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Lanoxin (Digoxin)

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Lanoxin is an effective medication which is used in treatment of certain types of fast heartbeats such as atrial fibrillation or fluttering arrhythmia and heart failure. It also treats angina. This drug can also be used after heart attack.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Digoxin.


Lanoxin target is struggle against certain types of fast heartbeats such as atrial fibrillation or fluttering arrhythmia and heart failure. It is also treats angina. This drug can also be used after heart attack. The effectiveness of Lanoxin is in keeping the heart rhythm under control and to make heart work better (regularly and strongly). It is cardiac (or digitalis) glycosides.

Generic name of Lanoxin is Digoxin.

Lanoxin is also known as Digoxin, Digitalis, Digitek, Lanoxicaps.

Brand names of Lanoxin are Lanoxicaps, Lanoxin, Cardoxin, Digitek, Lanoxin Elixir Pediatric.


Take Lanoxin tablets (0.25 mg), capsules and pediatric elixir (liquid) orally.

Elderly people (> 65 years) should take the lowest dose.

Take Lanoxin at the same time once a day with water.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Lanoxin suddenly.


If you overdose Lanoxin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Lanoxin overdosage: confusion, irregular heartbeats, nausea, seizures, vomiting, extremely fast or slow heartbeats, hallucinations, tiredness, problems with vision, diarrhea, lack of appetite.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Lanoxin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Lanoxin if you are allergic to Lanoxin components.

Do not take Lanoxin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Lanoxin if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Lanoxin in case of taking medicines as a steroid medicine (prednisone (such as Deltasone), methylprednisolone (such as Medrol), prednisolone (such as Prelone, Pediapred), dexamethasone (such as Decadron)); a cancer chemotherapy drug; amphotericin B (such as Fungizone); indomethacin (such as Indocin); rifampin (such as Rifadin, Rimactane); cholestyramine (such as Questran, Prevalite) or colestipol (such as Colestid); a thyroid medication; a beta-blocker (atenolol (such as Tenormin), propranolol (such as Inderal), acebutolol (such as Sectral), metoprolol (such as Lopressor), carteolol (such as Cartrol), labetalol (such as Normodyne, Trandate) or nadolol (such as Corgard)); a diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide (such as HCTZ, HydroDiuril, others), chlorothiazide (such as Diuril), chlorthalidone (such as Hygroton, Thalitone), furosemide (such as Lasix), torsemide (such as Demadex), bumetanide (such as Bumex), ethacrynic acid (such as Edecrin), triamterene (such as Dyrenium, Maxzide, Dyazide), amiloride (such as Midamor), spironolactone (such as Aldactone), eplerenone (such as Inspra)); metoclopramide (such as Reglan); tetracycline (such as Broadspec, Emtet, Panmycin, Sumycin, Tetracap); erythromycin (such as E.E.S., E-Mycin, Eryc, Ery-Tab, PCE) or clarithromycin (such as Biaxin); sulfasalazine (such as Azulfidine); sulfasalazine (such as Azulfidine); another medicines for irregular heartbeats (quinidine (such as Quinidex, Quinora, Cardioquin), amiodarone (such as Cordarone) or propafenone (such as Rythmol)); itraconazole (such as Sporanox); a calcium channel blocker (diltiazem (such as Cardizem, Dilacor XR, Tiazac), amlodipine (such as Norvasc), felodipine (such as Plendil), nifedipine (such as Procardia, Adalat), verapamil (such as Verelan, Calan, Isoptin, Covera-HS)), an antacid or laxative that contains aluminum, magnesium or kaolin-pectin (such as Maalox, Rolaids, Mylanta, Milk of Magnesia).

Be careful with Lanoxin if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be careful with Lanoxin if you suffer from or have a history of thyroid disease, cancer, kidney disease, heart arrhythmias.

Use Lanoxin with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Elderly people (> 65 years) should take the lowest dose.

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid machine driving.

Do not stop taking Lanoxin suddenly.

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In buccal cells, fluorescent PCR and FISH had similar reliability (94 and 93%) and accuracy (97 and 96%) rates. The reliability and accuracy of PRINS (91 and 25%) and conventional PCR (79 and 89%) were lower. In human blastomeres, FISH and fluorescent PCR had similar reliability (100%, 717; 95%, 190/201) rates. Accuracy rates were 71% (517) and 99% (188/190) for FISH and fluorescent PCR, respectively, however, too few blastomeres were analyzed by FISH for meaningful comparison. However, when these data are compared with published data, the method of choice for blastomere sexing appears to be fluorescent PCR.

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To elucidate the inhibited effect and regulated mechanism of IGFBp-1 on the carcinoma cells.

