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Six drugs from the literature were chosen that were described by one-compartment model in both humans and animals following oral administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as oral clearance, oral volume of distribution of the central compartment, time to reach maximum plasma concentration, absorption rate constant, and half-life in humans were predicted from animals using allometric scaling. These predicted human pharmacokinetic parameters were then used to predict human plasma concentrations-time profiles of drugs.
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At 6 months, 48% patients were considered responders to treatment (CGI change score 1 or 2) and 23.5% had a mild response. Of note, 57.8% had less fatigue and 31.4% had less pain. The proportion of responders was greater in the group with major depression (65%) than in those without depression (45%), but the difference did not reach statistical significance. However, the reduction of FIQ scores was significantly greater in depressed (21.1; IQR: 1.4-42.0) than in non-depressed patients (41.4; IQR: 23.6-52.6) (P<0.05). FIQ score reduction was significantly smaller in patients taking concomitant opiate treatment (P<0.01) and in patients seeking incapacitation (P<0.01).
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The aim of the present study was to examine weight gain and its association with clinical and sociodemographic characteristics in patients using newer antidepressants.
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The limited sample size and specific drugs used limit present findings.
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Clinically useful treatment moderators of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have not yet been identified, though some baseline predictors of treatment outcome have been proposed. The aim of iSPOT-D is to identify pretreatment measures that predict or moderate MDD treatment response or remission to escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine; and develop a model that incorporates multiple predictors and moderators.
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To explore whether acute destruction of hypocretin cells in a patient with narcolepsy could be detected and if the course of the disease could be reversed or altered by the use of prednisone for immunosuppression.
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This study indicated that the TPH1 218A/C genotype and allele frequencies differed between the Taiwanese healthy controls and MDD patients but could not be used to predict treatment outcome in Taiwanese MDD patients. Further research with larger sample sizes is needed to confirm the role of TPH1 218A/C.
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This article reports the preliminary findings of a two-phase trial examining the efficacy of venlafaxine in trichotillomania. Phase 1 is a 12-week, open-label, prospective trial of venlafaxine in trichotillomania. Venlafaxine was effective in significantly reducing the symptoms of trichotillomania; 8 of 12 patients were considered responders. The implications of the efficacy of venlafaxine in trichotillomania are discussed, including its important advantages over other available antidepressant and anxiolytic medications.
In vitro radioligand binding studies were carried out in rat brain membranes to assess the affinity of various reuptake inhibitors for the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and the norepinephrine transporters using the selective ligands [3H]cyanoimipramine and [3H]nisoxetine, respectively. The selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors paroxetine, indalpine and fluvoxamine displayed a high affinity for the 5-HT transporter, whereas the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine had a high affinity for the norepinephrine transporter. Duloxetine, a dual 5-HT and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, displayed a high affinity for both the 5-HT and the norepinephrine transporters. Interestingly, venlafaxine, a dual 5-HT and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, displayed only a moderate affinity for the 5-HT transporter (Ki = 74 nM) and a very low affinity for the norepinephrine transporter (Ki = 1.26 microM). The relatively low affinities of venlafaxine contrast with its potent in vivo 5-HT and norepinephrine reuptake blocking properties. These results raise the possibility that the in vivo effects on the 5-HT and norepinephrine reuptake observed with venlafaxine may not be mediated solely by its binding to the [3H]cyanoimipramine and [3H]nisoxetine binding sites.
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Stimulant medications are the most widely accepted treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in spite of controversy over their use. Stimulants have consistently been shown to potentiate noradrenergic brain transmission, a property also characteristic of the recently marketed antidepressant venlafaxine. Eighteen adults who met the Utah Criteria for ADHD in adults were enrolled in an open trial of venlafaxine. Progress was monitored with a recently refined rating scale designed to measure change in adult patients with ADHD. Among the 11 patients who could tolerate the medication, 8 showed a good response that was well maintained. They responded to dosages of 50 to 150 mg/day, with an average dose of 96 mg. Seven of the 18 had difficulty tolerating venlafaxine's side effects. These data suggest that controlled trials should be conducted with venlafaxine for ADHD.
