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A 77-year-old woman presented with subacute onset progressive confusion, aggression, auditory hallucinations and delusions. In the preceding months, the patient had a number of admissions with transient unilateral hemiparesis with facial droop, and had been started on valproate for presumed hemiplegic migraine. Valproate was withdrawn soon after admission and her cognitive abilities have gradually improved over 3 months of follow-up. Valproate levels taken prior to withdrawal were subtherapeutic and the patient was normoammonaemic. EEG undertaken during inpatient stay showed changes consistent with encephalopathy, and low titre N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies were present in this patient. The possible aetiologies of valproate-induced encephalopathy and NMDA receptor-associated encephalitis present a diagnostic dilemma. We present a putative combinatorial hypothesis to explain this patient's symptoms.
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Recent reports emphasize the contribution of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the pathogenesis of diabetic renal injury and fibrosis. Valproic acid (VPA) is a first-line drug used for the treatment of epilepsy and migraine as well as established as a HDAC inhibitor. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-fibrotic and renoprotective effects of VPA in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetes was induced by single injection of STZ (50mg/kg), whereas VPA at the doses of 150 and 300mg/kg/day was administered for 8 consecutive weeks by oral route in Sprague Dawley rats. The renal injuries and fibrosis were assessed by histology, fibrosis specific staining and fibroblast activation by a transmission electron microscope, while expression of proteins of interest was evaluated by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. VPA treatment ameliorated the histological alterations as well as fibrosis, and decreased the expression of TGF-β1, CTGF, α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen I, COX-2, ICAM-1 and HDAC4/5/7. Further, VPA treatment significantly increased histone H3 acetylation and MMP-2 expression. The present study clearly established that VPA treatment ameliorates the renal injury and fibrosis in diabetic kidney by preventing the myofibroblast activation and fibrogenesis by HDAC inhibition and associated mechanisms, thereby improving the profibrotic and anti-fibrotic protein balance.
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Both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are known to contribute to secondary injury, ultimately leading to cell death after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we showed that valproic acid (VPA) reduced cell death of motor neurons by inhibiting cytochrome c release mediated by oxidative stress and ER stress after SCI. After SCI, rats were immediately injected with VPA (300 mg/kg) subcutaneously and further injected every 12 h for an indicated time period. Motor neuron cell death at an early time after SCI was significantly attenuated by VPA treatment. Superoxide anion (O2-) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression linked to oxidative stress was increased after injury, which was inhibited by VPA. In addition, VPA inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which was activated and peaked at an early time after SCI. Furthermore, JNK activation and c-Jun phosphorylation were inhibited by a broad-spectrum reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP), indicating that ROS including O2- increased after SCI probably contribute to JNK activation. VPA also inhibited cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation, which was significantly inhibited by SP600125, a JNK inhibitor. The levels of phosphorylated Bim and Mcl-1, which are known as downstream targets of JNK, were significantly reduced by SP600125. On the other hand, VPA treatment inhibited ER stress-induced caspase-12 activation, which is activated in motor neurons after SCI. In addition, VPA increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and inhibited CHOP expression. Taken together, our results suggest that cell death of motor neurons after SCI is mediated through oxidative stress and ER stress-mediated cytochrome c release and VPA-inhibited cytochrome c release by attenuating ROS-induced JNK activation followed by Mcl-1 and Bim phosphorylation and ER stress-coupled CHOP expression.
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The aim of this study was to determine the influence of chronic monotherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on vitamin D levels, bone metabolism, and body composition.
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We report that chronic exposure of HN33 cells to either lithium or valproate produced a time-dependent down-regulation of MARCKS protein. Maximal reduction in MARCKS levels were observed after 3 days of exposure to valproate and after 7 days of exposure to lithium. The reduction of MARCKS produced by lithium and valproate alone were additive when the two drugs were combined. The reduction in MARCKS produced by lithium was reversed by the addition of inositol to the media, whereas the reduction produced by valproate was unaffected by the addition of inositol. Carbamazepine failed to affect MARCKS protein levels at each dose and time tested.