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In this study, the combination of a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (UK 38485) and a thromboxane receptor antagonist (ICI 185282) was tested for an interaction of potential therapeutic importance and the effect of acetylsalicylic acid pretreatment on this combination was evaluated in digoxin-induced arrhythmias in guinea-pigs. Drug treatments at the dose combinations used (ICI 185282: 0.2 mg/kg + 0.2 mg/kg/hr + UK 38485 0.1 mg/kg/hr and ICI 185282: 2 mg/kg + 2 mg/kg/hr + UK 38485 1 mg/kg/hr) markedly reduced the incidence of ventricular fibrillation, mortality rate and arrhythmia score. Pretreatment with acetylsalicylic acid plus drug combination resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality rate and arrhythmia score. The increase in mean arterial blood pressure, observed after digoxin administration, was inhibited by the combination therapy. Although heart rate values were increased, the computed pressure-rate index remained unchanged when compared with the control group. These data suggest that the combined treatment with a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor and a thromboxane receptor antagonist provides a better protection against digoxin intoxication than with either agent alone. Furthermore, the results illustrate that formation of cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid plays an important role in this action.

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Postoperative JT is a transient arrhythmia that may be fatal after operation for congenital cardiac defects. Its precise cause is unknown. A variety of palliative treatments have evolved, but because of a low incidence of JT, large studies of the most efficient therapeutic sequence are lacking.

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This report describes the development of a method to measure mRNA in small samples of human tissue by the polymerase chain reaction with a nonradioactive label. In this method RNA is reverse-transcribed in the presence of a control RNA, and subsequently amplified by the polymerase chain reaction during which a nonradioactive label (digoxigenin-11-dUTP) is incorporated. Gel blotting and immunological detection of digoxigenin followed by a chemiluminescent reaction provide an intense signal on film. This allows the detection and quantitation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase mRNA in 12 ng of RNA. We demonstrate that this is a sensitive and reproducible method, and that quantitation is linear with respect to the amount of mRNA present. The application of this method to the measurement of low density lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase mRNA levels in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells and human liver biopsy samples is discussed. The use of chemiluminescent reagents instead of radioactive labels allows this procedure to be performed safely in laboratories not equipped for radioactivity.

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Hyperkalemia resulting from digoxin toxicity is a well-recognized phenomenon. We report a case in which hyperkalemia, bradycardia, and hypotension were unresponsive to standard therapy but appeared to respond to digoxin-specific antibodies (Fab). This case highlights the importance of a high index of suspicion for digoxin toxicity as a potential cause of refractory hyperkalemia.

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After 3 weeks of atrial fibrillation, domestic swine received atrioventricular nodal gene transfer with adenoviruses encoding beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), wild-type Galpha(i2) (wtGi), or constitutively active mutant (cGi). Heart rates in awake, alert animals were not altered by beta-gal or wtGi. cGi caused a sustained 15% to 25% decrease in heart rate. The wtGi effect became evident with sedation. A tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy was present before gene transfer. In the beta-gal group, cardiomyopathy worsened over time. In the wtGi group, the condition improved slightly, and in the cGi group, ejection fraction was near normal at the end of the study. TUNEL staining results corroborated this finding.

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Drug interactions common to all angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors include those with thiazide diuretics and other antihypertensive agents. Interactions involving specific ACE inhibitors include captopril-digoxin, resulting in decreased clearance of digoxin from plasma in patients with heart failure, and captopril-probenecid, causing a decrease in captopril clearance. Tissue kinins, such as bradykinin, are metabolised by ACE inhibitors. Interactions involving bradykinin include captopril-indomethacin, in which an attenuation of the antihypertensive effects of captopril is manifest. Interestingly, neither enalapril nor lisinopril appear to show this interaction with indomethacin. Kinin-based interactions may also be important in the genesis of ACE inhibitor-induced cough and skin rash. Renal dysfunction affects the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of all ACE inhibitors, necessitating dosage reduction. Hepatic impairment is of less clinical importance, causing a delay in the onset of action of enalapril with initial doses, but probably having little relevance to long-term therapy.

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Fundamental to the maintenance of ionic concentration gradients and transparency of the lens is the activity of Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) in the epithelial layer. Recent studies have identified endogenous digitalis-like compounds (DLCs) and 19-norbufalin and its peptide derivatives in human cataractous lenses. These compounds inhibit the activity of Na+,K+-ATPase and have been suggested to be involved in cataract formation. The present experiments were designed to test this hypothesis by determining the ability of digitalis and DLCs to induce changes in protein composition and leakage from rat lenses in organ culture.

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To determine gender differences in diagnostic workup and treatment of patients with heart failure.

