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EcN did not exert long-term liveability in the porcine intestine. All experimental pigs remained methanogenic. Indomethacin and EcN administered together might produce the worst impact on bacteriocinogeny.
To investigate the effects of nilotinib in a rat model of indomethacin-induced enterocolitis.
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Pheochromocytomas are tumors that may produce a variety of substances in addition to catecholamines. To date, among several cases of systemic inflammatory syndrome associated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion, IL-6-producing pheochromocytomas, have been reported. However, the mechanism underlying IL-6 oversecretion in these cases has not yet been clarified. This report describes a patient with pheochromocytoma who exhibited pyrexia and marked inflammatory signs including C-reactive protein elevation. The inflammatory symptoms were easily controlled by the administration of loxoprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The plasma concentration of IL-6 and 11-d-TXB(2), a stable metabolite of thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)), were significantly elevated in parallel with an elevation of norepinephrine in the samples obtained by selective venous sampling. A left adrenalectomy was performed, and the acute inflammatory symptoms naturally diminished without loxoprofen. Cultured tumor cells obtained from the resected specimen spontaneously released IL-6, and indomethacin inhibited the IL-6 release. According to a cDNA microarray analysis, mRNA of protein kinase C-delta (PKC-delta), prostaglandin D synthase, and arachidonate release-relating enzymes were significantly overexpressed in the tumor tissue in comparison to the adjacent nontumor tissue. The constitutive phosphorylation of PKC-delta was observed in the tumor tissue. These results strongly suggest that the systemic inflammatory syndrome in IL-6-producing pheochromocytoma, at least in part, is caused by the overexpression of PKC-delta, resulting in an excess of arachidonate derivatives such as prostaglandins.
A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) often complicates the clinical course of preterm infants and increases the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), chronic lung disease (CLD) and death. The standard treatment to close a PDA is indomethacin. Its use is associated with renal, gastrointestinal and cerebral side-effects. Ibuprofen has been shown to be effective in closing a PDA without reducing blood flow velocity to the brain, gut or kidneys.
The rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala (Compositae) is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicine in China, Japan and Korea, which has a long history of use for the treatment of splenic asthenia, edema, anorexia, and excessive perspiration, etc. As active compounds of anti-inflammatory activity of this medicinal plant have not been fully elucidated, the aim of this study was to isolate and identify the active constituents inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production from the rhizomes of A. macrocephala.
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This study examined endothelium-derived mediators of acetylcholine-induced relaxation in male rat femoral arteries. Arterial rings were suspended in a myograph for the measurement of isometric force. The generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in endothelial cells was detected using the fluorescent probe, 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, NOS inhibitor) and 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,2-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, guanylate cyclase inhibitor) alone or in combination with indomethacin (cycloxygenase inhibitor) diminished acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation to a similar extent. A small relaxation to acetylcholine in 60 mM KCl-constricted rings was abolished by L-NAME. Acetylcholine-induced relaxation was reduced by charybdotoxin plus apamin (intermediate- and small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blockers, respectively) or by 30 mM KCl. Both ouabain (Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitor) and BaCl2 (K(IR) channel blocker) also inhibited the relaxation albeit to a lesser degree. In the presence of L-NAME, ODQ plus indomethacin, charybdotoxin plus apamin or ouabain plus BaCl2 produced further inhibition. Catalase attenuated acetylcholine-induced relaxations and this attenuation was prevented by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (catalase inhibitor). Catalase did not affect acetylcholine-induced relaxations in rings treated with L-NAME or ODQ. Acetylcholine increased the dichlorofluorescein fluorescence intensity in native endothelial cells and this effect was abolished by catalase and by L-NAME. Exogenous H2O2 caused endothelium-independent relaxation that was slightly inhibited by iberiotoxin, ODQ or significantly reduced by elevated KCl, and abolished by catalase. The present results indicate that in addition to nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF, sensitive to charybdotoxin plus apamin, ouabain, and BaCl2), the endothelium of rat femoral artery can release H2O2 in response to acetylcholine, which was sensitive to L-NAME. Thus, the eNOS-dependent H2O2 is likely to be the third mediator of acetylcholine-mediated relaxations in rat femoral arteries.
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Successful treatment at 60 minutes occurred in 35 of 40 (87.5%) of Spasmofen-treated patients and in 33 of 40 (82.5%) of ketorolac-treated patients. The difference was not statistically significant by Fisher's exact test (P=0.755). The mean percentage reduction of VPAS after 15 minutes was 61.82% in the Spasmofen-treated group and 64.76% in the ketorolac-treated group. The difference was also not statistically significant by the Z-test for proportions (P=0.795). Sixty minutes after being treated, Spasmofen was associated with a statistically significant greater reduction in VPAS (mean% reduction =92.36%) than ketorolac (75.06%; P=0.0466).
