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These findings highlight a potential role for vardenafil in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.
Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors such as sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil are a class of drugs used primarily in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil and tadalafil are also approved for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a procedure for the detection and quantification of these 3 drugs and some of their metabolites in human blood plasma.
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The immediate objective of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor treatment is to restore the ability of a man to achieve and/or maintain an erection adequate for sexual intercourse. As erectile dysfunction (ED) generally develops in the second half of life, the ultimate objective generally is not procreation, but quality of sexual life. Indeed, ED is known to impair quality of life considerably; two-thirds of men report that ED has impaired their self-esteem and nearly a third claim that it has damaged the relationship with their partner. It follows that the therapeutic success of PDE5 inhibition has an important subjective component, which is compounded by the subjective nature and complexity of sexual life in humans. This makes it very difficult for physicians to be certain that they have selected the optimal therapy for a couple, even after a thorough evaluation. The 2007 European Association of Urology Guidelines stress the importance of educating the patient and claim that 'the patient will choose the final drug after his own experience'. However, PDE5 inhibitors are typically used twice a week, so a patient would have to spend approximately 3 months trying the various compounds and dosages to achieve adequate exposure to all three PDE5 inhibitors; this would seem an unrealistic strategy in normal clinical practice. The acknowledgement that the patient has an important role in therapeutic decisions for ED has fuelled interest in the concept of patient preference. It has been established that patient preference depends on three factors, i.e. personal characteristics, e.g. age, duration of ED, frequency and dynamics of sexual relations, and the characteristics of their partners, e.g. age, menopausal status and level of interest in sexual activity and medication profile. Medication features of interest include efficacy in terms of quality of erection, consistency of effects, rapid onset of action, long duration of action, side-effect profile and route of administration; drug costs must also be considered if the medicinal product is not reimbursed.
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An optimal outcome of an erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment is to enable a return to normal erectile function (as defined by an International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function [IIEF-EF] domain score ≥ 26). As-needed (PRN) phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor treatment does not always result in a return-to-normal erectile function.
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A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled at-home study of vardenafil treatment (5, 10, and 20 mg) was performed. This secondary analysis compared the mean International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) erectile function domain scores of various subgroups at 12 weeks of treatment. These populations included organic, psychogenic, or mixed etiologies; mild, moderate, or severe baseline severity; and four age groups (younger than 45, 45 to 55, 56 to 65, and older than 65 years). In addition, all IIEF domains were compared at sequential 4-week periods, before and during treatment.
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Ang II caused a dose-dependent contraction of CCSM strips that was enhanced in PBOO rabbits and inhibited by losartan, DPI, and SOD. CCSM relaxation induced by SNP/EFS was impaired in this model and improved by vardenafil and losartan.
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Erectile dysfunction (ED) has a dual negative impact on men and their female partners; both are likely to face a drop in sexual quality of life and challenges to their intimate relationship as couples' sexual activities are curtailed by the loss of erectile function.
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The blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) significantly limits delivery of therapeutic concentrations of chemotherapy to brain tumors. A novel approach to selectively increase drug delivery is pharmacologic modulation of signaling molecules that regulate BTB permeability, such as those in cGMP signaling. Here we show that oral administration of sildenafil (Viagra) and vardenafil (Levitra), inhibitors of cGMP-specific PDE5, selectively increased tumor capillary permeability in 9L gliosarcoma-bearing rats with no significant increase in normal brain capillaries. Tumor-bearing rats treated with the chemotherapy agent, adriamycin, in combination with vardenafil survived significantly longer than rats treated with adriamycin alone. The selective increase in tumor capillary permeability appears to be mediated by a selective increase in tumor cGMP levels and increased vesicular transport through tumor capillaries, and could be attenuated by iberiotoxin, a selective inhibitor for calcium-dependent potassium (K(Ca)) channels, that are effectors in cGMP signaling. The effect by sildenafil could be further increased by simultaneously using another BTB "opener", bradykinin. Collectively, this data demonstrates that oral administration of PDE5 inhibitors selectively increases BTB permeability and enhances anti-tumor efficacy for a chemotherapeutic agent. These findings have significant implications for improving delivery of anti-tumor agents to brain tumors.
