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In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 73 patients with unilateral ureteral stone and hydroureteronephrosis who underwent insertion of an internal ureteral stent after transureteral lithotripsy (TUL) were randomized into two groups. 37 patients received terazosin 2 mg (once nightly) for 4 weeks and 36 patients received placebo for the same time duration. After 4 weeks, all patients were asked about the incidence of frequency, nocturia and urgency by an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, flank pain and pain during urination by a visual analog scale (VAS) score, and hematuria.
The 1,078 men who completed 12 months of the trial are included in this study. Of those men 1,040 (96.5%) had at least 1 episode of nocturia at baseline and 38 (3.5%) had less than 1 episode (baseline nocturia is an average of 2 measures). Of those 1,040 men 788 (75.8%) had 2 or more nocturia episodes. Overall, nocturia decreased from a baseline mean of 2.5 to 1.8, 2.1, 2.0 and 2.1 episodes in the terazosin, finasteride, combination and placebo groups, respectively. Of men with 2 or more episodes of nocturia 50% reduction in nocturia was seen in 39%, 25%, 32% and 22% in the terazosin, finasteride, combination and placebo groups, respectively. Changes in nocturia were correlated with changes in reported bother from nocturia (Pearson correlation 0.48), BPH impact index (0.32) and overall satisfaction with urinary symptoms (0.33).
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To clarify the influence of hypertension on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) we examined the relationship between blood pressure, LUTS, and the effect of terazosin on LUTS in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Terazosin is a quinazoline antihypertensive agent that is chemically similar to prazosin. The saturated furan ring of terazosin distinguishes these two compounds. Terazosin (0.1 to 3.0 mg/kg) lowered blood pressure without increasing heart rate when given orally to spontaneously hypertensive rats. No tolerance was observed during five days of repeated oral administration. Although equally efficacious in spontaneously hypertensive rats as its congener prazosin, terazosin exhibited a more gradual onset of action than prazosin, a more uniform and linear dose-response curve, and a less variable duration of action. When administered intravenously to dogs, terazosin lowered blood pressure primarily by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance. Pretreatment with phenoxybenzamine but not with atropine or propranolol resulted in a greatly reduced hypotensive response to terazosin, demonstrating that this effect of terazosin is mediated by a sympatholytic mechanism of the alpha type. The nature of the alpha-blocking properties of terazosin was evaluated in vitro using both radioligand binding studies and functional tests in rabbit aorta and pulmonary artery. These studies demonstrated that terazosin is highly selective for alpha1 receptors. The affinity for alpha1 receptors was approximately one-third that of prazosin. Like prazosin, terazosin displayed minimal interaction with alpha2 receptors. Median lethal dose values in rats ranged from 0.255 to 0.270 g/kg for intravenous administration and from 5.5 to 6.0 g/kg, for oral administration. Oral administration of high doses of the compound to rats did not produce any gastrointestinal irritation and/or apparent abnormal behavioral effects. Comparison of the oral activity of terazosin in spontaneously hypertensive rats with the oral toxicity values in normal rats revealed a high efficacy/safety ratio. Terazosin given intravenously to rats and mice was 2.6 to 5.0 times less toxic than prazosin. The absorption of terazosin appeared to be slower than that of prazosin in rats. However, from eight to 16 hours after dosing, terazosin concentrations in plasma exceeded those of prazosin, suggesting the possibility of once-daily dosing with terazosin. In addition, terazosin exhibited statistically significant cholesterol lowering effects in gerbils.
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The aim of this study was to analyze the cases of gynecomastia associated with α1A-adrenergic receptor antagonists (α1-ARAs) in the Italian spontaneous reporting system database (Rete Nazionale di Farmacovigilanza or RNF) and in the World Health Organization ICSRs database (VigiBase(™)), focusing on tamsulosin use.
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A simple, sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of terazosin in human plasma. The method involves a one-step single solvent extraction procedure using dichloromethane with a 0.25 ml plasma sample. Recovery values were all greater than 90% over the concentration range 0.25-100 ng/ml. Terazosin was found to adsorb to glass or plastic tubes, but this could be circumvented by using disposable plastic tubes. Also, rinsing the injector port with methanol after each injection helped to prevent any carry-over effect. The internal standard, prazosin, did not exhibit this problem. The method has a quantification limit of 0.25 ng/ml. The within- and between-day coefficient of variation and accuracy values were all less than 7% over the concentration range 0.25-100 ng/ml and hence the method is suitable for use in pharmacokinetic studies of terazosin.