For the treatment of post-traumatic stiff elbow, with careful open arthrolysis and early active and active-assisted exercise we can get good results.
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The preoperative administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been shown to have a positive impact on postoperative pain, but there is little research regarding the use of rectal NSAIDs given before surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of rectally administered indomethacin on postoperative pain in patients undergoing open cholecystectomy. A randomized controlled design was used to compare rectally administered indomethacin with placebo. Pain intensity, total opioid dose, and postoperative time to first request for analgesic were evaluated. The indomethacin group experienced significantly less postoperative pain and required less total opioid dose compared with the placebo group. Preoperative rectal administration of indomethacin reduces postoperative pain in open cholecystectomy when compared with placebo.
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Ketorolac inhibition of ureteral contractility was dose dependent. At 90 minutes, the average percent decrease from the spontaneous contraction rate for 0.1 nM ketorolac was 18.2%; 1 nM, 34.3%; 10 nM, 56.0%; 100 nM, 69.9%; 1 microM, 88.7%; and 10 microM, 98.3%. Ureteral contractility was significantly reduced by 1 microM ketorolac (39.0%; P = 0.016) at 15 minutes when compared with DMSO. In addition, 1 microM ketorolac was not significantly different at any time point from any of the higher doses studied.
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Patients scheduled to undergo phacoemulsification and with no recognized CME risks (diabetic retinopathy, retinal vascular disease, or macular abnormality) were randomized to receive either prednisolone acetate 1% 4 times daily (QID) alone (steroid group; n = 278) or prednisolone 1% QID plus ketorolac 0.4% QID (ketorolac/steroid group; n = 268) for approximately four weeks postoperatively. In the ketorolac/steroid group, patients also received topical ketorolac 0.4% QID for three days preoperatively. In both groups, patients received four doses of ketorolac 0.4% one hour before surgery. Patients with capsular disruption or vitreous loss intraoperatively were exited from the study. Outcome measures included CME incidence, retinal thickness as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT), best-corrected visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity.
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A total of 105 patients (26-64 years old) suffering from primary osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee were enrolled in this international, multicenter, randomized, double blind controlled trial. Fifty three patients were given ACE and 52 CEL. They were treated with either 90 mg bid of slow release ACE or 200 mg bid of CEL for 6 weeks. Additional gastroprotective therapy was not provided. Tolerability was assessed by physical examination, laboratory tests, vital signs and reports of side effects, as well as by patient and physician global assessments. Efficacy parameters comprised pain assessment by visual analogue scale (VAS) and ordinal scale, WOMAC, SF-36 and patient and physician global impressions of efficacy. In addition, acetaminophen consumption was recorded.
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Resveratrol showed biphasic activity in indomethacin-induced gastric ulcerated mice. A protective effect at a lower dose (2 mg kg(-1)) and a contraindicative effect at a higher dose of Resveratrol (10 mg kg(-1)) were observed. This phenomenon was possibly controlled by a COX-1 and eNOS balance, which ultimately maintained angiogenesis in Resveratrol-treated pre-ulcerated mice. The lower dose of Resveratrol (2 mg kg(-1)) augmented eNOS expression without altering COX-1 expression, but, at a higher dose (10 mg kg(-1)), Resveratrol predominantly suppressed COX-1 expression, which significantly reduced both PGE2 synthesis and angiogenesis. Thus it ultimately resulted in delay healing of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers. Hence, it could be concluded that COX-1 and eNOS acted as key regulatory factors switching the biphasic effects of Resveratrol in indomethacin-induced ulcerated mice.
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Eupatorium aschenbornianum is considered useful in the treatment of gastric ulcer. In the current study the validity of this practice was tested by using the experimental model of an ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rats. The results show that E. aschenbornianum had gastroprotective activity, that the hexane extract had the highest protective activity (85.65+/-4.76%), and that encecanescin isolated from this extract was the main active gastroprotective agent. The effect elicited by encecanescin was attenuated by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, N-ethylmaleimide and indomethacin, which suggests that NO, prostaglandins and sulfydryl groups are involved in the mechanisms of gastroprotective action.
To assess the clinical benefit, relative efficacy, and pharmacokinetic-response curve of preoperative and postoperative ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% (Acular LS) to improve outcomes during and after cataract surgery.