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Fifty-four laboratories providing a serum digoxin monitoring service participated in a 16-month prospective quality control (QC) study that involved (a) determination of spiked QC samples based on a human serum matrix and (b) reanalysis by two to four reference laboratories of patient samples randomly selected among those assayed routinely. Interlaboratory variability on spiked samples was limited, coefficients of variation being usually in the 11-21% range. Correlations between values reported by individual reference laboratories on routine samples were reasonably good irrespective of the techniques used, which were the enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) or the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). When all data were considered, the correlation between the original routine values and reference results (r = 0.93) was comparable to that observed for the other analytes (phenytoin and theophylline) included in the survey. When subsets of results were evaluated according to the technique used, the agreement between routine and reference results was good for samples originally measured by FPIA (r = 0.96), moderate for samples originally measured by non-EMIT/non-FPIA techniques (r = 0.92), and poor for the few samples originally measured by EMIT (r = 0.55). The poor correlation with EMIT results could be ascribed largely to erratic performance of two individual laboratories. It is concluded that interlaboratory variability in routine drug measurements is greater for digoxin than for other analytes such as phenytoin and theophylline, and that the analytical performance of some laboratories is grossly inaccurate.

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During the last decades, the prevalence of allergy has increased worldwide. Allergic rhinitis ("hay fever") and asthma are two of the most common allergic diseases. A possible cause for increased allergy to pollen is air pollution. The increase of industrialization and the number of diesel engines associated with diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in the air parallel the increase in allergic airway diseases. To investigate the adjuvant effect of DEP in pollen allergy, Brown Norway (BN) rats were sensitized intranasally or intratracheally with timothy grass pollen (Phleum pratense) with or without DEP (3 mg/ml). Intranasal sensitization (200 microl, 10 mg/ml) was performed daily for 5 consecutive days and intratracheal sensitization (200 microl, 10 mg/ml) was performed once. Challenge with pollen was performed at day 21 similarly to the sensitization protocol. Blood samples were taken at day 28 after the first sensitization. The binding of DEP to pollen grains was studied by scanning electron microscopy and the inflammatory response in the lung was studied by light microscopy. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG(1) responses against pollen grains were measured by digoxigenin (DIG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Scanning electron microscopy revealed a mixture of free DEP and DEP associated with pollen grains. Both intranasal and intratracheal routes of administration of pollen grains induced inflammatory reactions in the lung with an influx of macrophages, eosinophilic granulocytes, and granuloma formation. Pollen grains were localized in the alveoli after both intranasal and intratracheal administration and were surrounded by macrophages. The number and localization of pollen grains were similar for both routes of administration. After coexposure with DEP, DEP-loaded macrophages were found around the pollen. Localization, inflammatory reaction, and integrity of pollen were similar to those seen without DEP. At day 28, specific IgE and IgG(1) antibodies were found in serum of rats immunized intranasally or intratracheally. IgE antibody response was higher in rats immunized with pollen grains and DEP than in rats immunized with pollen only (dilution mean +/- SEM: 59.4 +/- 4.6 vs. 27 +/- 5.1). The IgG(1) antibody response was much higher compared to the IgE response (factor of 10(4)), but the level of IgG(1) antibodies was only slightly increased by DEP (dilution mean +/- SEM: 24.2 +/- 2.0 x 10(4) vs. 16.1 +/- 2.1 x 10(4)). In conclusion, the intranasal application of pollen in the BN rat is a suitable and elegant method to evoke inflammatory reactions in the lung and pollen-specific IgE responses measured by DIG ELISA. Finally, this model gives similar results on adjuvant activity of DEP found in the ovalbumin models presented previously.

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Two patients had potentially serious drug interactions (phenytoin, digoxin) that were probably attributable to changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics caused by high-dose calcium channel blocker therapy (diltiazem) in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Even in the approved normal dosages for the treatment of angina and hypertension, calcium channel blockers are known to cause significant changes in the metabolism of other drugs. Currently, no data exist on the effects of the very high dosages of these drugs, administered to patients with pulmonary hypertension, on the metabolism and clearance of other agents, although, based on our experience and literature reports, recommendations for monitoring therapy can be made.

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Medline/Ovid, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, TOXLINE, International pharmaceutical abstracts, Google Scholar, and the gray literature up to December 31, 2013 were searched without time restriction to identify all types of studies that examined effects of various treatments for calcium channel blocker poisoning for the outcomes of interest. The search strategy included the following Keywords: [calcium channel blockers OR calcium channel antagonist OR calcium channel blocking agent OR (amlodipine or bencyclane or bepridil or cinnarizine or felodipine or fendiline or flunarizine or gallopamil or isradipine or lidoflazine or mibefradil or nicardipine or nifedipine or nimodipine or nisoldipine or nitrendipine or prenylamine or verapamil or diltiazem)] AND [overdose OR medication errors OR poisoning OR intoxication OR toxicity OR adverse effect]. Two reviewers independently selected studies and a group of reviewers abstracted all relevant data using a pilot-tested form. A second group analyzed the risk of bias and overall quality using the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) checklist and the Thomas tool for observational studies, the Institute of Health Economics tool for Quality of Case Series, the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines, and the modified NRCNA (National Research Council for the National Academies) list for animal studies. Qualitative synthesis was used to summarize the evidence. Of 15,577 citations identified in the initial search, 216 were selected for analysis, including 117 case reports. The kappa on the quality analysis tools was greater than 0.80 for all study types.