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In 21 adult and three paediatric spinal cord injury patients manifesting recurrent episodes of autonomic dysreflexia in the absence of an acute predisposing cause, the use of terazosin, a once-a-day, specific alpha-one blocker resulted in complete subsidence of the dysreflexic symptoms. However, one tetraplegic patient required termination of terazosin therapy because of persistent dizziness.
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To compare the effects of the doxazosin and terazosin on total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) in treating patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and compare this effectivity by switching the drugs in the patients who did not benefit from either the first or the second drug.
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AUA-SS (0 to 35 point scale) improved from a baseline mean of 20.1 points by 37.8% during terazosin (n=976) and by 18.4% during placebo (n=973) treatment (P<0.001). Similarly, statistically superior improvements were observed in regard to the AUA-BS, BII, and the QQL score in the terazosin-treated patients. Peak urinary flow rate improved from a baseline of 9.6 mL/s (both regional treatment groups) by 2.2 mL/s in the terazosin group (n=137) and by 0.7 mL/s in the placebo group (n=140) (P< or = 0.05). Treatment failure occurred in 11.2% of terazosin- and 25.4% of placebo-treated patients (P<0.001; Kaplan-Meier adjusted withdrawal rates of 365 days). Withdrawal from study drug treatment due to adverse events occurred in 19.7% of terazosin- and 15.2% of placebo-treated patients (P<0.001).
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The study included 100, 20 to-50-year-old subjects who met the consensus criteria for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and had not received previous alpha-blockers. Subjects were randomized to receive terazosin with dose escalation from 1 to 5 mg. daily or placebo for 14 weeks. The primary criterion for response was scoring 2 or less ("delighted-to-mostly satisfied") on the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) quality of life item. The secondary criterion for response was greater than 50% reduction in NIH-CPSI pain score at 14 weeks. Other outcomes included total and NIH-CPSI domain scores, International Prostate Symptom Score, peak urinary flow rate, post-void residual urine and adverse effects.
To investigate the effectiveness of terazosin, an alpha1-adrenoceptor blocking agent, on bladder neck obstruction (BNO), by assessing the urodynamic hydraulic energy profile. Patients, subjects and methods The study included 17 men (mean age 60.1 years, range 24-84), comprising 11 patients with BNO (mean age 66.5 years) and six normal volunteers (mean age 48.1 years). A five-transducer microtip catheter was used to measure the pressure in the bladder and at the bladder neck, and in the membranous and bulbous urethra during voiding. All the subjects then received terazosin, 1 mg/day orally for 2 weeks, and were re-assessed.
Terazosin, an alpha 1 blocker initially used as an antihypertensive, was approved in 1993 for use in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) symptoms. This study was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of terazosin in treating patients with concomitant BPH and hypertension.
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We observed that a substantial proportion of men with LUTS participating in a national prostate cancer screening program were not taking prescription medications for these symptoms. Furthermore, we observed that men taking herbs or vitamin supplements tended to have higher AUA scores. Additional investigation is warranted into the reason some men are not receiving standard prescription medications for LUTS and whether reliance on alternative treatments is playing a role in this phenomenon.
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The study comprised a single-blind and randomized design with tamsulosin or terazosin taken once daily for 8 weeks. A total of 98 patients was enrolled, with 72 patients included in the analyses after 4 and 8 weeks. The primary variables assessed were changes in the maximum urinary flow rate Qmax and the total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), with the post-void residual urine volume, 'obstructive' and 'irritative' questions in the IPSS, and the investigators' global assessment of efficacy also determined. The number of patients with a clinically significant response to treatment with tamsulosin or terazosin was determined and defined as those with > 20% improvement from the baseline Qmax or > 20% decrease in total IPSS. Adverse reactions possibly or probably related to study medication were recorded throughout the treatment period.