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This study evaluated the inhibitory action of luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside, luteolin which was isolated from Salix gilgiana leaves, and omeprazole on reflux esophagitis and gastritis in rats. Reflux esophagitis and gastritis were induced surgically and by the administration of indomethacin, respectively. The intraduodenal administration of luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside decreased the ulcer index, injury area, gastric volume and acid output, and increased the gastric pH compared with luteolin. Luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside significantly decreased the size of the gastric lesions that had been induced by exposing the gastric mucosa to indomethacin. The malondialdehyde content, which is the end product of lipid peroxidation, was increased significantly after inducing of reflux esophagitis. The malondialdehyde content was decreased by Luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside but not luteolin or omeprazole. Luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside has a more potent antioxidative effect than luteolin. Luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside is a promising drug for the treatment of reflux esophagitis and gastritis.
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The protein synthesis inhibitor dexamethasone (1 micromol/l), the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10 micromol/l), the selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor NS 398 (1 micromol/l), and the thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TP) receptor antagonist SQ 29,548 (1 micromol/l), reduced the concentration-response curves to phenylephrine more in segments from hypertensive than from normotensive rats; however, the thromboxane A2 (TxA2) synthase inhibitors furegrelate (10 micromol/l) and OKY 046 (1 and 10 micromol/l) had no effect in either strain. Removing endothelium or adding dexamethasone almost abolished the NS 398 effect. Cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression, which was reduced by dexamethasone, was higher in aorta from hypertensive animals. In both strains cyclooxygenase-2 was localized mainly in endothelial cells and adventitial fibroblasts. 13,14-Dihydro-15-keto-PGF2alpha, 6-keto-PGF1alpha and 8-isoprostane levels were greater in the medium from hypertensive than from normotensive rats; NS 398 decreased levels of the three metabolites studied only in the medium from SHR.
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Proteinase-activated receptor (PAR)-1 or -2 modulates gastrointestinal transit in vivo. To clarify the underlying mechanisms, we characterized contraction/relaxation caused by TFLLR-NH2 and SLIGRL-NH2, PAR-1- and -2-activating peptides, respectively, in gastric and small intestinal (duodenal, jejunal and ileal) smooth muscle isolated from wild-type and PAR-2-knockout mice. Either SLIGRL-NH2 or TFLLR-NH2 caused both relaxation and contraction in the gastrointestinal preparations from wild-type animals. Apamin, a K+ channel inhibitor, tended to enhance the peptide-evoked contraction in some of the gastrointestinal preparations, whereas it inhibited relaxation responses to either peptide completely in the stomach, but only partially in the small intestine. Indomethacin reduced the contraction caused by SLIGRL-NH2 or TFLLR-NH2 in both gastric and ileal preparations, but unaffected apamin-insensitive relaxant effect of either peptide in ileal preparations. Repeated treatment with capsaicin suppressed the contractile effect of either peptide in the stomach, but not clearly in the ileum, whereas it enhanced the apamin-insensitive relaxant effect in ileal preparations. In any gastrointestinal preparations from PAR-2-knockout mice, SLIGRL-NH2 produced no responses. Thus, the inhibitory component in tension modulation by PAR-1 and -2 involves both apamin-sensitive and -insensitive mechanisms in the small intestine, but is predominantly attributable to the former mechanism in the stomach. The excitatory component in the PAR-1 and -2 modulation may be mediated, in part, by activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves and/or endogenous prostaglandin formation. Our study thus clarifies the multiple mechanisms for gastrointestinal motility modulation by PAR-1 and -2, and also provides ultimate evidence for involvement of PAR-2.
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We used the partial protection exerted by suitable dosages of nicotinamide against the beta-cytotoxic effect of streptozotocin (STZ) to create an experimental diabetic syndrome in adult rats that appears closer to type II diabetes mellitus than other available animal models. The dosage of 230 mg/kg of nicotinamide given intraperitoneally 15 min before STZ administration (65 mg/kg i.v.) yielded animals with hyperglycemia (187.8 +/- 17.8 vs. 103.8 +/- 2.8 mg/dL in controls; P < 0.001) and preservation of plasma insulin levels. This study assessed the relationship between endothelial dysfunction and agonist-induced contractile responses in such rats. In the thoracic aorta, the acetylcholine (ACh) induced relaxation was significantly reduced and the noradrenaline (NA) induced contractile response was significantly increased in diabetic rats compared with age-matched control rats. In the superior mesenteric artery, the ACh-induced relaxation was similar in magnitude between diabetic and age-matched control rats; however, the ACh-induced endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) type relaxation was significantly weaker in diabetic rats than in the controls. The phenylephrine (PE) induced contractile response was not different between the two groups. The plasma concentration of NOx (NO2- + NO3-) was significantly lower in diabetic rats than in control rats. We conclude that vasomotor activities in conduit arteries are impaired in this type II diabetes model.