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Fixed oral doses of clozapine produce up to 45-fold interindividual variability among its serum levels in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Although the relationship between serum clozapine level and its therapeutic response is uncertain, the presence of a therapeutic window and level-dependent adverse effects require the estimation of serum clozapine levels. As routine therapeutic drug monitoring of clozapine is not feasible in many clinical settings, identification of clinical predictors of serum clozapine levels is desirable. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the clinical variables associated with serum clozapine levels. We assessed the sociodemographic and clinical profiles, cognition, disability and psychopathology of 101 consecutive patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia on a stable dose of clozapine, using standard assessment schedules. We determined their serum clozapine levels using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. While employing multivariate robust regression models, oral clozapine dose (P<0.001), caffeine intake (P=0.04) and Valproate comedication (P=0.005) were associated with serum clozapine levels. Serum clozapine levels above 750 ng/ml increased the risk of seizures (odds ratio 5.15; P=0.03). Clinical variables are useful to model a dosing nomogram for serum clozapine levels. The importance of caffeine consumption and Valproate comedication should be considered during clozapine dose adjustments to enhance its therapeutic response and safety profile.
Although it has been reported that some antiepileptic drugs have inducing or inhibiting effects on lamotrigine (LTG) clearance, whether they have the same effects in Asian epilepsy patients as in those in other countries has not been clarified, especially in children. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of co-medications on LTG clearance in Japanese children with epilepsy.
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To evaluate a consecutive population of hospitalized patients who were simultaneously treated with meropenem and valproate and assess the effect on epileptic activity.
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The prediction that an anti-proliferative effect coupled with a pro-differentiative action will detect a neural tube teratogen has been validated by comparison of these in vitro endpoints with in vivo teratogenicity in a series of closely allied valproate structural analogues. The majority of the compounds significantly inhibited C6 glioma proliferation, the most potent compounds being ranked as octanoic acid > 2-propylhexanoic acid > or = 2-ethylhexanoic acid > or = valproic acid. The anti-proliferative potency of these compounds did not correlate strictly to their relative in vivo teratogenic potential. Valproic acid exhibited an anti-proliferative IC50 of 1.45 mM, whereas 2-propyl-2-pentenoic acid and 2-propyl-4-pentenoic acid were virtually indistinguishable, exhibiting significantly lower IC50 values of 2.5 and 2.55 mM, respectively. The concanavalin A lectin affinity assay was employed to establish whether an anti-proliferative action was coupled with an increased state of cell differentiation. In this lectin affinity assay, the most potent analogues to significantly attenuate the affinity of exposed C6 glioma cells for concanavalin A lectin-coated plastic included 2-butylhexanoic acid, 2-propyl-4-pentenoic acid, 2-propylhexanoic acid and 2-ethylhexanoic acid in a manner which can be related to their relative teratogenic potencies in vivo. All compounds screened positive in both the anti-proliferative and pro-differentiative assays exhibited in vivo exencephalic rates of 5-44%. These included valproic acid, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, 2-propylhexanoic acid and 2-butylhexanoic acid. It would appear that combined anti-proliferative and pro-differentiative screens provide a promising detection system for teratogenic status in a series of valproate analogues.
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All patients with AS in this group had generalized epilepsy, and 10 (53%) also had partial epilepsy. Main seizure types were atypical absences and myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures. Mean age at onset was 1 year 1 month. Epilepsy aggravated by fever occurred in 10 patients (53%) and status epilepticus in 16 (84%). Eighteen patients (95%) had previous or current history of daily seizures, of which 14 (64%) had disabling seizures. Multiple seizure types were observed in 13 patients (53%). History of refractory epilepsy was reported in 16 patients (84%). Parents reported improvement, characterized by decrease in seizure frequency or seizure control, at the mean age of 5.3 years. Therefore, most of these patients had a period of refractory epilepsy; however, improvement occurred during late childhood and puberty. The best therapeutic response was obtained with valproic acid alone or in association with phenobarbital or clonazepam. Epilepsy was aggravated by carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and vigabatrin.
