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Five hundred eight-four patients were fully evaluable. The most frequent diagnoses included tonsillopharyngitis (n = 231), otitis media (n = 170) and lower respiratory tract infections (n = 114). Most frequently prescribed antibiotics included amoxicillin (n = 102), potassium penicillin V (n = 81) and clarithromycin (n = 67). Overall compliance (positive urine test) on the last day of therapy was 69.5% (406 of 584 patients). Compliance was not significantly influenced by the region of residence or the underlying bacterial infection. It was significantly associated with the antibiotic used (macrolides, 89.0%; penicillins, 62.2%; cephalosporins, 66.4%; P = 0.0001 for macrolides vs. the others). Best compliance was found with clarithromycin (94.0%) and erythromycin estolate (89.8%). Compliance was also significantly better in patients > or =6 years old (77.7%; P = 0.016); with a treatment duration of < or =7 days (77.6%; P = 0.014); when the drug package contained a dose-taking reminder (79.7%; P = 0.003); and when the pediatrician's behavior toward the patient was assessed by the parents as "very sympathetic" or "sympathetic" (72.6%; P = 0.017). Subjecting all variables to logistic regression analysis, we found 3 variables to be significant predictors of treatment compliance: choice of antibiotic (P = 0.0001); patient age (P = 0.0008); and residence in town or city (P = 0.03).
The hepatotoxicity of a new erythromycin derivative, erythromycin acistrate (EA, 2'-acetyl erythromycin stearate), was compared with that of erythromycin stearate (ES), erythromycin estolate (EE) and erythromycin-11,12 cyclic carbonate (EC) in 4-5-day, 28-day and 6-month oral toxicity studies in rats and dogs. In the 4-day rat study, EC caused fatty metamorphosis in the liver. ES caused similar, but milder changes at a dose nearly five times higher. The 5-day dog study revealed markedly increased serum alanine aminotransferase (S-ALAT), serum aspartate aminotransferase (S-ASAT), serum alkaline phosphatase (S-APHOS) and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (S-gamma-GT) values in the EC- and EE-groups, and slightly elevated S-ALAT values also in the EA- and ES-groups. Microscopy revealed cholangitis, pericholangitis and phlebitis in the portal areas in the EC-group at all doses. Epithelial hyperplasia was observed also in the bile ducts. EE caused similar but milder changes. The changes in the EA-group were small, but mildly atypical bile duct epithelium was seen in female dogs receiving 2 x 200 mg/kg of EA. The ES-group was practically without changes and very much like the EA-group. Thus the dog proved to be a more sensitive model for assessing the hepatotoxicity of erythromycin derivatives. In the 28-day studies, only EA and ES were investigated. In the rat study, slightly elevated serum enzyme levels within the normal range were measured in the high-dose regimens of both drugs. In the dog study, 300 mg/kg of EA caused slightly elevated S-ALAT in males, but the values returned to normal after a 2-week off-dose period. Only EA was studied in the 6-month study. In male rats, 400 mg/kg of EA caused slightly elevated enzyme levels and neutral fat droplets in centrilobular hepatocytes. In male dogs given 150 mg/kg of EA, S-ALAT, S-APHOS, and S-gamma-GT values were elevated after four weeks of treatment but returned to normal thereafter. No severe changes were seen in the liver histopathology. In conclusion, EC and EE were clearly hepatotoxic in dogs, and EC also in rats. EA, and to a somewhat lesser extent ES, showed signs of mild hepatotoxicity only at high doses. This evidently reversible effect was considered a common characteristic of erythromycins.
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The cytotoxicity profile of various chemical entities was evaluated using two in vitro hepatocyte models. Liverbeads is a cryopreserved model consisting of primary hepatocytes entrapped in alginate beads. WIF-B9 is a hybrid cell line obtained by fusion of rat hepatoma (Fao) and human fibroblasts (WI38). Various reference hepatotoxicants were tested and ranked according to their equivalent concentration 50 (EC50) for various biochemical endpoints (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol 2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromure (MTT) activity, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glutathione (GSH) levels). The ranking obtained was comparable in both models and consistent with previously published results on hepatocyte monolayers. Ketoconazole, erythromycin estolate, retinoic acid, telithromycin and alpha-naphthyl-isothiocyanate were among the most toxic chemicals in both models, with an EC50 < 200 microM. Troleandomycin, spiramycin, erythromycin, diclofenac, taurodeoxycholate, warfarin, galactosamine, valproic acid and isoniazid were found to be less toxic. Few marked differences, potentially linked to metabolism pathways, were observed between EC50s in the two models for compounds such as cyclosporine A (10 and > 831 microM) and warfarin (5904 and 1489 microM) in WIF-B9 and Liverbeads, respectively. The results obtained indicate that Liverbeads and WIF-B9 cells are reliable in vitro models to evaluate the hepatotoxic potential of a wide range of chemicals, irrespective of structure and pharmaceutical class.