Haemodynamic instability affects 22% to 29% of very low birth weight infants in the acute period following ligation of the ductus arteriosus and contributes to the mortality seen in this group. Since the sudden elevation of systemic vascular resistance has been recognised to be one of the factors contributing to this instability, milrinone, an afterload reducing agent, might potentially be of significant therapeutic benefit. This report presents the clinical course of an infant born at 26 weeks gestation who required surgical ligation of a haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus after two unsuccessful 6-day courses of intravenous indomethacin. The post-operative period was characterized by oxygenation failure, rising blood pressure and echocardiographic signs indicative of diastolic dysfunction. The infant was successfully managed with milrinone, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which acts both as an "inodilator" and has lusitropy properties. Post-duct ligation haemodynamic instability in a preterm infant was successfully managed with milrinone. The role of afterload-reducing agents such as milrinone in this setting should, therefore, be systematically analyzed.
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We previously reported that eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyflavone) extracted from Artemisia asiaitica, augmented the cellular antioxidant defense capacity through induction of the antioxidant protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), thereby protecting ileal smooth muscle cells from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced intestinal toxicity. In the present study, we used cultured feline esophageal epithelial cells (EEC) to investigate the ability of eupatilin to induce expression of HO-1 and to analyze its cytoprotective effect against indomethacin-induced damage, since NSAID users have a higher risk of esophageal ulcers or esophagitis than non-NSAID users. A culture of EEC from cat was prepared. The identity of the cultures was confirmed by immunocytochemistry using cytokeratin antibodies. Western blot analysis showed a concentration- and time- dependent expression of HO-1 in response to eupatilin. Phosphorylation of extracellular regulating protein kinase (ERKs) and Akt, and nuclear translocation of nuclear related factor 2 (Nrf2) were induced by 150 microM eupatilin in a time-dependent manner. Eupatilin-induced HO-1 expression and Nrf2 were partly attenuated by MEK inhibitor PD98059 and almost completely by phosphatidyl-inactiol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, but not by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 or p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB202190. MTT assay showed that treatment with 2 mM indomethacin for 2 h decreased cell viability to about 41%. Pre-treatment of cells with eupatilin resulted in the dose-dependent inhibition of indomethacin-induced cell damage. We confirmed that ZnPP, an HO-1 inhibitor, repressed eupatilin-induced HO-1 activity and showed the protective effect of eupatilin against indomethacin-induced cell injury. The data suggested that HO-1 was partly responsible for the eupatilin-mediated protective action of esophageal epithelial cells against indomethacin via both ERKs and PI3K/Akt pathways as well as Nrf2 translocation.
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We investigated the effect of levosimendan on contractile tone of human isolated internal mammary artery (IMA). The responses in IMA were recorded isometrically by a force-displacement transducer in isolated organ baths. Levosimendan was added to organ baths either at rest or after precontraction with phenylephrine (1 micromol/L). Levosimendan-induced relaxations were tested in the presence of cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10 micromol/L), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N122-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 micromol/L), large-conductance calcium-activated potassium-channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium (1 mmol/L), adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium-channel inhibitor glibenclamide (10 micromol/L), and voltage-sensitive potassium-channel inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (1 mmol/L).
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LGP enhances Cl(-) secretion that is mostly mediated through the release of cyclooxygenase metabolites, by which provided an osmotic force for the subsequent laxative action observed in the rat constipation model.
