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A retrospective analysis of data from a US hospital-based (>500 hospitals), service-level database was performed. All patients aged >16 years with primary or secondary International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes for IC or septicemia, receiving intravenous fluconazole treatment, and discharged between October 1, 2004 and September 30, 2005 were selected. Costs and resource use were calculated from the start of antifungal therapy until discharge. Two groups were analyzed: patients who received fluconazole only and those who required a second-line antifungal. Separate analyses for the survivor subpopulations were also conducted.
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Retrospective cohort study.
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Of the 785 specimens, 211 were culture positive. The percentage of positive culture was 26.88%. Of those positive cultures, 176 (83.41%) had pure bacterial infections, 32 (15.17%) had pure fungal infections, and 3 (1.42%) had pure cultures of Acanthamoeba. Of the 176 bacterial positive cultures, polymicrobial infection was present in 38 cases (33 bacterial, 5 fungal and bacterial). Of 214 bacterial isolates, the most common isolate was Neisseria gonorrhoeae (39/214, 18.22%), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (37/214, 17.29%), and Corynebacterium spp. (36/214, 16.82%). The most common fungal pathogen isolated was Fusarium spp. representing 25.00% (8/32) of all positive fungal cultures, followed by Aspergillus spp. (15.63%, 5/32). The sensitivity of tobramycin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, rifampicin and levofloxacin of bacteria was 62.57%, 64.94%, 70.06%, 70.87%, 71.19%, 73.89%, 85.80% and 87.50%. Gram-positive isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin. Gram-negative isolates showed high susceptible to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin. The fungal isolates were most susceptible to natamycin, followed by terbinafine, but resistant to fluconazole.
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Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal drug that inhibits ergosterol synthesis and has broad activity against yeast and molds. While studying the interaction of voriconazole and Cryptococcus neoformans, we noted that cells grown in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of voriconazole reduced melanin pigmentation. We investigated this effect systematically by assessing melanin production in the presence of voriconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, and fluconazole. Only voriconazole impeded the formation of melanin at subinhibitory concentrations. Voriconazole did not affect the autopolymerization of l-dopa, and 0.5 MIC of voriconazole did affect the gene expression of C. neoformans. However, voriconazole inhibited the capacity of laccase to catalyze the formation of melanin. Hence, voriconazole affects melanization in C. neoformans by interacting directly with laccase, which may increase the efficacy of this potent antifungal against certain pigmented fungi.
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A total of 180 ocular fungal isolates (130 filamentous fungi and 50 yeasts) were included. The antifungal drugs such as amphotericin B (0.0625-8 microg/mL), fluconazole (0.2-819.6 microg/mL) and ketoconazole (0.025-6.4 microg/mL) were incorporated in doubling dilutions in the yeast nitrogen base medium. The MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of the antifungal drug preventing growth of macroscopically visible colonies on drug containing plates when there was visible growth on the drug-free control plates.
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2 of 29 (6.8%) experienced moderate pain within the first two weeks postoperatively requiring prescriptions for perocet. 2 of 29 (6.8%) had yeast infection requiring diflucan. Mean follow-up time was 34.9 months (11.7-37.4). 15 of 29 (51.7%) had no recurrence within the follow-up period. 14 of 29 (48.3%) recurred within the follow-up period. The mean time to recurrence is 23.2 months.
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Unfortunately, the mortality of candidemia remains high in SICU patients (52%). In the SICU, risk factors for candidemia and mortality are common. However, antifungal prophylaxis has significantly decreased the annual incidence of candidemia without a statistically significant shift to non-albicans pathogens.
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Leishmaniasis recidiva cutis (LRC) is an unusual form of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis. Herein, we present a case of LRC of the lips mimicking granulomatous cheilitis. An 8-year-old, Syrian child admitted with a swelling and disfigurement of his lips for 4 years. Abundant intra and extracellular Leishmania amastigotes were determined in the smear prepared from the lesion with Giemsa stain. Histopathology showed foamy histiocytes and leishmania parasites within the cytoplasm of macrophages in the epidermis and a dense dermal mixed type inflammatory cell infiltrate composed of lymphocytes, foamy histiocytes with multinucleated giant cells. On the basis of anamnestic data, the skin smears results, clinical and histopathologic findings, LRC was diagnosed. The patient was treated with meglumine antimoniate intramuscularly and fluconazole orally. Cryotherapy was applied to the residual papular lesions. The lesion improved markedly at the first month of the treatment.