The tetracyclines are active in vitro against many urinary tract pathogens such as Chlamydia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Brucella, rickettsiae, and Nocardia. Chloramphenicol is used primarily for anaerobic infections, Haemophilus influenzae meningitis, and infections due to Salmonella typhi. Erythromycin is active in vitro against M. pneumoniae, Legionella spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, and group A beta-hemolytic streptococci; it may also be used as prophylactic therapy for subacute bacterial endocarditis and for recurrence of acute rheumatic fever in patients who are allergic to penicillin. Clindamycin should be used primarily for the treatment of anaerobic infections. The tetracyclines may cause gastrointestinal upset; phototoxic dermatitis; hepatitis, especially in pregnant women; discoloration of the teeth and bone dysplasia in the human fetus and in children; and superinfections, especially oral and anogenital candidiasis. The tetracyclines should be used with caution in patients with renal insufficiency. The most important toxic effect of chloramphenicol is bone marrow suppression, which is dose related or idiosyncratic. The incidence of undesirable side effects associated with the use of erythromycin is low; gastrointestinal irritation is the most common, and cholestatic hepatitis may occur with the use of erythromycin estolate. Pseudomembranous colitis is the most important toxic effect associated with the use of clindamycin.
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Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were exposed to several concentrations of erythromycin estolate (EE). Hepatotoxicity was evaluated using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and morphometric analysis of representative populations of cells examined optically. Results of the two techniques provided parallel information: cells exposed to the higher concentrations of EE had significantly greater LDH release and higher percentages of morphologically damaged cells. Planimetric analysis of a second set of hepatocytes showed increasing swelling of cells with increasing concentration of EE. Severe cellular swelling preceded disintegration, as hepatocytes became progressively more damaged by EE.
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Erythromycin estolate (EE), a macrolide antibiotic, has caused hepatotoxicity both in human and experimental animals. The objective of this study was to integrate general toxicology, transcriptomics, and metabonomics approaches to determine the mechanisms of EE-induced liver injury. Histopathological examinations unveiled dose-dependent hydropicdegenerationof hepatocytes after EE administration. Further biochemical analysis of treated rats confirmed that cholestasis and oxidative stress were induced by EE treatments. Microarray analysis of the livers from EE-treated rats showed that differentially expressed genes were enriched in the ABC transporters, cell cycle, and p53 signaling pathways. Metabonomics analysis revealed that EE exposure could lead to disturbances in energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism, which may be attributable to EE toxicological effects on the liver through oxidative stress. 5-Oxoproline may be used as a biomarker of EE-induced liver injury. More importantly, the integrated analysis of transcriptomics and metabonomics datasets demonstrated that the induction of ABC transporters pathway severed as an anti-cholestatic adaptive mechanism in EE-induced cholestasis. In addition, EE-induced liver injury was also related to alteration in glycogen and sucrose metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and linoleic acid metabolism pathways.
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Drug-induced cholestasis can result from the inhibition of biliary efflux of bile acids in the liver. Drugs may inhibit the hepatic uptake and/or the biliary efflux of bile acids resulting in an increase in serum concentrations. However, it is the intracellular concentration of bile acids that results in hepatotoxicity, and thus serum concentrations may not necessarily be an appropriate indicator of hepatotoxicity. In this study, sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes were used as an in vitro model to assess the cholestatic potential of drugs using deuterium-labeled sodium taurocholate (d(8)-TCA) as a probe for bile acid transport. Eight drugs were tested as putative inhibitors of d(8)-TCA uptake and efflux. The hepatobiliary disposition of d(8)-TCA in the absence and presence of drugs was measured by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and the accumulation (hepatocytes and hepatocytes plus bile), biliary excretion index (BEI), and in vitro biliary clearance (Cl(biliary)) were reported. Compounds were classified based on inhibition of uptake, efflux, or a combination of both processes. Cyclosporine A and glyburide showed a decrease in total (hepatocytes plus bile) accumulation, an increase in intracellular (hepatocytes only) accumulation, and a decrease in BEI and Cl(biliary) of d(8)-TCA, suggesting that efflux was primarily affected. Erythromycin estolate, troglitazone, and bosentan resulted in a decrease in accumulation (total and intracellular), BEI, and Cl(biliary) of d(8)-TCA, suggesting that uptake was primarily affected. Determination of a compound's relative effect on bile acid uptake, efflux, and direct determination of alterations in intracellular amounts of bile acids may provide useful mechanistic information on compounds that cause increases in serum bile acids.