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and venlafaxine have been regarded as less toxic in overdose than tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). Within the TCAs, dothiepin has greater toxicity. Venlafaxine may be more toxic than SSRIs.
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Depressive disorders are chronic conditions that produce both emotional and physical symptoms. Increasing evidence suggests that in some patients with depressive disorders a neurodegenerative process may occur, highlighting the importance of early and aggressive intervention. Serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) neurotransmitter systems influence neuroplasticity in the brain, and both are involved in mediating the therapeutic effects of most currently available antidepressants. Some dual-action antidepressants have been shown to be effective in managing the pain symptoms associated with depression. These agents may have advantages over others by treating a wider array of physical symptoms. Additionally, these agents may also have a role in modulating neurogenesis and other neuroplastic changes, thereby leading to more complete recovery in patients suffering from the emotional and physical symptoms of chronic depression.
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There are no conclusive data on the effectiveness of antidepressant drugs in the treatment of comorbid cases of alcohol dependence and depression.
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Verbal interactions are part of any patient-physician encounter and should be theory guided as part of the therapeutic process in the treatment of depressive disorders. Under this assumption the rate of patients for which psychiatrists reported some kind of verbal therapy as explicit part of their treatment could be higher. More research is needed on patient guidance, counseling and supportive psychotherapy in psychiatry.
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Fifty-eight percent of patients who completed the study had a greater than 50% reduction in hot flash scores (frequency times severity) during the fourth treatment week as compared with the baseline week. Median weekly hot flash scores were reduced by 55% from baseline during the fourth week of venlafaxine therapy. Therapy was generally well tolerated and appeared to alleviate fatigue, sweating, and trouble sleeping.
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These results indicate that the co-administration of 5-HT2 receptor agonists with paroxetine and venlafaxine may provide a powerful tool for enhancing the clinical efficacy of these antidepressants.
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A 39-year-old white woman with depression and panic attacks was being treated with fluoxetine, trazodone, clonazepam, and cimetidine. After fluoxetine and clonazepam were abruptly discontinued, venlafaxine and lorazepam were started. Within 24 hours, she developed diaphoresis, tremors, slurred speech, myoclonus, restlessness, impaired thinking, and diarrhea. This constellation meets Sternbach's criteria for serotonin syndrome.
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The effects of chronic administration of the mixed serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]/norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitor venlafaxine (5 mg/kg daily by osmotic minipump for 28 days) on the sensitivity of somatodendritic 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors on serotonergic neurons innervating the hypothalamus, and on 5-HT(1B) autoreceptors in both hypothalamus and hippocampus, were determined using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats. Venlafaxine induced a reduction in sensitivity of 5-HT(1B) autoreceptors in hypothalamus, but did not affect the sensitivity of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors, or of 5-HT(1B) autoreceptors in hippocampus. The corticosterone and oxytocin responses to the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 0.05 or 0.2 mg/kg), a measure of postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptor activity in the hypothalamus, were reduced in animals administered 5 or 10 mg/kg venlafaxine daily by intraperitoneal injection for 21 days. This desensitization of post-synaptic 5- HT(1A) receptors in the hypothalamus may be a consequence of increased 5-HT levels induced by desensitization of the presynaptic 5-HT(1B) receptors. These results taken together with those of previous studies suggest that the hypothalamus might be an important site of drug action, and that venlafaxine has an overall mechanism similar to that of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors.
This study evaluated the augmentation of venlafaxine with hormone therapy in the treatment of postmenopausal depression. The hormones evaluated were estrogen (0.625 mg) in combination with medroxyprogesterone acetate (2.5 mg) and methyltestosterone (2.5 mg).
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Two well-defined influencing factors: CYP2D6 genotypes and drug interactions were enriched into a three-period crossover study to produce venlafaxine pharmacokinetic variations: In each period, healthy CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EM group; n = 12) and CYP2D6*10/*10 intermediate metabolizers (IM group; n = 12) were pretreated with clarithromycin (CYP3A4 inhibitor), or nothing (control), or clarithromycin + paroxetine (CYP3A4 + CYP2D6 inhibitors), before administration of a single-dose of 75 mg venlafaxine. Both biomarkers were evaluated (1) for their relationship with the influencing factors in healthy volunteers and (2) for their relationships with the venlafaxine responses/adverse events reported in two patient studies.
