either a recurrence of mesalazine-induced IP or BD-related IP as a clinical manifestation of BD. The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide, followed by orally administered azathioprine, based on the assumption of underlying vasculitis. Thereafter, his condition improved. BD-related IP is an extremely rare condition with limited reports in the literature. Mesalazine-induced IP is also uncommon but the buy cytoxan online prognosis is generally good after discontinuation of mesalazine with or without steroid therapy. We discuss an extremely rare case, especially focusing on BD-related IP and mesalazine-induced IP as a potential cause of recurrent IP in a patient with entero-BD.

cytoxan pills 2017-09-03

Adenovirus (AdV) infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To evaluate the use of molecular AdV testing in HSCT at our institution and identify risk factors for AdV viremia and disease, we performed a retrospective cohort study of all HSCT recipients who had undergone AdV polymerase chain buy cytoxan online reaction testing over a 2-year period. Two cohorts were identified: cohort 1, comprising patients testing positive for AdV (n = 7) and cohort 2, comprising patients testing negative (n = 36). Overall patient characteristics were not statistically significantly different between the 2 cohorts. A comparison of cohort 1 and cohort 2 identified the following medication exposures as risk factors influencing AdV status: preparatory regimens using fludarabine (relative risk [RR], 8.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-64.27; P = .006), melphalan (RR, 3.47; 95% CI, 0.76-15.94: P = .08), and/or cyclophosphamide (RR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.02-1.4; P = .05), and GVHD prophylaxis with methylprednisone (RR, 3.73; 95% CI, 1.01-13.9; P = .04). AdV-positive patients had higher grades of GVHD and higher rates of GVHD of the gastrointestinal tract (RR, 4; 95% CI, 1.18-13.5; P = .03) compared with AdV-negative patients. Four of the 7 AdV-positive patients had concomitant clinical manifestations of disease, including pneumonia, diarrhea, and/or disseminated disease. Clinical outcomes in symptomatic patients included resolution of disease in 2 patients and death in 2 patients. All 7 AdV-positive patients received antiviral therapy, including 1 patient with severe disseminated disease that resolved after administration of liposomal cidofovir. Our study at a large pediatric HSCT center provides important preliminary data for the development of a prospective trial destined to identify specific HCST patient subpopulations that might benefit most from molecular screening and early preemptive therapy.

cytoxan medication assistance 2016-08-18

We recruited patients with previously untreated progressive chronic lymphocytic leukaemia who had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 and adequate Levitra 5mg Review renal and hepatic function from centres in the USA. Patients with recent myocardial infarction; class III or IV heart failure; uncontrolled, HIV, or active hepatitis B or C infection; or active haemolytic anaemia were excluded. In the first arm of this study, which has been previously reported, patients were treated with six cycles of induction with pentostatin (2 mg/m(2) on day 1), cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m(2) on day 1), and ofatumumab (cycle 1: 300 mg on day 1 and 1000 mg/m(2) on day 2; cycles 2-6: 1000 mg/m(2) on day 1) given intravenously every 21 days. Here were report the second arm, where patients received the same regimen as the first arm, with the addition of six cycles of consolidation with ofatumumab (1000 mg once every 4 weeks), also given intravenously. The primary endpoint was TFS at 18 months, assessed in those who began consolidation. We estimated the distribution of TFS using the Kaplan-Meier method, assessing between-group differences with log-rank statistics. The phase 2 trial, which is completed, is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01024010.

cytoxan pill dosage 2015-12-25

A 55-year-old Japanese female was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and developed nephrotic syndrome. She was diagnosed with lupus nephritis by a percutaneous renal biopsy. She was treated with intravenous steroid pulse therapy twice, but it proved to be ineffective. She achieved a complete remission after intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse (CPAIV) Lioresal 10 Mg therapy. Thereafter, her lupus nephritis was well controlled and demonstrated only a low activity. However, she suffered Epstein- Barr virus (EBV)-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) twice, and in each case she was treated with anticancer drugs and achieved a complete remission. This was a rare case of lupus nephritis who showed repeated EBV-associated HPS.

cytoxan drug label 2016-07-18

Gemcitabine is known to exert a therapeutic effect on brain tumors despite the limited permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In our experimental research single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of gemcitabine 25 mg/kg provided increase in median survival of mice with intracranially transplanted Ehrlich carcinoma by 41-89% (p < 0.001). In Elavil Dosage Sleep this experimental model i.p. administration of gemcitabine (permeability of the BBB of less than 10%), carmustine (good permeability of the BBB), cyclophosphamide (poor permeability of the BBB) and cisplatin (doesn't penetrate through the BBB) increased median survival of mice by 88% (p < 0.001), 59% (p = 0.001), 35% (p = 0.005) and 18% (p = 0.302) respectively. Considering strong correlation between antitumor activity of the drugs (carmustine, cyclophosphamide and cisplatin) and their permeability of the BBB, efficacy of gemcitabine in intracranial tumors could be due to its wide range of therapeutic doses.