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The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2004); MEDLINE (January 1966 to February 2004); EMBASE (January 1974 to August 2003); conference abstracts and reference lists of articles were searched. Study investigators and pharmaceutical companies were approached for additional information (published or unpublished studies). There were no constraints based on language or publication status.
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Erythromycin estolate (EME), a potent macrolide antibiotic, generates free radicals, but their role in the development of liver toxicity is not yet well understood. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of the antioxidant drug tetrahydrocurcumin (a metabolite of curcumin, the main component of turmeric) against EME-induced lipid peroxidation in rats. The oral administration of combined THC (80 mg/kg body weight) and EME (800 mg/kg body weight) for 15 days significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and enhanced cellular antioxidant defenses when compared with the group treated with EME alone. Supplemental histopathological examination of liver sections revealed that THC had a better antioxidant effect than Silymarin (200 mg/kg body weight), a reference drug. The results of this study indicate that THC affords significant protection against EME-induced lipid peroxidation.
At 12 months of use, the failure rate of the sterilization procedure for the crushed 500 mg tablets was 35.8% (SE = 1.8) with 417 women at risk. At 12 months of use, the failure rate for the erythromycin pellets was 28.6% (SE = 5.0) with 43 women at risk. There were no serious complications reported in either trial. All pregnancies resulting from failure of the sterilization procedure were terminated by menstrual regulation within 10 weeks gestation.
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Although universal immunization against Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough) infection has resulted in dramatic reductions in the incidence of pertussis, outbreaks continue to occur in countries with excellent vaccine coverage. Treatment of infection may ameliorate symptom severity during the catarrhal phase of pertussis but has no effect on established paroxysms, emesis, or apnea if given during the paroxysmal or convalescent phases. Erythromycin, recommended for treatment of pertussis to prevent transmission of infection, is poorly tolerated because of gastrointestinal side effects. We compared the safety and efficacy of erythromycin with azithromycin for treatment of pertussis in a large, randomized, controlled trial that enrolled children from primary care practices in 1 American and 11 Canadian urban centers.
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The GETt1/2 decreased from 198.0 +/- 58.9 minutes at baseline to 139.1 +/- 67.6 minutes following one day of erythromycin therapy (p < 0.01), and to 137.1 +/- 71.2 minutes after two weeks of treatment (vs. baseline p < 0.01). The FBS decreased from 159.0 +/- 40.2 mg/dl at baseline to 149.0 +/- 38.5 mg/dl following one day of therapy (p = 0.12, NS), and to 139.2 +/- 39.8 mg/dl after two weeks of treatment (vs. baseline p < 0.02).
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A belief that brand oral liquid medications taste better than their generic counterparts may influence prescribing habits among pediatricians.
There was no difference in the development of respiratory tract symptoms compatible with a case definition of pertussis in the erythromycin- and placebo-treated groups. There were 20 households with secondary culture-positive cases of pertussis; 4 households in the erythromycin-treated group and 15 in the placebo-treated group (efficacy of erythromycin chemoprophylaxis for bacterial eradication 67.5% [95% confidence interval: 7.6-88.7]). However, medication-associated adverse reactions were reported by 34.0% of erythromycin and 15.7% of placebo recipients.
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Abnormal gastrointestinal motility is a well recognized complication of diabetes mellitus, and disordered gastric emptying may hamper glycemic control. The objects of this study were to investigate the effect of oral erythromycin on gastric emptying and to evaluate the effect of corrected gastric emptying on glycemic control in patients with diabetic gastroparesis.
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To establish whether delayed release erythromycin tablets meet the bioequivalent requirement for the market.
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Three to four review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of each trial.