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Clinical, demographic, and treatment history were of little value in recommending 1 medication vs another as a second-step treatment for major depressive disorder. Participants most likely to remit in the second step had less Axis I psychiatric disorder comorbidity, less social disadvantage, and at least a response to citalopram in the first step.
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Antidepressant-induced hyponatremia can cause significant morbidity and mortality. It is mostly associated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but its frequency and class specificity are uncertain.
Conditioned stimulus properties of venlafaxine are still unknown. In the present study, the discriminative stimulus properties of venlafaxine by using a conditioned taste aversion procedure were investigated. Swiss Webster mice were allowed to reach water from 2 pipettes for 20 min (09:00-11:30 h), plus 30 min (15:30-16:00 h), daily. During the 4 days, the test drugs [fluoxetine, escitalopram, tianeptine, reboxetine, and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)] were injected to mice at least 1 h after they had first water session. On day 5, they consumed glucose solution (5% w/v) and immediately injected with conditioning drug (venlafaxine 32 mg/kg). On day 8, mice were allowed to make a choice between water and glucose solution. The amount of glucose consumption as a percentage of total fluid intakes was calculated for each animal. Significant reduction in glucose choice was defined as conditioned taste aversion. Venlafaxine (32 mg/kg) induced a robust conditioned taste aversion in mice. Pre-exposure to tianeptine (2.5-10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), escitalopram (32 mg/kg), and reboxetine (5 mg/kg) substituted for venlafaxine by preventing the conditioned taste aversion induced by venlafaxine. L-NAME did not substitute for venlafaxine. Substitution of venlafaxine by fluoxetine, tianeptine, escitalopram, and reboxetine provides further evidence that both 5-HT and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition may play an important role in the stimulus effect of venlafaxine.
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Six Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in university-based medical schools.
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Venlafaxine is an effective non-hormonal treatment for hot flashes, though the efficacy must be balanced against the drug's side-effects. Confirmation of the results of this 4-week study awaits the completion of three ongoing randomised studies to assess the effects of other related antidepressants for the treatment of hot flashes.
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The purpose of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe the neural circuitry associated with reactivity to negative and positive affective stimuli in patients with major depressive disorder before treatment and after 2 and 8 weeks of treatment with venlafaxine. Relations between baseline neural activation and response to treatment were also evaluated.
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We report the case of a 22-year-old male who exhibited severe manic behavior shortly after beginning treatment with modafinil and venlafaxine for narcolepsy with cataplexy. The manic episode persisted several weeks after medication cessation and required management with a mood stabilizer. Reinstitution of modafinil and an alternate antidepressant for recurrent sleepiness and cataplexy was well tolerated and very effective. Sleep physicians should be aware that psychostimulants, including modafinil, and antidepressant medications commonly prescribed for treatment of narcolepsy may precipitate mania in patients with underlying bipolar disorder.
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The SNRIs may represent a valid alternative to the SSRIs, particularly in specific cases. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are, however, needed to confirm the positive findings reported by several studies with venlafaxine.
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Venlafaxine is currently marketed for treatment of depressive disorders as a conventional tablet formulation with a twice or three times daily dosage regimen. The absolute bioavailability of the conventional (CF) and extended-release (XR) formulations and their effects on electroencephalograms (EEG) and on a visual analog scale (VAS) for nausea were assessed in a randomized, double-blind, four-way crossover, placebo-controlled study of 16 healthy young men who were given either a single oral dose of 50 mg of CF venlafaxine, 75 mg of XR venlafaxine, or an intravenous dose of 10 mg of venlafaxine, or a placebo at 1-week intervals. The absolute bioavailability of venlafaxine was between 40% and 45% and was similar for both the CF and XR formulations. Venlafaxine produced central effects of a desipramine-like antidepressant. Regardless of formulation tested, the main EEG changes were an increase in fast beta (20-30 Hz) energy, which was more pronounced over the frontotemporal regions and extended within the full beta range (16-40 Hz). Maximum effect was reached at 6 hours for the CF and reached a plateau from 10 to 24 hours for the XR formulation. A dose-proportional increase in central activity, expressed as area under the effect curve (AUE) of the beta band, was observed between the CF (50 mg) and XR (75 mg) formulations. Compared with the CF tablet, the XR formulation also produced a much less intense maximum effect and a decrease of 63% in the AUE of nausea normalized by dose. The XR formulation has the same absolute bioavailability and the same central activity as assessed by EEG, but produced less intensive nausea than CF venlafaxine. The present findings suggest that a once-daily dosage regimen should be sufficient. This was confirmed by several clinical trials in depressive patients.