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This study evaluated the antifungal susceptibility profile and the production of potential virulence attributes in a clinical strain of Candida nivariensis for the first time in Brazil, as identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S-ITS2 region and D1/D2 domains of the 28S of the rDNA. For comparative purposes, tests were also performed with reference strains. All strains presented low planktonic minimal inhibitory concentrations (PMICs) to amphotericin B (AMB), caspofungin (CAS), and voriconazole. However, our strain showed elevated planktonic MICs to posaconazole (POS) and itraconazole, in addition to fluconazole resistance. Adherence to inert surfaces was conducted onto glass and polystyrene. The biofilm formation and antifungal susceptibility on biofilm-growing cells were evaluated by crystal violet staining and a XTT reduction assay. All fungal strains were able to bind both tested surfaces and form biofilm, with a binding preference to polystyrene (p < 0.001). AMB promoted significant reductions (≈50%) in biofilm production by our C. nivariensis strain using both methodologies. This reduction was also observed for CAS and POS, but only in the XTT assay. All strains were excellent protease producers and moderate phytase producers, but lipases were not detected. This study reinforces the pathogenic potential of C. nivariensis and its possible resistance profile to the azolic drugs generally used for candidiasis management.
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A 10-month-old male American Staffordshire terrier was presented to the Autonomous University of Barcelona Veterinary Teaching Hospital because of a 6-month history of a mucopurulent bilateral nasal discharge. The dog had not responded to antibiotics. A follow-up X ray revealed a mixed pattern of osteolysis and increased radiodensity confined to the nasal cavity. Histologic sections of the biopsy specimens revealed the presence of granules containing numerous septate hyphae that were hyaline to pale brown and smooth, one-celled, subspherical-to-elongate conidia that were hyaline to brownish green, and bacteria. Cultures yielded numerous colonies belonging to Scedosporium apiospermum. Susceptibility tests were performed on the isolated strain. The isolate was sensitive to ketoconazole, intermediate to clotrimazole, and resistant to amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, and itraconazole. The dog was treated with oral ketoconazole. During the treatment a general improvement in the lesions was observed. To our knowledge, S. apiospermum has not been implicated previously as an etiologic agent of nasal disease in dogs. This report provides its first description as such.
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The elimination of fluconazole was studied in six patients with acute renal failure undergoing continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVH) for 24 h, continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHD) 1 L/h for 24 h and CVVHD 2 L/h for 24 h. Fluconazole 200 mg once daily was given intravenously on three successive days and the concentrations of fluconazole in serum, ultrafiltrate/dialysate and urine were determined for 24 h after each dose. The half-life of fluconazole in patients during CVVH (83.5 +/- 30.1 h; mean +/- S.D.) was significantly (P < 0.05) longer than that during CVVHD 1 L/h (30.4 +/- 5.0 h) or CVVHD 2 L/h (21.8 +/- 3.5 h). The total fluconazole clearance was 0.57 +/- 0.16 L/h, 1.50 +/- 0.24 L/h and 1.85 +/- 0.17 L/h in CVVH, CVVHD 1 L/h and CVVHD 2 L/h, respectively, and there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between all these treatments. Daily renal excretion of fluconazole was minimal, ranging from 0.002 mg to 11.2 mg in different patients with different treatment modes. The methods tested increased the elimination of the unchanged drug 20- to 400-fold in patients with acute renal failure. Patients undergoing CVVHD therapy with a dialysis flow rates of 1 or 2 L/h should be treated with a daily dose of at least 200 mg of fluconazole to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. However, in patients on CVVH therapy smaller doses of fluconazole may be enough.
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To determine whether systemic antifungal prophylaxis decreases infectious morbidity and mortality in nonneutropenic, critically ill, trauma and surgical intensive care unit (ICU) adult patients.
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Biofilms were formed by Candida species on 5 mm catheter discs placed in microtitre plates and quantified using metabolic conversion of a formazan dye (XTT). The morphology, surface topography and three-dimensional architecture of these biofilms were evaluated by fluorescence, confocal scanning laser and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The optimized XTT method was used to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility of formed Candida biofilms to fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and anidulafungin.
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The in vitro activity of chloroquine and the interactions of chloroquine combined with fluconazole against 37 Candida isolates were tested using the broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and Etest susceptibility tests. Synergistic effect was detected with 6 of 9 fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates, with Candida krusei ATCC 6258, and with all 12 fluconazole-resistant Candida tropicalis isolates.
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Flavonoids are a class of phenolic compounds commonly found in fruits, vegetables, grains, flowers, tea, and wine. They differ in their chemical structures and characteristics. Such compounds show various biological functions and have antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro interactions of flavonoids with fluconazole against Candida tropicalis strains resistant to fluconazole, investigating the mechanism of synergism. Three combinations formed by the flavonoids (+)-catechin hydrated, hydrated quercetin, and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate at a fixed concentration with fluconazole were tested. Flavonoids alone had no antifungal activity within the concentration range tested, but when they were used as a cotreatment with fluconazole, there was significant synergistic activity. From this result, we set out to evaluate the possible mechanisms of cell death involved in this synergism. Isolated flavonoids did not induce morphological changes or changes in membrane integrity in the strains tested, but when they were used as a cotreatment with fluconazole, these changes were quite significant. When evaluating mitochondrial damage and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) only in the cotreatment, changes were observed. Flavonoids combined with fluconazole were shown to cause a significant increase in the rate of damage and the frequency of DNA damage in the tested strains. The cotreatment also induced an increase in the externalization of phosphatidylserine, an important marker of early apoptosis. It is concluded that flavonoids, when combined with fluconazole, show activity against strains of C. tropicalis resistant to fluconazole, promoting apoptosis by exposure of phosphatidylserine in the plasma membrane and morphological changes, mitochondrial depolarization, intracellular accumulation of ROS, condensation, and DNA fragmentation.