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Previous studies documented that human bladder cancer cells are sensitive to the apoptotic effects of quinazoline-derived α1-adrenoreceptor antagonists and bladder tumors exhibit reduced tissue vascularity in response to terazosin. More recent evidence suggests that exposure to quinazoline α1-adrenorecptor antagonists leads to a significant reduction in prostate cancer incidence. This retrospective observational cohort study was conducted to determine whether male patients treated with quinazoline α1-adrenoceptor antagonists for either benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) or hypertension have a decreased risk of developing bladder cancer. Review of the medical records of all male patients enrolled at the Lexington Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center identified men exposed to quinazoline-based α1-adrenoceptor antagonists (Jan 1, 1998-Dec 31, 2002) for either hypertension and/or benign prostate obstructive symptoms. The whole group of 27,138 male patients was linked to the Markey Cancer Center's Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR), part of the NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, to identify all incident bladder cancer cases diagnosed in this population. Measures of disease incidence, relative risk, and attributable risk were calculated to compare the risk of developing bladder cancer for α1-blocker-exposed versus unexposed men. A two-by-two contingency table of α1-antagonist exposure versus bladder cancer diagnoses was constructed and the relative risk was calculated. Our analysis revealed a cumulative bladder cancer incidence of 0.24% among the α1-blocker-exposed men compared to 0.42% in the unexposed group. Thus, there was a risk difference of -0.0018, which indicates that 1.8 fewer bladder cancer cases developed per 1000 exposed men. Alternatively stated, 556 men would need to be treated with quinazoline α1-blockers to prevent one case of bladder cancer. Exposure to quinazoline α1-blockers thus may have prevented 7 to 8 bladder cancer cases among the 4173 treated men during the study period. The data yield an unadjusted risk ratio of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.30, 1.08) and therefore, men treated with α1-adrenoreceptor antagonists have a 43% lower relative risk of developing bladder cancer than unexposed men (p=0.083). Our inability to determine person-years at risk of developing bladder cancer for each unexposed control patient, was a limitation for calculating an incidence ratio and rate difference. These results offer an initial indication that exposure to doxazosin and terazosin decreases the incidence of bladder cancer. This is the first epidemiological evidence that the anti-tumor action of quinazoline-based α1-antagonists may potentially translate into a protective effect from bladder cancer development.
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To assess function of urinary retention and irritative symptoms from the lower urinary tracts in patients after radical prostatectomy for local prostatic cancer.
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A total of 90 patients with premature ejaculation and LUTS were enrolled to the study after excluding sexual disorders, prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The patients were divided into two groups. Sixty patients in group 1 were treated with terazosine 5 mg daily for a month. Patients were followed monthly and questioned for their ejaculation problem. The results were classified as cure, improvement and ineffective. If patients showed improvement and ineffectiveness, the treatment was continued with 10 mg daily for the following month. Group 2 was included 30 patients, and placebo was applied for a month. At the end of this period, in patients who did not show any improvement, terazosine 10 mg was started.
To summarize the urinary, rectal, and sexual symptoms occurring during the first 12 months following 125I prostatic implantation.
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To investigate the effects of terazosin and melatonin on isolated rabbit bladder strips after partial bladder outlet obstruction and determine responses to agonist-induced contractility and changes in oxidant-antioxidant system.
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For this purpose tissue specimens were obtained from 10 patients suffering from BPH, the primary cultures of prostate epithelium were established and CD133 MicroBeads sorting was prepared. Both, CD133(+)/CD133(-) co-cultures and CD133(+) cells were incubated with different concentration of doxazosin for 12 h. Cell viability and apoptosis was estimated with Annexin V-FITC.
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The authors concluded that treatment with terazosin was associated with greater peak urinary flow rate and lower symptom score than treatment with placebo. There was no variability of efficacy of terazosin as a result of prostrate volume, and measurement of prostrate volume was not essential before initiation of therapy.
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This article describes a novel model system in which the interactions of the stromal and epithelial components of the prostate gland can be determined.
Total ginsenosides and the antihypertensive agents differentially regulated SP and the metabolic pattern in SHRs. Total ginsenosides caused a progressive and prolonged reduction of SP and markedly normalized the perturbed metabolism with 14 of 27 (51.8%) markers of hypertension which were regulated toward normal. Total ginsenosides also reduced free fatty acids' level toward normal levels. In contrast, captopril, amlodipine and terazosin efficiently depressed SP, but had little effect on metabolic perturbation with only 8 (29.6%), 4 (14.8%), and 4 (14.8%) markers, respectively, which were regulated.