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Polypharmacy is associated with increased mortality in NH residents with advanced cognitive impairment at the end of life.

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MEDLINE was searched for articles using commonly reported names of CASs, and keywords were limited to human cases only. We searched cases from 1982 to 2003, so that supportive care was similar and digoxin-specific Fab was available. Identified reports of CAS poisoning were read to exclude cases involving licensed pharmaceuticals. Inclusion criteria included hyperkalemia, gastrointestinal symptoms, electrocardiographic evidence of CAS toxicity, digoxin serum concentration, or history of exposure to a substance containing a CAS. Clinical data was collected, including information about treatment with digoxin-specific Fab and treatment outcome.

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The management of heart failure has evolved in parallel with advances in the understanding of the disease process. Inotropes and diuretics are used to combat pump failure and fluid overload. While no convincing data has emerged regarding the long-term safety of inotropes, new exciting data concerning the role of diuretics, especially aldactone, has led to a renewed interest in this class of drug therapy. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) were noted to not only affect symptomatology but also decrease mortality by interfering with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recent research has focused on more complete blockade of the renin-angiotensin system than that achieved with ACE inhibitors alone with the addition of direct angiotensin II receptor blockers. This new class of drugs may become not only a reasonable alternative to ACE inhibitors in patients intolerant of the drug but also a possible addition to ACE inhibitors in the battle to prevent progression of remodelling and disease. beta-blockers are the most exciting new class of drugs used to combat heart failure. They appear not only to combat the remodelling process that occurs in the progression of disease but also other pathological events such as apoptosis and cellular oxidation. New medical therapies currently being investigated include novel agents such as endothelin antagonists, natriuretic peptides, vasopressin antagonists and anticytokine agents--all part of a new era in drug management of heart failure that has evolved with continued advances in the understanding of chronic heart failure (CHF).

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The expression of galectin-3, a human lectin, has been shown to be highly associated with malignant behavior of thyroid lesions.

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No significant variation was observed in the clinical variables analysed. The shortening and ejection fraction, the mean dP/dt and stroke volume significantly increased and the wall stress index of left ventricle, the meridional left ventricular end systolic wall stress and the mitral regurgitation jet area decreased in the phases with medication as compared with that in the placebo phase.

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In the present study, we report six cardiac glycosides (1-6) along with four known ones (7-10) isolated from the leaves and fruits of Elaeodendron orientale. Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR, and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The compounds were evaluated for growth inhibitory activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines, HeLa, A-549, MCF-7 and HL-60, and normal Vero cells. Four compounds from this series (5 and 7-9, IC50 values ranging from 0.01 to 0.07μM) exhibited cytotoxicity against three of the cancer cell lines assayed that was similar to or higher than the well-known therapies digoxin and digitoxigenin. Taking into account the narrow safety range of cardiac glycosides used in clinic, this series shows a selectivity index higher than 3 for three of the cancer cell lines assayed, increasing their interest for further study.

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Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy may rarely present in pregnancy. A multidisciplinary approach and close peripartum monitoring are important in management and termination of pregnancy should be considered. Thromboembolic complications are a major risk.

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Recent research has demonstrated the presence of endogenous compounds in blood and urine that crossreact with antibodies raised against digoxin. Given the widespread therapeutic use of digoxin and its being monitored clinically by immunoassay, such digoxin-like immunoreactive compounds pose significant diagnostic and interpretive problems. Serum levels of this factor(s) approaching therapeutic digoxin levels have been found in digoxin-free patients in renal failure, pregnant women, and newborns. The compound is incompletely characterized; however, existing data suggest that it is a small, neutral, nonpeptidic compound. In serum it is highly protein bound, and alterations in this binding appear to give rise to the false-positive assay results. The urinary form is probably conjugated. Digoxin-like immunoreactive substances may play a role in volume homeostasis and appear associated with essential and pregnancy-induced hypertension. If such roles are primary, measurement of digoxin-like immunoreactive substances may prove to be of value in and of itself.

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Nine patients on enalapril and 12 on digoxin improved their functional capacity. Digoxin improved exercise time in 76 +/- 168 sec (p = 0.022), whereas this change was not significant with enalapril (38 +/- 158 sec; p = 0.2). With enalapril treatment, ventricular diastolic dimension decreased from 59.3 +/- 8.1 to 58 +/- 9.3 mm and the area of mitral insufficiency decreased from 8.1 +/- 3.5 to 6.6 +/- 3.1 cm2. Digoxin did not induce any significant echocardiographic change.

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The identified studies investigated the absorption kinetics of nine drugs. Acid suppression reduced absorption of ketoconazole, itraconazole, atazanavir, cefpodoxime, enoxacin and dipyridamole (median C(max) reduction by 66.5%). An increased absorption of nifedipine and digoxin (median AUC increase by 10%) and a 2-fold-increase in alendronate bioavailability were observed.