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The tests were performed on male Wistar rats after single and chronic treatment (7 and 14 days) with TRM intraperitoneally (ip) and VEN orally (po) administered once a day. The controls were given 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution (0.5 ml per rat, ip and po).
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The cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) 2C19 and 2D6 are involved in the metabolism of many psychotropic drugs. Variability in enzyme activity results in variable metabolic capacities, affecting the metabolism of substrates. The metabolic ratio (MR) of drugs metabolized via these enzymes may therefore reflect the enzyme's activity and/or genotype. To serve as an example for different groups of medications, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine, the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline, and the antipsychotic risperidone were studied to examine a possible correlation between the MRs of these drugs and the CYP2C19 and/or CYP2D6 genotype. For this purpose data from routine genotyping and serum level analysis were used. The relationships between the observed metabolic ratios and CYP2D6 and/or CYP2C19 genotype were characterized using nonparametric statistical analysis. A clear correlation was observed between the CYP2D6 genotype and the metabolic ratio of venlafaxine. Genotyping of individuals with a log(MR) < -0.6 or a log(MR) > 0.2 would include all patients with an aberrant genotype but would result in a reduction of 52% of genotyping reactions. Slow metabolism of amitriptyline is correlated with a log(MR) > 0.4. Genotyping only those subjects with a log(MR) > 0.4 would result in 88% fewer genotyping reactions. For risperidone, genotyping individuals with a log(MR) > 0.4 would include all CYP2D6 poor metabolizers while reducing the number of genotyping reactions by 93%. According to these data, correlations exist between the log(MR) of venlafaxine, amitriptyline, and risperidone and the genotype of the CYP enzymes involved in their metabolism. From the ranges of log(MR) defined here, a high percentage of aberrant metabolizers can be detected even when patients are not routinely genotyped. Thus, the metabolic ratio may serve as an indication of when genotyping should be considered.
We consider longitudinal studies with binary outcomes that are measured repeatedly on subjects over time. The goal of our analysis was to fit a logistic model that relates the expected value of the outcomes with explanatory variables that are measured on each subject. However, additional care must be taken to adjust for the association between the repeated measurements on each subject. We propose a new maximum likelihood method for covariates that may be fixed or time varying. We also implement and make comparisons with two other approaches: generalized estimating equations, which may be more robust to misspecification of the true correlation structure, and alternating logistic regression, which models association via odds ratios that are subject to less restrictive constraints than are correlations. The proposed estimation procedure will yield consistent and asymptotically normal estimates of the regression and correlation parameters if the correlation on consecutive measurements on a subject is correctly specified. Simulations demonstrate that our approach can yield improved efficiency in estimation of the regression parameter; for equally spaced and complete data, the gains in efficiency were greatest for the parameter associated with a time-by-group interaction term and for stronger values of the correlation. For unequally spaced data and with dropout according to a missing-at-random mechanism, MARK1ML with correctly specified consecutive correlations yielded substantial improvements in terms of both bias and efficiency. We present an analysis to demonstrate application of the methods we consider. We also offer an R function for easy implementation of our approach.
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Our results reveal an increase of anxiety (decrease of punished passages) in saline-experienced mice. Diazepam, alprazolam, paroxetine and venlafaxine did not prevent the increase in anxiety during retest, revealing a passive avoidance acquisition. Flumazenil did not modify the anxiogenic-like behaviour of experienced mice. In contrast, atropine seems to oppose the increase of anxiety; however, its effect is weak and disputable. DOI was the only anxiolytic compound able to oppose the decrease of punished passages of experienced mice.