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We have shown recently that norepinephrine stimulates muscle cell hypertrophy in primary cultures from the neonatal rat ventricle and that this stimulation is not blocked by the beta adrenergic antagonist propranolol. The present study was done to define the adrenergic specificity of the myocyte hypertrophic response to norepinephrine. 90% pure, single-cell cultures of nongrowing myocytes were maintained in serum-free medium 199 with transferin and insulin. Myocyte size was quantitated 48 h after addition of adrenergic agents, by measuring cell volume, cell surface area, and cell protein. L-norepinephrine increased myocyte size to a maximum 150% of control; half-maximum effect was obtained at a concentration of 0.2 microM. This increase in cell size was inhibited by the nonselective alpha adrenergic antagonist phentolamine and by the alpha 1 adrenergic antagonists prazosin and terazosin; it was not inhibited by propranolol or by the alpha 2 adrenergic antagonist yohimbine. The beta adrenergic agonist isoproterenol did not increase cell size. Thus, norepinephrine-stimulated hypertrophy of cultured rat myocardial cells is an alpha 1 adrenergic response.
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To observe the clinical effect of Tiaoshen Tonglin Decoction (TTD)) on chronic prostatitis syndrome (CPS) and its effects on urinary flow rate (UFR), uric acid (UA) content and pH value in expressed prostate secretions (EPS).
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Patients treated with terazosin obtained similar improvement in peak and average uroflow, independent of the size of the prostate.
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The treatment related rates of dizziness, asthenia, postural hypotension and syncope were 19%, 6%, 6% and 1%, respectively. Of these adverse events only postural hypotension was associated with orthostatic blood pressure changes. The incidence of asthenia, dizziness and postural hypotension was not significantly greater in patients with a systolic blood pressure decrease of 5 or greater and less than 5 mm. Hg, respectively.
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We describe a 71-year-old male patient who developed acute myocardial infarction (AMI) due to a dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction induced by terazosin. After receiving terazosin, the patient had a syncope followed by angina. The electrocardiogram showed Q waves and ST segment elevation in the precordial and inferior leads. Coronary angiography evidenced a chronically occluded left anterior descending artery. Doppler-echocardiography revealed apical akinesia, hyperdynamic basal segments, systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (SAM) and dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Therapy with intravenous fluids and atenolol resulted in marked clinical improvement. Acute myocardial infarction resulted from low coronary perfusion pressure in a patient with a chronically diminished coronary reserve.
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Each group comprised 50 patients. Pharmacologic dilation in both α(1)-ARA groups was statistically significantly less than in the no α1-ARA group 1 month preoperatively, immediately before surgery, and postoperatively (P=.001, P<.0005, and P<.0005, respectively). The IFIS incidence differed significantly between the tamsulosin and other α(1)-ARA groups and the no α1-ARA group (P<.0005 and P=.017, respectively) and between the tamsulosin group and the other α1-ARA group (P=.027). On regression analysis, the hazard ratio for overall IFIS incidence was 3.8 in the other α(1)-ARA group (P=.012) and 10.1 in the tamsulosin group (P<.0005). Pupil size was inversely related to IFIS incidence and severity (P<.0005). A dilated pupil of 7.0 mm or smaller had 73% sensitivity and 95% specificity for predicting IFIS (P=.0001).
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Literature searches were conducted using EMBASE (1974 to January 2014), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to January 2014), and MEDLINE (1946 to January 2014) to identify clinical trials evaluating the effects of α-adrenergic blockers in the treatment of women with lower-urinary-tract dysfunction. Bibliographies from relevant research articles were also reviewed for inclusion.