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A large-scale, prospective, 8-week, office-based study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding captopril to a therapeutic regimen of diuretic and digoxin or diuretic alone in the management of patients with mild to moderate congestive heart failure (CHF). A total of 2218 primary care physicians evaluated 6669 patients over the study period for efficacy parameters, which included changes in a modified New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification, symptomatology, and daily activity levels. Overall, 63.8% of evaluated patients improved with regard to functional ability, with 19% improving two or more modified NYHA classes. Symptoms of CHF, including dyspnea on exertion, fatigue, and orthopnea and signs, including rales and peripheral edema, were reduced in 86% of these patients: 41.5% demonstrated mild improvement; 30.0%, moderate improvement; and 14.5%, marked improvement. Three parameters, with which patients reported having difficulty at study entry, were assessed serially to evaluate changes in functional capacity; 78.5% of patients reported an increased walking distance, 72.3% had increased capacity for climbing stairs, and 60.2% had improved capacity for individual recreational activities. Adverse experiences were reported in 18.1% of all patients; 4.9% of patients withdrew from the study because of an adverse effect. Combination therapy with captopril and diuretic for CHF was shown to be safe and effective regardless of patient age (less than 70 years vs. greater than or equal to 70 years), duration of heart failure (less than 1 year vs. greater than 1 year), presence of digoxin treatment, or the dosing schedule employed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Patients admitted to medical departments with HF are different to those found in clinical trials. Their management is currently suboptimal. Differences in treatment between internists and cardiologists appear to be accounted for by differences in the patients they treat.

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An effective management and evidence-based integrated therapeutic approach progressively and significantly improved the long-term prognosis of IDCM during the last three decades.

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lanoxin overdose effects 2016-12-28

Twenty-two out of the 63 departments cover 90% of digoxin consumption per year. The changes in digoxin consumption were not statistically significantly different in 2004-2007. There was a tendency towards an increase in serum digoxin concentration measurements during the 3-year period. Digoxin concentration outside therapeutic ranges was established in about half of all buy lanoxin online cases in 2005-2006, but there was an increase in normal serum concentration in 2007.

lanoxin drug interactions 2015-01-04

Approximately 3 million Americans are currently diagnosed as having congestive heart failure, and nearly 400,000 deaths occur per year in these patients. Fortunately, recent clinical investigations have made important contributions to the care of patients with congestive heart failure, allowing great improvement in the morbidity and mortality associated with this syndrome. Most patients presenting with signs and symptoms of heart failure suffer from systolic dysfunction. On objective testing, however, up to 30% of patients initially thought to have heart failure due to poor systolic function actually have abnormal diastolic performance. Since treatment that is beneficial for systolic dysfunction can be harmful if applied to patients with diastolic dysfunction, differentiation of these causes of pulmonary congestion is particularly important. Echocardiography has been shown to be particularly useful in making this distinction and is very useful in guiding therapy for patients with heart failure. Vasodilator therapy has been recently shown to both relieve symptoms and lessen long-term mortality for patients with heart failure. Additionally, vasodilators may be more effective than digitalis in relieving symptoms of heart failure for patients with mild-to-moderate symptoms. Thus it appears that vasodilators should buy lanoxin online play a prominent and early role in the treatment of most patients with heart failure due to systolic dysfunction. The value of digitalis for patients with heart failure related to uncontrolled atrial arrhythmias is well appreciated. Controversy exists, however, regarding the role of digitalis for patients who remain in normal sinus rhythm. A recent double-blind trial of digoxin, milrinone, both, or placebo has confirmed the beneficial effects of digoxin for these patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Cardiac arrhythmias can develop during pregnancy. The risk of arrhythmias is relatively higher during labor and delivery. Potential factors that can promote arrhythmias in pregnancy or during labor and delivery, include the direct cardiac electrophysiological effects of hormones, changes in autonomic tone, hemodynamic perturbations, hypokalemia, and underlying heart disease. In this review, the basis for treatment of supraventricular and ventricular tachycardias are described. No drug therapy is usually needed for the management of supraventricular or ventricular premature beats, but potential stimulants, such as smoking, caffeine, and alcohol should be eliminated. In paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, vagal stimulation maneuvers should be attempted first. In pregnant women with atrial fibrillation, the goal of treatment is conversion to sinus rhythm by electrical cardioversion. Rate control can be achieved by a cardioselective beta-adrenergic blocker drug and/ or digoxin. Ventricular arrhythmias may occur in the pregnant women, specially when cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, or mitral valve prolapse exists. Electrical cardioversion or treatment with sotalol may be used (amiodarone is not safe for the fetus). Finally, in women with congenital long QT syndrome, beta-blocker therapy must be continued during pregnancy and postpartum period buy lanoxin online .

