karela capsules uk
To produce new rice blast- and herbicide-resistant transgenic rice lines, the McCHIT1 gene encoding the class I chitinase from Momordica charantia and the herbicide resistance gene PAT were introduced into Lailong (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica), a glutinous local rice variety from Guizhou Province, People's Republic of China. Transgenic lines were identified by ß-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical staining, PCR, and Southern blot analyses. Agronomic traits, resistance to rice blast and herbicide, chitinase activities, and transcript levels of McCHIT1 were assessed in the T2 progeny of three transgenic lines (L1, L8, and L10). The results showed that the introduction of McCHIT1-PAT into Lailong significantly enhanced herbicide and blast resistance. After infection with the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, all of the T2 progeny exhibited less severe lesion symptoms than those of wild type. The disease indices were 100% for wild type, 65.66% for T2 transgenic line L1, 59.69% for T2 transgenic line L8, and 79.80% for T2 transgenic line L10. Transgenic lines expressing McCHIT1-PAT did not show a significant difference from wild type in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the leaves. However, after inoculation with M. oryzae, transgenic plants showed significantly higher SOD and PPO activities and lower MDA contents in leaves, compared with those in wild-type leaves. The transgenic and the wild-type plants did not show significant differences in grain yield parameters including plant height, panicles per plant, seeds per panicle, and 1000-grain weight. Therefore, the transgenic plants showed increased herbicide and blast resistance, with no yield penalty.
The present paper documents the medicinal knowledge and utilization of plants for treatment of digestive system disorders in Southern Assam, India by Disease Consensus Index (DCI). It also determines the most suitable plant species used to treat digestive system disorders in the study area.
karela powder online
Momordica charantia L. (MC) (Cucurbitaceae) commonly known as balsam pear, bitter gourd or karela, used in several purposes in traditional medicine is an important medicinal plant. Two sets of experiments were carried out, the first experiment indicated that the LD(50) for MC juice and alcoholic extracts were 91.9 and 362.34 mg/100g b.wt., respectively, of subcutaneously "s.c." injected mice. The toxic signs were recorded within the first 24 h post-injection. The second experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of MC juice and alcoholic extracts on blood glucose and other biochemical parameters in normal and diabetic rats. Both extracts induced a significant decrease in serum glucose levels in normal and diabetic rats. The two extracts did not show any significant effect in urea, creatinine, ALT, AST and AP in normal rat, while in diabetic rats the two extracts caused a significant decrease in serum urea, creatinine, ALT, AST, AP, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Also, these results suggested that MC extracts possesses anti-diabetic, hepato-renal protective and hypolipidemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thus, MC is alternative therapy that has primarily been used for lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Alpha momorcharin is a protein isolated from the bitter gourd. It has a number of biological activities including induction of abortion, inhibition of tumor growth and anti-HIV. All these activities may be related to the ribosome-inhibiting activity of the protein. Repeated use of alphaMMC can elicit an antigenic response which may neutralize its biological activity. To overcome this problem, we need to know which part of the molecule is the antigenic determinant. In this study, we constructed a random fragment expression library from the alphaMMC cDNA and screened it with three anti-alphaMMC sera. A total of 9 positive clones were picked and sequenced. Based on the sequence information obtained, we were able to deduce three regions at which antibodies raised against native alphaMMC seem to interact. These regions are residues 1-14, residues 71-136 and residues 195-222. Mapping of these regions against a 3D model of alphaMMC indicates that they all are located on the surface of the molecule. As residues 71-136 are found to be in close proximity to the active site involved in ribosome inactivation, treatment with a monoclonal antibody directed to this area was shown to be effective in inactivating the inhibitory effect of alphaMMC on in vitro protein synthesis.
karela 1250 mg
Melatonin was found in six of the seven herbs in the traditional Thai sleeping recipe. One of these, P. nigrum, exhibited an encouragingly high amount of melatonin.
karela capsule benefits
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal potential in vitro of Momordica charantia L. against the microorganisms of clinical interest (standard strains and multiresistant isolates) in order to aggregate scientific information in relation to its use as a therapeutic product.
karela tablets himalaya
We demonstrated that bitter melon was effective in ameliorating the fructose diet-induced hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia as well as in decreasing the levels of free fatty acid (FFA) (P<0.001, P<0.05, P<0.05, P<0.05, P<0.05, respectively). Bitter melon reversed fructose diet-induced hypoadiponectinemia (P<0.05), which provides a therapeutic advantage to insulin resistance in improving insulin sensitivity. Additionally, bitter melon decreased the weights of epididymal (P<0.05) and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT) (P<0.05). Bitter melon increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) in white adipose tissue (WAT). Conversely, bitter melon decreased the expression of leptin in WAT. Furthermore, we demonstrate that bitter melon significantly increases the mRNA expression and protein of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in skeletal muscle.