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A group of international experts prepared two lists of drugs with their serum/plasma and urine concentrations, which should be used when evaluating the performance of a new laboratory method. The two lists were verified by running in vitro interference studies in three European laboratories on Hitachi instruments. The study identified the following new interferants: acid phosphatase in serum by ibuprofen and theophylline; non-prostatic acid phosphatase in serum by cefoxitin and doxycycline; creatine kinase MB in serum by doxycycline; total bilirubin in serum (Jendrassik-Grof method) by rifampicin and intralipid; total bilirubin in serum (DPD method) by intralipid; creatinine in serum (Jaffe method) by cefoxitin; fructosamine in serum by levodopa and methyldopa; uric acid in serum by levodopa, methyldopa and tetracycline; carbamazepine in serum by doxycycline, levodopa, methyldopa and metronidazole; digitoxin in serum by rifampicin; phenytoin in serum by doxycycline, ibuprofen, metronidazole and theophylline; theophylline in serum by acetaminophen, cefoxitin, doxycycline, levodopa, phenylbutazone and rifampicin; tobramycin in serum by cefoxitin, doxycycline, levodopa, rifampicin and phenylbutazone; valproic acid in serum by phenylbutazone; C3 in serum by intralipid; C4 in serum by doxycycline; rheumatoid factor in serum by ibuprofen and metronidazole; pancreatic amylase and total amylase in urine by acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, cefoxitin, gentamicin, levodopa, methyldopa and ofloxacin; magnesium in urine by acetylcysteine, gentamicin and methyldopa; beta2-microglobulin in urine by ascorbic acid; total protein in urine by ascorbic acid, Ca-dobesilate and phenylbutazone. Interference in acid phosphatase, creatine kinase MB and bilirubin methods was observed at very low analyte concentrations, and therefore it may not be evident at higher concentrations. The study confirmed the usefulness of the recommendation.
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Two no-related males, one with noncontributory family history and the other with third-grade consanguineous parents developed refractory seizures from age 20 and 60 days, respectively. Additionally, myoclonic fits accounted on evolution of the condition. In the first case, serial EEG recordings showed low amplitude polyspikes, polyspike waves and very slow waves of high amplitude alternating with a trace of burst-suppression activity. In the second case, a right preponderant but also bilateral low amplitude polyspikes, polyspike waves and occasional desynchronization of basal trace were recorded. In both, a rapidly progressive cerebral atrophy, neurological deterioration with pyramidal signs, and tendency to microcephaly, ensued. Accompanying to this clinical picture, minor hepatic dysfunction, elevated protein levels in the CSF, lactic acidosis and COX deficiency in muscle homogenate were demonstrated. In the first case, moreover, cortical blindness and severe hepatic failure occurred while receiving valproate, in spite of concomitant L-carnitine therapy.
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Predictive in vitro test methods addressing the parameters relevant to drug release in the pediatric gastrointestinal tract could be an appropriate means for reducing the number of in vivo studies in children. However, dissolution models addressing the particular features of pediatric gastrointestinal physiology and typical pediatric dosing scenarios have not yet been described. The objective of the present study was to combine the knowledge on common vehicle types and properties and current information on pediatric gastrointestinal physiology to design a dissolution model that enables a biorelevant simulation of the gastrointestinal conditions in young children. The novel dissolution setup consists of a miniaturized dissolution system allowing the use of small fluid volumes, physiological bicarbonate-based test media, and a proper pH control during the experiment using a pHysio-stat® device. Following design and assembly of the novel in vitro setup, a set of experiments screening in vitro drug release from a valproate-extended release formulation under typical dosing conditions in infants was performed. In vitro drug release profiles indicated a controlled drug release of the test product over 12 h and were in good agreement with information given in the Summary of Product Characteristics and the Patient Information Leaflet, as well as with results from an in vivo food effect study performed with the same product and reported in the literature. The new dissolution setup thus represents a promising in vitro screening tool in the development of pediatric dosage forms and may help to reduce the number of pharmacokinetic studies in children.