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Retrospective cohort study. buy lanoxin online

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A panel buy lanoxin online of two retinoblastoma and three endothelial cell types were exposed to increasing concentrations of digoxin in a conventional (72-hour exposure) and metronomic (daily exposure) treatment scheme. Cytotoxicity was defined as the digoxin concentration that killed 50% of the cells (IC50) and was assessed with a vital dye in all cell types. Induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle status were evaluated by flow cytometry after both treatment schemes. Ocular and systemic disposition after intravitreal injection as well as toxicity was assessed in rabbits. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded before and after digoxin doses and histopathological examinations were performed after enucleation.

lanoxin 60 mg 2016-08-22

Digoxin could improve diaphragm contractility and fatigability if inhibition of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase enhances calcium influx from extracellular sources, or it could impair contractility buy lanoxin online and worsen fatigue if it impairs maintenance of the membrane potential. We studied the effects of digoxin on isometric force production, fatigue, and recovery in isolated, directly stimulated, guinea pig and rat diaphragms. Digoxin had no effect on maximal twitch or tetanic tensions compared with control diaphragms in either rat (2 ng/ml to 20 micrograms/ml) or guinea pig (2 ng/ml to 2 micrograms/ml) hemidiaphragms. Digoxin worsened high frequency fatigue and impaired recovery from fatigue in guinea pigs (200 ng/ml to 2 micrograms/ml) but not in rat (2 micrograms/ml) hemidiaphragms. We conclude that digoxin has no effect on diaphragm contractility. Hypopolarization of the membrane potential is the likely cause for the increased fatigability. The difference in responsiveness between species is likely due to insensitivity of rat sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase to digoxin.

lanoxin and alcohol 2016-10-30

Plasma ouabain behaves as a blood pressure modulating factor, possibly released in response buy lanoxin online to potassium, either inhibiting the pressor effect of an excessive salt intake or counteracting the depressor action of sodium depletion.

lanoxin drug guide 2016-01-08

Before gene expression profiling with microarray technology can be transferred to the diagnostic setting, we must have alternative approaches for synthesizing probe from limited RNA samples, and we must understand the limits of reproducibility in interpreting gene expression results. The current gold standard of probes for use with both microarrays and high-density filter arrays are synthesized from 1 microg of purified poly(A)+ RNA. We evaluated two approaches for synthesizing cDNA probes from total RNA with subsequent hybridization to high-density filter arrays: 1) reverse transcription (RT) of 5 microg total RNA and 2) RT-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of 1 microg total RNA, using the SMART system. The reproducibility of these two approaches was compared to the current gold standard. All three methods were highly reproducible. Triplicate experiments resulted in the following concordance correlation coefficients buy lanoxin online to evaluate reproducibility: 0.88 for the gold standard, 0.86 for cDNA probe synthesized by RT from total RNA, and 0.96 for the SMART cDNA probe synthesized from total RNA. We also compared the expression profile of 588 genes for the total RNA methods to that obtained with the gold standard. Of 150 positive genes detected by the gold standard, 97 (65%) were detected by cDNA probe synthesized by RT of total RNA, and 122 (81%) were detected by the SMART cDNA probe. We conclude that SMART cDNA probe produces highly reproducible results and yields gene expression profiles that represent the majority of transcripts detected with the gold standard.

lanoxin syrup dosage 2016-06-24

These data demonstrate that the adrenal cell has the cellular machinery necessary for de novo biosynthesis of DLIF and Dh-DLIF starting from a simple carbon pool and also support the buy lanoxin online concept that cholesterol is a major precursor of the DLIF compounds. This cell culture model provides a source of radiolabeled DLIF compounds for future experimental work.

lanoxin normal dosage 2015-12-30

A misconception regarding the sensitivity of nonradioactive methods for screening genomic DNA libraries often hinders the establishment of these environmentally friendly techniques in molecular biology laboratories. Nonradioactive probes, properly prepared and quantified, can detect DNA target molecules to the femtomole range. However, appropriate hybridization techniques and detection methods buy lanoxin online should also be adopted for an efficient use of nonradioactive techniques. Detailed descriptions of genomic library handling before and during the nonradioactive hybridization and detection are often omitted from publications. This chapter aims to fill this void by providing a collection of technical tips on hybridization and detection techniques.

lanoxin liquid dosage 2015-01-17

In this population-based study of individuals with incident AD, use of statins and beta-blockers was associated with delay of functional buy lanoxin online decline. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to determine whether treatment with these medications may help delay AD progression.