A facile UAE protocol for a high extraction yield of charantin was developed and validated.
karela powder dosage
Four novel octanorcucurbitane triterpenes, octanorcucurbitacins A-D (1-4), together with one known octanorcucurbitane triterpene, kuguacin M (5), were isolated from the methyl alcohol extract of the stems of Momordica charantia. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 3 inhibited tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced hepatotoxicity against HepG2 cells.
karela herbal capsules
Type 2 diabetes has become a global epidemic. Modern medicines, despite offering a variety of effective treatment options, can have several adverse effects. Ayurveda, a science that uses herbal medicines extensively, originated in India. Of considerable interest is the adoption of Ayurveda by the mainstream medical system in some European countries (e.g., Hungary), emphasizing this modality is increasing worldwide recognition. From ancient times, some of these herbal preparations have been used in the treatment of diabetes. This paper reviews the accumulated literature for 10 Indian herbs that have antidiabetic activity and that have been scientifically tested. Few of these herbs, such as Momordica charantia, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Trigonella foenum greacum, have been reported to be beneficial for treating type 2 diabetes. Mechanisms such as the stimulating or regenerating effect on beta cells or extrapancreatic effects are proposed for the hypoglycemic action of these herbs.
Somatic chromosome number and detailed karyotype analysis were carried out in six Indian Momordica species viz. M. balsamina, M. charantia, M. cochinchinensis, M. dioica, M. sahyadrica and M. cymbalaria (syn. Luffa cymbalaria; a taxon of controversial taxonomic identity). The somatic chromosome number 2n = 22 was reconfirmed in monoecious species (M. balsamina and M. charantia). Out of four dioecious species, the chromosome number was reconfirmed in M. cochinchinensis (2n = 28), M. dioica (2n = 28) and M. subangulata subsp. renigera (2n = 56), while in M. sahyadrica (2n = 28) somatic chromosome number was reported for the first time. A new chromosome number of 2n = 18 was reported in M. cymbalaria against its previous reports of 2n = 16, 22. The karyotype analysis of all the species revealed significant numerical and structural variations of chromosomes. It was possible to distinguish chromosomes of M. cymbalaria from other Momordica species and also between monoecious and dioecious taxa of the genus. Morphology and crossability among the dioecious species was also studied. Evidence from morphology, crossability, pollen viability and chromosome synapsis suggests a segmental allopolyploid origin for M. subangulata subsp. renigera. The taxonomic status of the controversial taxon M. cymbalaria was also discussed using morphological, karyological and crossability data.
We investigated the preventive effect of Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) fruit, commonly known as bitter melon, on hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in rats fed with a fructose-enriched diet.
karela capsules uk
Plasma glucose and insulin levels significantly increased during the OGTT (p < or =0.05) but no significant difference was observed between experimental conditions. Energy expenditure, carbohydrate and lipid oxidation rates as well as appetite profile did not differ between experimental conditions.
In an effort to establish and document the hypoglycaemic activity of Momordica charantia in validated models of diabetes, the alcoholic extract of the pulp was studied. In the normal glucose primed rat model, M. charantia fruit extract, 500 mg kg-1, depressed the plasma glucose levels by 10-15% at 1 h. Under similar conditions, tolbutamide (100 mg kg-1) caused approximately 40% reductions in plasma glucose both at 1 and 2 h. At 500 mg kg-1, the efficacy of M. charantia was 25-30% of tolbutamide. The reduction in plasma glucose in normal glucose primed rat was not accompanied by increased insulin secretion. There was no evidence of tachyphylaxis to the effect of M. charantia extract on repeated dosing. In streptozotocin diabetes rats, it improved the oral glucose tolerance causing significant (P < 0.002) reduction in plasma glucose of 26% at 3.5 h while metformin caused 40-50% reduction at 1, 2 and 3.5 h. M. charantia extract (500 mg kg-1) caused a 4-5-fold increase in the rate of glycogen synthesis from U-14C-glucose in the liver of normally fed rats. These data suggest that the mechanism of action of M. charantia could be partly attributed to increased glucose utilization in the liver rather than an insulin secretion effect. This is the first report on the effect of M. charantia in characterized and validated animal model systems known to respond to oral hypoglycaemic drugs.
karela powder online
Ribonucleases (RNases) are ubiquitously distributed nucleases that cleave RNA into smaller pieces. They are promising drugs for different cancers based on their concrete antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo. Here we report for the first time purification and characterization of a 14-kDa RNase, designated as RNase MC2, in the seeds of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia). RNase MC2 manifested potent RNA-cleavage activity toward baker's yeast tRNA, tumor cell rRNA, and an absolute specificity for uridine. RNase MC2 demonstrated both cytostatic and cytotoxic activities against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with RNase MC2 caused nuclear damage (karyorrhexis, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation), ultimately resulting in early/late apoptosis. Further molecular studies unveiled that RNase MC2 induced differential activation of MAPKs (p38, JNK and ERK) and Akt. On the other hand, RNase MC2 exposure activated caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-7, increased the production of Bak and cleaved PARP, which in turn contributed to the apoptotic response. In conclusion, RNase MC2 is a potential agent which can be exploited in the worldwide fight against breast cancer.