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After Molt-4 cells trated with VPA at different concentrations, cell viability and growth curve were assessed by MTT assay. Cell cycle changes were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression level of p15, DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT-1), DNMT3A and 3B mRNA were detected by RT-PCR and the methylation level was detected by hn-MSPCR.
Recent anecdotal single case reports have suggested that the new antiepileptic drug gabapentin might be effective in the treatment of manic episodes and in the prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. In the present open trial, 14 patients with acute mania were treated for up to 21 days with gabapentin in a dose range from 1200 to 4800 mg/day. Six patients were treated with gabapentin as add-on medication and 8 patients were treated with a high dose of gabapentin alone. Gabapentin was both efficacious and safe when applied in combination with other drugs such as lithium and valproic acid. All patients in the add-on group and 4/8 patients on gabapentin monotherapy finished the 21 day protocol. Analysis of the scores of the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Assessment Scale (BRMAS) of these patients showed that the mean BRMAS score declined from 37.7 to 7.8 on day 21 in the add-on group and from 27.8 to 9.0 in 4/8 patients finishing 21 days in the monotherapy group. It is suggested that gabapentin monotherapy might be useful in selected patients to treat modest but not severe manic states. In addition, gabapentin in conjunction with other effective mood stabilisers seems to be safe and efficacious in the treatment of severe mania.
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Results of this study indicate that a radiosensitizing effect for fractionated radiotherapy of valproic acid for A549 and U87MG tumors in vivo is evident and that it may be more than additive for U87MG tumors. Further exploitation of histone deacetylase inhibitors in clinical trials is warranted.
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GHB was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after acetonitrile precipitation and derivation with N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide, using valproic acid as the internal standard.
The findings show that valproate did not have a negative effect on male reproductive hormones in the bipolar patients. The elevated prolactin and follicle-stimulating hormone levels observed in the epilepsy group should be attributed to epilepsy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to compare reproductive hormones in bipolar disorder and epilepsy patients on valproate therapy.
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Huntington's disease (HD) is one of the chronic devastating neurodegenerative disorders. The pathophysiological processes clearly involve both excitotoxicity and reduced gene transcription due to the decreased level of histone acetylation, accompanied by the loss of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) medium-sized spiny neurons in the striatum as a pathological hallmark of HD. Thus, the antiepileptic drug valproate, which has proved GABAergic, antiexcitotoxic and histone deacetylase inhibitor effects, might be of value by exerting a beneficial neuroprotective effect. We have now tested this drug in the N171-82Q transgenic mouse model of HD, following its chronic intraperitoneal administration in a daily dose of 100 mg/kg. Valproate significantly prolonged the survival of the transgenic mice and significantly ameliorated their diminished spontaneous locomotor activity, without exerting any noteworthy side-effect on their behaviour or the striatal dopamine content at the dose administered. The beneficial effect of valproate is probably explained by its complex pharmacological activity. As several previous clinical trials carried out with valproate did not indicate any positive effect in HD, it is worth considering the design of new studies based on a well-planned treatment regime with higher dose, using valproate in monotherapy or in combination therapy with a high number of participating patients.
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Malignant neuroleptic syndrome is a complication of antipsychotic medication use. Clozapine use is also associated with polyserositis and eosinophilia. We report a 17 years old female treated with clozapine, valproic acid, lithium carbonate and lorazepam that consulted in the emergency room for confusion, lethargy, catatonia, rigidity, myalgya and fever. Complete blood count showed eosinophilia. An abdominal CAT scan showed ascites and pleural effusion. Clozapine was discontinued and bromocriptine was started. One week after admission, the patient remained febrile and liver enzymes were elevated. Valproic acid was discontinued. Inflammatory parameters stated to subside and the patient was discharged afebrile days after admission.