lanoxin therapeutic dose 2015-02-20

HeLa cells synthesize and secrete increased levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) when incubated for 18 h with 10-20 nM phorbol myristate acetate. This response was inhibited by a number of conditions which affect intracellular Na+ and K+ concentrations. Removing extracellular Na+, while maintaining isotonicity with choline+, reduced the secretion of both functional and antigenic tPA in a linear fashion. A series of cardiac glycosides and related compounds strongly inhibited tPA secretion with the following rank buy lanoxin online order of potency: digitoxin = ouabain greater than digoxin greater than digitoxigenin greater than digoxigenin greater than digitoxose greater than digitonin. These compounds also inhibited cellular Na+/K+-ATPase activity over an identical concentration range. Two compounds which selectively increase cellular permeability to K+, valinomycin, and nigericin, strongly inhibited tPA secretion, with IC50 values of approximately 50 nM. In contrast, monensin, which selectively increases cellular permeability to Na+, was much less active. Valinomycin, but not nigericin, also inhibited cellular Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Phorbol myristate acetate, 5-20 nM, increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity up to 2-fold and tPA secretion up to 15-fold. We conclude that the secretion of tPA by HeLa cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate proceeds via a mechanism which requires extracellular Na+ and a functional Na+/K+-ATPase ("sodium pump") enzyme.

lanoxin tablets dose 2016-06-22

African Americans are disproportionately affected by heart failure, with a high prevalence at an early age. Hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease are all common in African Americans and all predispose to heart failure. Neurohormonal imbalances, endothelial dysfunction, genetic buy lanoxin online polymorphisms, and socioeconomic factors also contribute. In general, the same evidence-based treatment guidelines that apply to white patients with heart failure also apply to African Americans. However, the combination of hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate is advised specifically for African Americans.

lanoxin dosage iv 2015-09-25

This investigation was carried out to evaluate the bioavailability of the generic product of digoxin 0.25 mg (cardixin) relative to a reference product, lanoxin (0.25 mg) tablets. The two formulations were found to be similar in in vitro assay (dissolution) as stipulated by USP XXIII. The comparison is carried out on 12 healthy male volunteers, who received a single dose (0.25 mg) of cardixin (product A) lanoxin (product B) as a reference product orally in the fasting state, in a randomized balanced two-way crossover design. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for a period of 12 hr. Plasma samples were analyzed for digoxin by a sensitive and validated enzyme immunoassay method (ELISA). The maximum plasma concentration curve, up to the last measurable buy lanoxin online concentration (AUC(0-24)), was analyzed under the assumption of a multiplicative model. The time to maximum concentration (Tmax) was analyzed, assuming an additive model. The parametric confidence intervals (90%) of the mean values of the pharmacokinetic characteristics (AUC(0-12) and Cmax) for A:B ratio were, in each case, well within the bioequivalence acceptable range of 80-125%.

lanoxin en alcohol 2016-11-22

We report here on a child who over a period of 8 years was admitted several times to hospitals in different states of Nigeria based on fictitious illnesses described by Duricef Pediatric Dosing his mother. The child had various unnecessary, expensive and invasive investigations followed by treatment with harmful drugs. The evolution of this case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is described in order to alert paediatricians in developing countries to a problem which is described frequently in more affluent societies. We believe this is the first such case to be recorded in West Africa.

lanoxin drug information 2015-10-04

Nineteen patients with New York Heart Association class III/IV, ischemia-induced CHF Lipitor 5mg Dosage participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. All patients received intravenous dobutamine or placebo over a 24-hour period every 2 to 3 weeks for 6 months. They were also treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, digoxin, and diuretics. The number of admissions for CHF and mortality rate were compared.

lanoxin drug medication 2015-01-21

The ventricular response in untreated patients with atrial fibrillation often exceeds 120 beats/min at rest. Digoxin can slow this rate, but its efficacy during exertion may be limited. Alternatives, or additions, to digoxin therapy include the beta blockers and diltiazem or verapamil. This review discusses the role of digoxin in relation to these Tegretol 50 Mg other drugs, with particular reference to the elderly population.

lanoxin normal dose 2015-10-08

This 10 Deltasone Online -week, double-blind trial examined the relative safety and efficacy of valsartan administered qd versus twice-daily (bid).

lanoxin elixir dose 2017-12-18

Digoxigenin is a new tool for labeling probes which can be detected with the help of specific antibodies in the cell by indirect or direct immunostaining. In contrast to the biotin-reaction, the advantage of Naprosyn Child Dose digoxigenin is that it does not appear in animal or human cells in nature. In comparison to radioactive labeling methods it is favorable in terms of short exposure time and precise localization of signals in the cell. In this paper we describe the localization of elastase and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) mRNA by non-radioactive in situ hybridization of rat alveolar macrophages in cell culture after stimulation with welder steam dusts. Using digoxigenin labeled probes the determination of specific mRNA's expression and their precise localization in the cytoplasm of the cell could be achieved within one day.