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In comparative trials with its IR counterpart (alfuzosin ER 10 mg QD vs alfuzosin IR 2.5 mg TID), alfuzosin ER was an equieffective once-daily AARA. No comparative trials of alfuzosin ER with the SR (BID) formulation or with other AARAs were identified. Food has been found to exert a clinically important effect by enhancing the bioavailability of the ER formulation; thus, the drug should be taken on a full stomach. Hepatic impairment has been found to significantly delay the elimination of alfuzosin IF, which constitutes a contraindication to use of the ER formulation. Renal impairment does not appear to exert clinically important effects on the pharmacokinetics of alfuzosin ER. Adverse events with alfuzosin ER include dizziness, upper respiratory tract infection, headache, and fatigue, with hypotension and syncope reported rarely. Concurrent use of inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 3A4 isozyme (eg, ketoconazole, diltiazem, cimetidine, atenolol) can significantly elevate serum concentrations of alfuzosin and enhance its pharmacodynamic effects.
To assess the reversibility of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) during terazosin therapy, we studied changes in LVH as determined by echocardiography and humoral parameters before and after three and 12 months of terazosin monotherapy in ten patients. Blood pressure decreased within four weeks of treatment and the antihypertensive effect was sustained throughout 12 months. Left ventricular mass index decreased significantly from 126 +/- 22 g/m2 to 109 +/- 24 g/m2 and 98 +/- 23 g/m2 after 3 and 12 months respectively. Interventricular septum (11.2 to 9.8 and 9.0 mm) and posterior wall thickness (10.4 to 9.6 and 8.8 mm) also decreased significantly, whereas left ventricular internal dimensions were unchanged. Total peripheral resistance decreased significantly after initiation of treatment, but cardiac output did not change. Plasma volume, plasma renin activity and plasma noradrenaltine levels were unchanged by terazosin. Thus, terazosin monotherapy reversed LVH associated with decreased peripheral resistance. It is suggested that the reversal of LVH by terazosin is mainly due to the reduction in ventricular afterload and that humoral factors are not involved in its mechanism.
To corroborate this speculation, we screened prototypical α(1)-antagonists such as prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin for antagonism of angiotensin II on rat aortic strips. We also examined the AT(1) antagonists losartan, valsartan, and olmesartan for their possible antagonistic effect, on contractions of rat aortic strips induced by phenylephrine.
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This study suggests that terazosin is well tolerated and effective in longterm treatment of patients with BPH.
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Literature retrieval was accomplished by searching MEDLINE (2000-December 2007) using the terms intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS), adrenergic alpha-antagonist(s), tamsulosin, doxazosin, terazosin, and/or alfuzosin. In addition, reference lists from identified publications were reviewed to identify additional reports and studies of interest.
The binding and functional properties of doxazosin were characterized in the canine brain and human prostate. 3H-Doxazosin binding sites were characterized in canine brain and human prostate homogenates using saturation experiments. The binding of 3H-doxazosin in the canine brain was consistently saturable and of high affinity. The mean equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and density (Bmax) of 3H-doxazosin binding sites in the canine brain were 0.19 nM and 2.17 fmol/mg wet wt, respectively. The binding of 3H-doxazosin in human prostate homogenates was not consistently linear owing to a relatively high proportion of nonspecific doxazosin binding sites. The mean Kd and Bmax of 3H-doxazosin binding sites in the prostate determined from the saturation experiments yielding linear Scatchard plots were 0.2 nM and 0.51 fmol/mg wet wt. The pharmacology of doxazosin binding sites was further characterized in the canine brain using competitive binding experiments. The rank order of IC50corr values for norepinephrine, clonidine, yohimbine, terazosin, and prazosin indicated that doxazosin binds selectively to alpha 1 and alpha 2 adrenergic binding sites. The relative affinity of unlabeled doxazosin for alpha 1 and alpha 2 binding sites in the human prostate was determined by displacing 125I-Heat or 3H-rauwolscine with varying concentrations of unlabeled doxazosin. The affinity of doxazosin for alpha 1 binding sites in the prostate adenoma was approximately 100-fold greater than its affinity for alpha 2 binding sites. The potency of doxazosin for inhibiting phenylephrine-induced contractions in the prostate indicated that prostate smooth muscle contraction is mediated by alpha 1 adrenoceptors.
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To investigate the incidence and degree of overanticoagulation associated with commonly used oral antibiotics.
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Identification of an endogenous noradrenergic drive contributing to GG activation in wakefulness and non-REM sleep, but not REM sleep, is important given the prevalence and clinical significance of sleep-induced hypoventilation and obstructive sleep apnea in humans and the potential for pharmacologic treatment.