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Food was withheld from foals overnight before intragastric administration of erythromycin estolate (25 mg/kg of body weight; n = 8) and erythromycin phosphate (25 mg/kg; 7). Four foals received both drugs with 2 weeks between treatments. Plasma erythromycin concentrations were determined at various times after drug administration by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Maximum plasma peak concentrations, time to maximum concentrations, area under plasma concentration versus time curves, half-life of elimination, and mean residence times were determined from concentration versus time curves.
The data from this study strongly suggest that children with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis should complete a full 24 hours of antibiotics before returning to school or daycare.
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In a randomized, prospective, multicenter trial, 227 children ranging in age from 3 to 17 years who had tonsillopharyngitis and a throat culture positive for group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) were treated with erythromycin estolate (40 mg/kg/d in two divided doses for five days) or penicillin V (30 mg/kg/d in three divided doses for ten days). Clinical signs and symptoms of tonsillopharyngitis were recorded, and throat cultures were obtained before treatment as well as one to three days and six weeks after treatment. Clinical success (cure and improvement) was observed on days 6 to 8 in 100 of 102 (98%) assessable children treated with erythromycin estolate and on days 11 to 13 in 97 of 99 (98%) assessable children treated with penicillin V. Of all patients showing clinical success, 11 were rated as improved, all of whom were treated with erythromycin estolate. There was a trend towards increased use of analgesic treatment in the erythromycin estolate group (41% vs 33%). On completion of treatment, the rate of eradication of GABHS was 83.3% in the erythromycin estolate group compared with 87.9% in the penicillin V group. The difference is not significant but does not take into account patients excluded because of erythromycin resistance (3.7%). Clinical recurrence was observed in 11 (10.8%) patients treated with erythromycin estolate and in 6 (6.1%) patients treated with penicillin V (non-significant difference). Compliance in the erythromycin estolate group was statistically superior to that in the penicillin V group. The incidence and nature of adverse events were similar in both treatment groups.
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Erythromycin is available as the free base, ethylsuccinate, estolate, stearate, gluceptate, and lactobionate derivatives. When given orally erythromycin and its derivatives except the estolate are inactivated to some extent by the gastric acid and poor absorption may result.
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Children with suspected group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis are encountered daily in outpatient settings. Despite the ubiquity of this condition, important management issues still remain unresolved. This article will review selected epidemiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic topics germane to clinical practice.
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In collaboration with 11 German pediatricians in private practice, this pilot study assessed the treatment compliance of 289 pediatric patients (56.1% male: mean age, 53.9+/-35.6 months) who were given antibiotic suspensions (selection and duration determined by the pediatrician) to treat the following bacterial infections: acute otitis media, 34.6%; group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis/scarlet fever, 28.7%; lower respiratory tract infection, 18.3%; sinusitis/sinobronchitis, 9.3%; and other infections, 9.0%. The most frequently used antibiotics were amoxicillin (26.3%), erythromycin estolate (19.0%), penicillin V benzathine (14.2%), and cefaclor (13.5%). Compliance was assessed by means of a standardized telephone interview and a urine test that detects antibacterial activity using a Bacillus subtilis spore suspension. Overall compliance (positive urine test result at the end of the planned treatment period) was 79.6% (230 of 289 patients). Compliance was highest with erythromycin estolate (94.5%), followed by penicillin V benzathine (85.4%), cefaclor (76.9%), and amoxicillin (71.1%). Good compliance was also significantly associated with a patient age of > or =3 years and a treatment duration of > or =7 days. Compliance was not significantly influenced by the underlying bacterial infection. In summary, 20.4% of patients were noncompliant when treated with antibiotic suspensions.
To determine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in ambulatory children and to compare responses to treatment with azithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate or erythromycin estolate.
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Thirteen trials with 2197 participants met the inclusion criteria: 11 trials investigated treatment regimens; 2 investigated prophylaxis regimens. The quality of the trials was variable.Short-term antibiotics (azithromycin for three to five days, or clarithromycin or erythromycin for seven days) were as effective as long-term (erythromycin for 10 to 14 days) in eradicating Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) from the nasopharynx (relative risk (RR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98 to 1.05), but had fewer side effects (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.83). Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for seven days was also effective. Nor were there differences in clinical outcomes or microbiological relapse between short and long-term antibiotics. Contact prophylaxis of contacts older than six months of age with antibiotics did not significantly improve clinical symptoms or the number of cases developing culture-positive B. pertussis.