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Lamotrigine and valproic acid are well-tolerated anticonvulsants, but frequently associated with severe cutaneous reactions, such as the Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis, when used in combination. We report a case of SJS likely induced by the use of a lamotrigine and valproic acid regimen and as a dental surgeon it is important to identify such lesion and report to pharmacovigilance.
To evaluate clinical and EEG features, as well as treatment and progression in fifteen patients with a diagnosis of acquired epileptic aphasia.
Seizures occur when the excitability of brain circuits is not sufficiently restrained by inhibitory mechanisms. Although modafinil is reported to reduce GABA-activated currents and extracellular GABA levels in the brain, the drug exerts anticonvulsant effects in animal studies.
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The authors hypothesized that intensified chemotherapy in protocol HIT-GBM-C would increase survival of pediatric patients with high-grade glioma (HGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG).
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To assess the outcome and safety of divalproex treatment in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.
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We sought to explore a possible association between the concomitant use of topiramate and valproic acid and the induction of hypothermia.
Among the cases and controls, 81 (0.05%) and 260 (0.04%), respectively, were long-term users of valproate. For cancer overall, the crude and adjusted odds ratios were 1.25 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.97-1.60] and 1.21 (95% CI, 0.95-1.56), respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed no dose or duration effect for overall cancer incidence, and no specific cancer site was found to be inversely associated with long-term use of valproate. For lung cancer, we found a positive but imprecise association (adjusted odds ratio, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.12-4.79).
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Sodium valproate has been a first-line antiepileptic drug for 40 years. A recent multicentre study conducted in the UK (Standard and New Antiepileptic Drugs) has confirmed what most practising neurologists had long suspected--that sodium valproate is the most effective drug in the treatment of idiopathic generalized epilepsy and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.
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Drug-induced tremor is an important differential diagnosis for tremor syndromes. In view of a constantly ageing population and increasingly frequent polypharmacotherapy, identification of potentially tremor-inducing drugs may help generating risk profiles for individual patients. Drug-induced tremor has often been seen as a complication of antipsychotic therapy, but its occurrence has also been described in response to a great diversity of compounds such as antidepressants, sympathomimetics, antiarrhythmics, antiepileptics and other drugs. The present article presents a synopsis of the most prevalent tremor-inducing drugs as well as strategies to overcome drug-induced tremor, either by replacement of the causative drug or by symptomatic therapies.
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A series of recent studies has demonstrated that the molecules involved in regulation of neuronal plasticity are also involved in the mode of action of antidepressants and mood stabilizer drugs. Intracellular calcium signaling, energy metabolism, and neuronal plasticity can be influenced by inducing axonal remodeling and increasing levels of certain synaptic proteins. Because antipsychotic drugs are used as mood stabilizers our studies focused on a newly-marketed antipsychotic drug, paliperidone. We determined changes in rat synaptoneurosomal proteins after chronic treatment with paliperidone, lithium salt, or valproic acid in order to find similarities or differences between the mode of action of paliperidone and these two classical mood stabilizers. We determined differential protein expression profiles in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 4/group). Synaptoneurosomal-enriched preparations were obtained from PFC after chronic treatment with these three drugs. Proteins were separated by 2D-DIGE and identified by nano-LC-MS/MS. We observed similar protein expression profiles at the synaptoneurosomal level, suggesting that the mode of action for paliperidone is similar to that of lithium and valproic acid. However, the expression profile for paliperidone was more similar to that of lithium. Pathways affected in common by these two drugs included oxidative phosphorylation, electron transport, carbohydrate metabolism, and post-synaptic cytokinesis implicating the effects of these drugs in signaling pathways, energy metabolism, and synaptic plasticity.
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Very little has been written on seizure management in palliative care (PC). Given this situation, and considering the forthcoming setting up of the Palliative Care Unit at our neurorehabilitation centre, the Clínica San Vicente, we decided to establish a series of guidelines on the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for handling seizures in PC.