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Reactive oxygen species, such as peroxynitrite, induce oxidative stress and DNA injury leading to endothelial dysfunction. It has been proposed, that elevated intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP)-levels may contribute to an effective cytoprotection against nitro-oxidative stress. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of vardenafil, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-5, on endothelial dysfunction induced by peroxynitrite. In organ bath experiments, we investigated the endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) vasorelaxation of isolated aortic rings of rats. Endothelial dysfunction was induced by peroxynitrite. In the treatment groups, rats received low doses (0.01-5 microg/kg) or high doses (5-300 microg/kg) of vardenafil. DNA strand breaks were assessed by the TUNEL method. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for cGMP and nitrotyrosine. Exposure to peroxynitrite resulted in an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of aortic rings. Pre-treatment with lower doses of vardenafil led to an improvement of endothelial function as reflected by the higher maximal vasorelaxation (R(max)) to acetylcholine. Interestingly, at higher doses, R(max) to acetylcholine was attenuated leading to U-shaped dose-response curves. The endothelium-independent vasorelaxation to SNP under peroxynitrite stress showed a significant left-shift of the SNP concentration-response curves in the vardenafil groups without any alterations of the R(max). Vardenafil-pre-treatment significantly reduced DNA-breakage, reduced nitrosative stress, and increased cGMP score in the aortic wall. Our working hypothesis is that improvement of endothelial function could be mainly due to the cytoprotection of endothelium by vardenafil. This work supports the view that acute PDE5-inhibition might be advantageous in the treatment of endothelial dysfunction induced by disturbed NO-cGMP pathway due to nitro-oxidative stress.
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Peer-reviewed publications since the last major update on PDE5I published in the medical literature.
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We sought to compare the short-term impact of three different phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors on pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics and gas exchange parameters in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).
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The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an increased risk of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) associated with prescription exposure to phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors.
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There was a significant increase in serum creatinine concentration after 6 months diabetes, which was significantly reduced by vardenafil. TP/C from diabetic rabbit spot urine samples at 6 months were significantly elevated compared to control animals, indicating the presence of proteinuria. Vardenafil treatment caused a normalisation of TP/C. Diabetic animals receiving vardenafil showed a significant improvement in CrCl when compared with diabetic animals given vehicle.
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An 8-week, placebo controlled, randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy and safety of vardenafil in patients with erectile dysfunction was performed. The Erection Quality Scale, together with a number of other patient and partner questionnaires, was administered at a screening visit, at baseline, and weeks 4 and 8 of treatment. Erection Quality Scale responsiveness was investigated by evaluating treatment induced changes and modeling using ANCOVA. Internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and minimum important difference of the Erection Quality Scale were also assessed.
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Review the literature on phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is), addressing critical issues in their current and future use, assessing unanswered questions, and identifying research needs.
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Hemodynamic parameters were monitored for 60 min. after intravenous injection of sildenafil and vardenafil [1, 10 and 100 microg/kg (sil1, sil10, sil100, var1, var10, var100)] in anesthetized rats.
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The study is conducted to show and compare efficacy and safety of the three PDE-5 inhibitors and to assess patient's preference in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. It's still unknown which of the three PDE-5 inhibitors is used the most.
Vardenafil is effective and well tolerated in patients with PAH at a dose of 5 mg twice daily.
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Vardenafil was effective and well tolerated in this community-based ED population that is truly representative of the general ED population. Dose titration meets the patient's needs and optimizes clinical outcome.
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We determined the differential cyclic guanyl monophosphate catalytic and cyclic guanyl monophosphate binding activity of phosphodiesterase-5 isoforms and the inhibitory effects of sildenafil (Pfizer, New York, New York) and vardenafil (Bayer Pharmaceutical Research, Wuppertal, Germany).