Hypothalamic neuropeptides influence the main components of energy balance: metabolic rate, food intake, body weight as well as body temperature, by exerting either an overall anabolic or catabolic effect. The contribution of alarin, the most recently discovered member of the galanin peptide family to the regulation of energy metabolism has been suggested. Our aim was to analyze the complex thermoregulatory and food intake-related effects of alarin in rats. Adult male Wistar rats received different doses of alarin (0.3; 1; 3 and 15μg corresponding approximately to 0.1, 0.33, 1, and 5 nmol, respectively) intracerebroventricularly. Regarding thermoregulatory analysis, oxygen consumption (indicating metabolic rate), core temperature and heat loss (assessed by tail skin temperature) were recorded in an Oxymax indirect calorimeter system complemented with thermocouples and Benchtop thermometer. In order to investigate potential prostaglandin-mediated mechanisms of the hyperthermic effect of alarin, effects of intraperitoneally applied non-selective (indomethacin, 2mg/kg) or selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor (COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam, 1; 2mg/kg) were tested. Effects of alarin on daytime and nighttime spontaneous food intake, as well as, 24-h fasting-induced re-feeding were recorded in an automated FeedScale system. Alarin increased oxygen consumption with simultaneous suppression of heat loss leading to a slow coordinated rise in core temperature. Both applied COX-inhibitors suppressed this action. Alarin failed to induce daytime food intake, but suppressed spontaneous nighttime and also fasting-induced re-feeding food intake. Alarin appears to elicit a slow anorexigenic and prostaglandin-mediated, fever-like hyperthermic response in rats. Such a combination would characterize a catabolic mediator. The potential involvement of alarin in sickness behavior may be assumed.
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Nuclear inclusions formed by the aggregation of a polyalanine expansion mutant of the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein (PABPN1) is a hallmark of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). OPMD is a dominant autosomal disease in which patients exhibit progressive difficulty of swallowing and eyelid elevation, starting around the age of 50. At present, there is no specific treatment to reduce the aggregate burden in patients. However, in cell culture models of OPMD, reduction of protein aggregation can be achieved by ectopic expression of HSP70. As gene transfer may not be the most effective means to elevate HSP70 levels, we tested four pharmacological agents for their ability to induce HSP70, recruit both HSP70 and HSC70 into the cell nucleus and reduce mutant PABPN1 aggregation in a HeLa cell culture model. We show here that exposure to moderate levels of ZnSO4, 8-hydroxyquinoline, ibuprofen and indomethacin produced a robust stress response resulting in the induction of HSP70 in HeLa cells expressing the mutant PABPN1 as a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein. Both HSP70 and the constitutive chaperone HSC70 localized in the nucleus of cells treated with any one of the four agents. This stress response was similar to what was observed following hyperthermia. All four agents also caused a significant reduction in the cellular burden of protein aggregates, as was judged by confocal microscopy and solubility changes of the aggregates. A concomitant reduction of cell death in drug-treated mutant PABPN1 expressing cells was also observed.
Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) occurs in many diseases and is often mediated by inflammatory and neuroimmune mechanisms. Inflammation is well established as a cause of BBB disruption, but many mechanistic questions remain.
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In the present study, we investigated the effect of ET-1 on diabetic glomeruli that were freshly isolated from Wistar rats after streptozotocin-induced diabetes for 1 week (DM1W), 1 month (DM1M) and 3 months (DM3M), respectively, and then observed the glomerular uptake of [(3)H]-labelled thymidine and the production of fibronectin.
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Under urethane anesthesia, a chambered stomach or a proximal duodenal loop was superfused with saline, and HCO3- secretion was measured at pH 7.0 using a pH-stat.
In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients intravenously received placebo, dexamethasone 4 mg, or dexamethasone 8 mg immediately before induction of anesthesia. A standard anesthetic technique, including sevoflurane and air in oxygen, was used. Postoperatively, emetic symptoms (nausea, retching, and vomiting) and analgesic requirement were evaluated by an investigator.
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Of the 11 species tested, 2 showed a vasorelaxant effect. Further investigation of the mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of green alga, Cladophora patentiramea (AECP),showed that the vascular relaxant effect was endothelium- and concentration-dependent. A maximum relaxation of 45.8 +/- 4.6% (n = 8, p < 0.001) was obtained at 0.1 mg/ml of extract, after which the response was found to reduce in a concentration-dependent manner to 15.7 +/- 4.9% (n = 8, p < 0.001) at the highest extract concentration tested. Pretreatment of endothelium-intact aortic rings with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 30 microM), (1)H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 microM) and methylene blue (100 microM) resulted in a complete blockade of AECP-induced vasorelaxation. However, the relaxant effects of the extract were not blocked by atropine (1 microM), indomethacin (10 microM) and glibenclamide (10 microM), although the maximum relaxant responses were enhanced in the presence of glibenclamide.
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12 of the 186 patients included discontinued their medication before the end of the trial due to side effects. The remaining 174 patients were included in the analysis. In the indomethacin group (n = 89), 77 patients (87%) showed no HO, 9 showed HO of grade 1 and 3 showed HO of grade 2 according to the Brooker classification. In the rofecoxib group (n = 85) 73 patients (86%) showed no ossification, 9 showed grade 1, and 3 showed grade 2.