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We measured the proportion of cases of candidal BSI classified as health care-associated along with the microbiology of these infections. We compared health care-associated and nosocomial cases of candidemia with respect to demographics, severity of illness, and fluconazole susceptibility.
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The occurrence of candidemia is on a rise worldwide. Non-albicans Candida species have emerged as major causes of candidemia in many countries. Added to it is the problem of antifungal resistance in Candida isolates.
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The combination therapy with curcumin and fluconazole was the most effective among the treatments tested, as in addition to reducing the fungal burden and damage on lung tissues, it was able to eliminate the fungal burden in the brain, enhancing the survival of mice.
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Candida krusei causes approximately 1% of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) cases and is naturally resistant to fluconazole. Antifungal testing may be required if C. krusei vaginitis fails to respond to non-fluconazole therapy, particularly in patients with recurrent infections.
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In vitro evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal drugs encapsulated fibrin nanoparticles to prove their potential prospect of using these nanocomponent for effective treatment of microbial infested wounds.
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We have previously reported a Candida krusei outbreak during which a number of our patients were infected or colonized by several different closely related Candida krusei genotypes. The treatment response in many of our patients was at best modest and the patients remained positive for Candida krusei. We speculated that extended exposure to antifungals in patients with an incomplete treatment response might lead to the conditions for selection of drug resistance in the multiple Candida krusei clones. Therefore, we followed the in vitro susceptibility of the Candida krusei isolates taken from our patients before and during the antifungal treatment. A total of 28 Candida krusei isolates from 11 patients with prolonged exposure to antifungal medication were analyzed for their in vitro susceptibility to commonly used drugs. We found that MIC(50) values of all Candida krusei isolates was 12 microg/ml for fluconazole, 0.19 microg/ml for voriconazole, 1.0 microg/ml for amphotericin B, and 1.0 microgt/ml for caspofungin with the corresponding MIC(90) values being 16 microg/ml, 0.5 microg/ml, 2.0 microg/ml, and 1.0 micro/ml, respectively. Extended antifungal exposure did not change these MIC values. We conclude that resistance development in Candida krusei during prolonged antifungal treatment may not be common and the treatment failure of our patients was not likely due to the development of drug resistance by the etiologic agent.
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Fluconazole led to significant increases in nevirapine exposure, but was not associated with evidence of increased hepatotoxicity.
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We analyzed the species distribution of Candida blood isolates (CBIs), prospectively collected between 2004 and 2009 within FUNGINOS, and compared their antifungal susceptibility according to clinical breakpoints defined by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) in 2013, and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) in 2008 (old CLSI breakpoints) and 2012 (new CLSI breakpoints). CBIs were tested for susceptiblity to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin by microtitre broth dilution (Sensititre® YeastOne™ test panel). Of 1090 CBIs, 675 (61.9%) were C. albicans, 191 (17.5%) C. glabrata, 64 (5.9%) C. tropicalis, 59 (5.4%) C. parapsilosis, 33 (3%) C. dubliniensis, 22 (2%) C. krusei and 46 (4.2%) rare Candida species. Independently of the breakpoints applied, C. albicans was almost uniformly (>98%) susceptible to all three antifungal agents. In contrast, the proportions of fluconazole- and voriconazole-susceptible C. tropicalis and F-susceptible C. parapsilosis were lower according to EUCAST/new CLSI breakpoints than to the old CLSI breakpoints. For caspofungin, non-susceptibility occurred mainly in C. krusei (63.3%) and C. glabrata (9.4%). Nine isolates (five C. tropicalis, three C. albicans and one C. parapsilosis) were cross-resistant to azoles according to EUCAST breakpoints, compared with three isolates (two C. albicans and one C. tropicalis) according to new and two (2 C. albicans) according to old CLSI breakpoints. Four species (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis) represented >90% of all CBIs. In vitro resistance to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin was rare among C. albicans, but an increase of non-susceptibile isolates was observed among C. tropicalis/C. parapsilosis for the azoles and C. glabrata/C. krusei for caspofungin according to EUCAST and new CLSI breakpoints compared with old CLSI breakpoints.