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Forty-nine (49%) patients freely decided not to start any ED therapy (group 1). Of the remaining patients, 36 (36%) opted for an as-needed PDE5-I (group 2), whereas 15 (15%) decided to use a daily PDE5-I (group 3). At the 18-mo follow-up, the overall discontinuation rate from both treatment modalities was 72.6% (eg, 72.2% vs. 73.3% in group 2 vs. group 3; p=0.79). Treatment effect below expectations was the main reason for treatment discontinuation, followed by loss of interest in sex due to partner's causes.
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A method was established for rapid screening and quantifying 11 illegally added anti-impotence preparations (yohimbine, acetildenafil, nor-acetildenafil, homosildenafil, hydroxy-homosildenafil, sildenafil, vardenafil, thioaildenafil, tadalafil, pseudovardenafil, dapoxetine) in health care products by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. The samples were extracted with methanol and analyzed by positive mode in the MS detection. The results showed that the limits of detection were 25.0 ng/mLexcept for nor-acetildenafil (5.0 ng/mL), the linear ranges were 5.0-200.0 ng/mL except for nor-acetildenafil (25.0-500.0 ng/mL) with the correlation coefficients not less than 0.999 0. The recoveries were in the range of 82.0%-105.9% with the relative standard deviations of 4.7%-16.5%. This method is accurate, simple and rapid, and can be used in rapid screening and quantitative analysis of the 11 illegally added anti-impotence in health care products.
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Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors act as effective drugs for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS). There is a poor information, however, about the role of the PDE4 inhibitors on the bladder outflow region contractility.
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To review and discuss recent findings regarding the cardiovascular effects of PDE5 inhibitors and to highlight current and future clinical applications beyond ED.
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of vardenafil on the histopathology and biochemical parameters in reducing damage in experimental ovarian ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model and to compare the effect of two different doses of vardenafil.
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To evaluate the effects of nebivolol on the efficacy of the PDE5 inhibitors, sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil to relax human corpus cavernosum (HCC) and vasodilate human penile resistance arteries (HPRA) from diabetic patients with ED (DMED). The influence of nebivolol on the capacity of these three PDE5 inhibitors to stimulate cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production in HCC was also evaluated.
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Two groups [tadalafil-treated (TG); vardenafil-treated (VG)] of 100 consecutive patients complaining of non-response to treatments were enrolled in three-phase study. Phase 1: inadequate use was identified and patients were rechallenged, after receiving detailed usage information. Phase 2: true non-responders were given new instructions based on drugs' pharmacologic profiles: TGs were dosed at least 2 h before intercourse; VGs were dosed only in fasted state. Remaining non-responders entered phase 3: continuous administration of 20 mg tadalafil every other day, or 20 mg vardenafil every day for 2 weeks. Efficacy was based on positive (yes) response to two questions: "Were your erections rigid, and did they last long enough to have successful intercourse?" and "Do you want to repeat your prescription?"
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Treatment with either resveratrol or vardenafil elevated cGMP level in CCSMCs and improved erectile function in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, a synergistic effect was observed in vitro and in vivo. Resveratrol or combination therapy of resveratrol and vardenafil can improve erectile function in which NO release is impaired, although further study is needed to confirm the results.
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Pharmaceutical counterfeiting and purchasing medicines from illegal distribution channels have become more and more common problem in our country. Different medicines, especially erectile dysfunction drugs are involved. The aim of this study was the qualitative analysis of fake Levitra tablets and the estimation of the risk they bear to potential users. Tablets were secured by the police and delivered to Bayer office in 2006.
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The rate of erectile dysfunction after radical retropubic prostatectomy is from 10% to 100%. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy is more than one third. In the patients who had undergone bilateral NS, 72% responded to sildenafil, 71.7% and 59.7% responded to 20 mg and 10 mg of vardenafil respectively. For all randomized patients who received tadalafil, the mean percentage of successful penetration attempts was 54% and the mean percentage of successful intercourse attempts was 41%. For the subgroup with evidence of postoperative tumescence these values were 69% and 52%, respectively. No head-to-head trials have been performed with sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil in treatment of erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy.