lanoxin generic substitution 2016-06-05

Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH); Antiphospholipid antibody (APL) is another known cause of pulmonary hypertension, due to recurrent pulmonary thromboembolism. The coincidence of both causes, PVOD and APL, without thromboembolism, in PH has not been reported previously in children. A 12.5-year-old boy presented with a one year history of fatigue. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed by echocardiography. Pulmonary function tests revealed a moderate restrictive pattern and elevated granulocytes were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage. An isolated high-titer APL was detected. Open lung biopsy established the diagnosis of PVOD, with no evidence of pulmonary thrombosis, but with accompanying interstitial and alveolar cellular infiltration. We speculate that APL may have played a role in the pathogenesis of PVOD. Prednisone++ improved the Coumadin Tablet Colors symptoms of the interstitial pneumonitis and was stopped; on follow up of 30 months, the patient ist in stable condition on therapy with nifedipin, phenprocoumon and digoxin.

lanoxin tablet dosage 2016-06-26

This was a prospective cohort evaluation of all patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery at our institution between October 1999 and October 2003. Patients receiving prophylactic postoperative beta-blockers were matched (1:1) with patients not receiving prophylaxis for age >70 years, valvular surgery, history of AF, gender, and use of preoperative digoxin and beta-blockers.

lanoxin dosage tablets 2015-05-06

Drug interactions common to all angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors include those with thiazide diuretics and other antihypertensive agents. Interactions involving specific ACE inhibitors include captopril-digoxin, resulting in decreased clearance of digoxin from plasma in patients with heart failure, and captopril-probenecid, causing a decrease in captopril clearance. Tissue kinins, such as bradykinin, are metabolised by ACE inhibitors. Interactions involving bradykinin include captopril-indomethacin, in which an attenuation of the antihypertensive effects of captopril is manifest. Interestingly, neither enalapril nor lisinopril appear to show this interaction with indomethacin. Kinin-based interactions may also be important in the genesis of ACE inhibitor-induced cough and skin rash. Renal dysfunction affects the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of all ACE inhibitors, necessitating dosage reduction. Hepatic impairment is of less clinical importance, causing a delay in the onset of action of enalapril with initial doses, but probably having little relevance to long-term therapy.

lanoxin tablets dosage 2015-09-28

Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is an aggressive neoplasm with a high recurrence rate that frequently develops resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. There are few prognostic biomarkers or targeted therapies exist for patients with OCCC. Here, we identified that FXYD2, the modulating subunit of Na+/K+-ATPases, was highly and specifically expressed in clinical OCCC tissues. The expression levels of FXYD2 were significantly higher in advanced-stage of OCCC and positively correlated with patients' prognoses. Silencing of FXYD2 expression in OCCC cells inhibited Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme activity and suppressed tumor growth via induction of autophagy-mediated cell death. We found that high FXYD2 expression in OCCC was transcriptionally regulated by the transcriptional factor HNF1B. Furthermore, up-regulation of FXYD2 expression significantly increased the sensitivity of OCCC cells to cardiac glycosides, the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors. Two cardiac glycosides, digoxin and digitoxin, had a great therapeutic efficacy in OCCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrate that FXYD2 is functionally upregulated in OCCC and may serve as a promising prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target of cardiac glycosides in OCCC.

lanoxin reviews 2016-08-08

Heart diseases requiring glycoside therapy are often associated with coronary artery disease. This study evaluated quantitatively the effect of an intravenous bolus injection of digoxin (0.8 mg) on diameters of epicardial coronary arteries in 11 patients with coronary artery disease. Coronary angiograms were taken up to 30 min following intravenous administration of glycosides. The maximum decrease in mean diameters of angiographically normal coronary segments was 10.0 +/- 3.5% (p < or = 0.001) compared to control. Maximum reduction in minimal diameters of stenotic segments was 22.1 +/- 13.1% (p < or = 0.001). This vasoconstriction could be reversed with nitroglycerin. Thus, intravenous administration of digoxin induces vasoconstriction of normal and stenotic coronary arteries, which could cause ischemic complications in the presence of high-grade stenoses. Since digoxin-induced vasoconstriction could be reversed with nitroglycerin, concomitant vasodilator therapy is recommended.

lanoxin brand name 2015-07-12

The isoprenoid path way produces endogenous digoxin, a substance that can regulate neurotransmitter and amino acid transport. Digoxin synthesis and neurotransmitter patterns were assessed in individuals with chronic insomnia. The patterns were compared in those with right hemispheric and left hemispheric dominance. The activity of HMG GoA reductase and serum levels of digoxin, magnesium, tryptophan catabolites, and tyrosine catabolites were measured in individuals with chronic insomnia and in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance. Digoxin synthesis was increased with upregulated tryptophan catabolism (increased levels of serotonin, strychnine, and nicotine), and downregulated tyrosine catabolism (decreased levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine) in those with chronic insomnia and right hemispheric chemical dominance. Digoxin synthesis was reduced with downregulated tryptophan catabolism (decreased levels of serotonin, strychnine, and nicotine) and upregulated tyrosine catabolism (increased levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine) in those with normal sleep patterns and left hemispheric chemical dominance. Hypothalamic digoxin plays a central role in the regulation of sleep behavior. Hemispheric chemical dominance in relation to digoxin status is also crucial.