This study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Momordica charantia L. (MC) in tibial and sural nerve transection (TST)-induced neuropathic pain in rats.
karela 1250 mg
There is heterogeneity in the available literature on Ayurvedic treatment for diabetes. Most studies test herbal therapy. Heterogeneity exists in the herbs and formulas tested (more than 44 different interventions identified) and in the method of their preparation. Despite these limitations, there are sufficient data for several herbs or herbal formulas to warrant further studies.
karela capsule benefits
Obese SD rats (Sprague-Dawley rats, rattus norregicus) were randomly divided into four groups: (a) normal control diet (NCD) and distilled water, (b) HFD and distilled water, (c) HFD and 300mg BMP/kg body weight (bw), (d) HFD and 10mg pioglitazone (PGT)/kg bw.
karela tablets himalaya
An ethnobotanical survey was made in Dharmapuri region, Tamil Nadu, India to identify plants used in traditional medicine against fevers. Selected plants were extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol and evaluated for antimalarial activity against erythrocytic stages of chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive 3D7 and CQ-resistant INDO strains of Plasmodium falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. Cytotoxicity was determined against HeLa cells using MTT assay.
β-Glucan purified from oats (OG) and bitter melon, Momordica charantia Linn (MC), water extracts have shown favorable effects on diabetes and its complications. We investigated to find out the optimal composition showing hypoglycemic and antidiabetic complication effects in variable compositions (OG:MC = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 2:1, 4:1, 6:1, 8:1, 10:1). Extracts were administered orally once a day for 28 days following 7 days post streptozotocin (STZ) dosing. Five rats per group (total 15 groups; Intact, STZ, OG, MC, and the variable composition groups) were selected according to the blood glucose and body weight at 6 days after STZ dosing. After 28 days of extracts dosing, the changes on the body weight, liver and kidney weight, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and total-cholesterol levels were observed. As the result of STZ-induced diabetes, decreases of body weight, increases of the liver and kidney weights, blood glucose, BUN, creatinine, AST, ALT, LDL, and total-cholesterol levels in STZ control were detected compared with intact control. However, these changes of hyperglycemia, diabetic nephropathy, hepatopathy, and hyperlipemia were dramatically decreased in the OG and MC single-dosing group, and all composition groups. In addition, there were more favorable effects in all composition groups compared with the OG and MC single-dosing groups. Among variable compositions, the OG:MC 1:2 mixed group showed the most synergic effects in this study.
karela powder dosage
Increased use of dietary supplements is a phenomenon observed worldwide. In the USA, more than 40% of the population recently reported using complementary and alternative medicines, including botanical dietary supplements. Perceptions that such dietary supplements are natural and safe, may prevent disease, may replace prescription medicines, or may make up for a poor diet, play important roles in their increased use. Toxicity of botanical dietary supplements may result from the presence of naturally occurring toxic constituents or from contamination or adulteration with pharmaceutical agents, heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, or bacteria, misidentification of a plant species in a product, formation of electrophilic metabolites, organ-specific reactions, or botanical-drug interactions. The topics discussed in this review illustrate several issues in recent research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. These include (1) whether 1,3-dimethylamylamine is a natural constituent of rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), (2) how analysis of the components of dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is essential to understanding their potential biological effects, and (3) how evolving methods for in vitro studies on botanical ingredients can contribute to safety evaluations. The virtual explosion in the use of botanical ingredients in hundreds of products presents a considerable challenge to the analytical community, and the need for appropriate methods cannot be overstated. We review recent developments and use of newer and increasingly sensitive methods that can contribute to increasing the safety and quality of botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.
karela herbal capsules
Two ribosome-inactivating proteins, trichosanthin and alpha-momorcharin, have been studied in the forms of complexes with ATP or formycin, by an X-ray-crystallographic method at 1.6-2.0 A (0.16-0.20 nm) resolution. The native alpha-momorcharin had been studied at 2.2 A resolution. Structures of trichosanthin were determined by a multiple isomorphous replacement method. Structures of alpha-momorcharin were determined by a molecular replacement method using refined trichosanthin as the searching model. Small ligands in all these complexes have been recognized and built on the difference in electron density. All these structures have been refined to achieve good results, both in terms of crystallography and of ideal geometry. These two proteins show considerable similarity in their three-dimensional folding and to that of related proteins. On the basis of these structures, detailed geometries of the active centres of these two proteins are described and are compared with those of related proteins. In all complexes the interactions between ligand atoms and protein atoms, including hydrophobic forces, aromatic stacking interactions and hydrogen bonds, are found to be specific towards the adenine base. The relationship between the sequence conservation of ribosome-inactivating proteins and their active-centre geometry was analysed. A depurinating mechanism of ribosome-inactivating proteins is proposed on the basis of these results. The N-7 atom of the substrate base group is proposed to be protonated by an acidic residue in the active centre.
In an ethnobotanical survey in defined rural and urban areas 63 randomly chosen individuals (health professionals, diabetic patients), identified to use traditional medicinal plants to treat diabetes, were interviewed in a structured manner about their administration or use of plants for treating diabetes.