cytoxan generic price 2017-08-25

The efficacy and safety of adding rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (R-FC) for the treatment Coreg Renal Dosing of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) has been demonstrated in two randomised trials: CLL-8 was conducted in previously untreated patients, and REACH was conducted in previously treated patients. In both trials, progression-free survival was increased in the R-FC treatment groups compared with the FC treatment groups. In CLL-8, overall survival was also significantly increased.

cytoxan iv dosing 2015-08-27

The prognosis of ALK-negative ALCLs is usually worse than ALK-positive ALCLs. In this Evista Usual Dosage case, the patient was not responsive to a multidrug chemotherapy with CHOP and Hyper-CVAD/MA.

cytoxan tablet dosage 2017-08-15

Therapy advances are constantly improving survival rates of cancer patients, however the toxic effects of chemotherapy drugs can seriously affect patients' quality of life. In women, fertility and premature ovarian endocrine dysfunction are of particular concern. It is urgently we find methods to preserve or reconstruct ovarian function for these women. This study compares GnRHa treatment with ovarian tissue cryopreservation and orthotopic transplantation in a chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage murine model. 56 inbred Lewis rats were divided into 4 treatment groups: Saline control (group I); cyclophosphamide only (group II); cyclophosphamide plus GnRHa (group III); cyclophosphamide and grafting of thawed cryopreserved ovaries (group IV). Body weight, estrous cycle recovery time, ovarian weight, morphology and follicle count, as well as breeding and fertility were compared among groups. Only group IV was able to restore to normal body weight by the end of the observation period and resumed normal estrous cycles in a shorter time compared to other treatment groups. There was a decrease in primordial follicles in all treatment groups, but group III had the greatest reduction. Triphala Buy Although, there was no difference in pregnancy, only one animal littered normal pups in group II, none littered in group III and four littered in group IV. Thus, cryopreservation and orthotopic transplantation of ovarian tissue can restore the fertility of rats subjected to chemotherapy in a manner that is superior to GnRHa treatment. We also observed increased rates of hepatic, splenic and pulmonary haemorrhage in group III, suggesting there may be synergistic toxicity of GnRHa and cyclophosphamide.

cytoxan tablet form 2017-07-07

A 28-year-old man complained of pain in the oral mucosa and pharynx in March 2011, and then developed fever and generalized swelling of the cheek. In March 2012, a gum biopsy led to a diagnosis of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL). (18)F-FDG-PET revealed significant uptake in the mouth, tonsils, jawbone, shoulder blade, humerus, ilium, femur, and spleen. After two courses Casodex Generic Cost of the SMILE (dexamethasone, methotrexate (MTX), ifosfamide, L-asparaginase, etoposide) regimen, the response was stable disease. However, a high-dose MTX/cytarabine (MA) regimen was effective. After three courses of the MA regimen, a partial response was achieved. Then, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an unrelated donor was performed. At 10 months after transplantation, there was no sign of recurrence. Although the optimal treatment for ENKL refractory to the SMILE regimen has yet to be established, our case suggests the MA regimen to be a potentially effective treatment option.

cancer drug cytoxan 2015-01-24

The goal of this study was to observe the therapeutic efficacy of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone combined chemotherapy (COP) in treating adult haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Fifteen cases diagnosed with HLH were enrolled in our study. Each of them was treated with the COP regimen. Two of the fifteen patients had autoimmune disease-associated HLH (13.3%), 2/15 had lymphoma-associated HLH (13.3%), 7/15 had infection-associated HLH (IAHLH) (46.7%), and the remaining 4/15 developed the disease in the absence of apparent underlying disease (26.7%). A complete response (CR) was achieved in 7/15 patients (46.7%), while a partial response (PR) was achieved in 5/15 patients (33.3%). With a mean follow-up of 72.5 weeks, the one-year overall survival was 66.7%. HLH of varying aetiology exhibited differing sensitivity and response to the COP regimen. In combination with aetiological and supportive treatment, the COP regimen as a mild and cost-effective chemotherapy is especially favourable for IAHLH, autoimmune disease-associated HLH, and disease severity precluding intensive treatment.

cytoxan 125 mg 2015-12-20

Between Jan 16, 2009, and Sept 8, 2010, we enrolled 101 patients, one of whom withdrew consent before treatment, leaving 100 patients in the primary endpoint analysis. After neoadjuvant therapy, 19 (19% [95% CI 12-28]; p=0·16) of 100 patients achieved a pathological complete response according to centralised review. The most frequent grade 3-4 events during the neoadjuvant phase were neutropenia (89 [89%] of 100 patients), febrile neutropenia (37 [37%]), and mucositis (23 [23%]) and during the adjuvant phase the most frequent grade 3-4 adverse event was proteinuria (5 [7%] of 75 patients). One (1%) patient died of thrombotic microangiopathy after cycle 1, which was thought to be related to bevacizumab. Two patients (3%) developed transitory heart failure. 48 (48%) patients had serious adverse events, the most frequent of which was febrile neutropenia (28 [28%]).