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To evaluate the predictability of vardenafil success in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) by using cardiological tests.
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Postconditioning enables cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury either by application of short, repetitive ischemic periods or by pharmacological intervention prior to reperfusion. Pharmacological postconditioning has been described for phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors when the substances were applied as a permanent infusion. For clinical purposes, application of a bolus is more convenient. In a rat heart in situ model of ischemia reperfusion vardenafil or sildenafil were applied as a bolus prior to reperfusion. Cardioprotective effects were found over a broad dosage range. In accordance with current hypotheses on pharmacological postconditioning signaling, the protective effect was mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C pathway. Interestingly, the extent of protection was independent of the concentration applied for both substances. Full protection comparable to ischemic postconditioning was reached with half-maximal human equivalence dose. In contrast, mean arterial pressure dropped upon bolus application in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, the current study extends previous findings obtained in a permanent infusion model to bolus application. This is an important step toward clinical application of pharmacological postconditioning with sildenafil and vardenafil, especially because the beneficial effects were proven for concentrations with reduced hemodynamic side effects compared to the dosage applied for erectile dysfunction treatment.
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Cyclic nucleotides, such as cAMP and cGMP, play a protective role in the modulation of the activity of some inflammatory cells in allergic disorders. Their intracellular concentrations are tightly regulated by the phosphodiesterases (PDEs). The protective efficacy of the selective PDE5 inhibitor vardenafil against mast-cell-mediated allergic reactions in murine models has been investigated. Compound 48/80 was used as a direct mast cell degranulator to induce anaphylaxis. Vardenafil (administered orally at 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg body mass) significantly (P < 0.05, n = 12) increased protection against compound-48/80-induced anaphylaxis in mice to 33.33%, 66.67%, 66.67%, 83.33%, and 66.67% respectively compared with the control (vehicle). In passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rats, vardenafil (10 mg/kg body mass) significantly (P < 0.05, n = 6) decreased Evans' blue dye extravasation (4.6-fold). Pre-incubation of isolated rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) with vardenafil (10 and 100 μmol/L) significantly (P < 0.05, n = 6) reduced compound-48/80-induced histamine release by 2.8- and 3-fold, respectively. Moreover, histamine release by immunogenic stimulation of sensitized RPMCs by egg albumin significantly declined following pre-incubation with vardenafil (10 and 100 μmol/L) by 1.94- and 1.99-fold, respectively. In conclusion, inhibition of PDE5 by vardenafil ameliorated immunologic and non-immunologic mast-cell-mediated allergic reactions and reduced histamine release, providing evidence for the potential anti-allergic properties of vardenafil.
For this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, men with ED for >6 months, according to the USA National Institutes of Health Consensus Statement, were recruited. In all, 611 patients were randomized to treatment with either vardenafil (10 mg for 4 weeks, titrated to preferred dose, 5, 10 or 20 mg, during the next 8 weeks, and maintained at preferred dose for the following 14 weeks), or placebo.
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Sildenafil (SDF), vardenafil (VDF) and tadalafil (TDF) are phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme inhibitors (PDE5Is), used in the treatment of erectile disorders and to improve breathing efficiency in pulmonary hypertension. The increasing incidence of their use among young athletes has drawn the attention of the anti-doping authorities to the possible abuse of PDE5Is by athletes due to their pharmacological activities. This paper describes a method for the determination in urine of PDE5Is and their metabolites by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after liquid/liquid extraction of the analytes from urine and derivatisation to obtain trimethylsilyl derivatives. The metabolic profile was studied on real samples collected from subjects taking PDE5Is (Viagra, Levitra or Cialis); the main urinary metabolites were identified and their MS fragmentation characterized. The sample pre-treatment and GC/MS conditions for the detection of the metabolites have been optimised. A method for their preliminary screening and subsequent confirmation is described that takes into account the general requirements of a routine doping analysis to be used for the screening of large numbers of samples. The main metabolites identified can be included in a general purpose screening method and all the metabolites in a more specific confirmation method. The method developed has been applied for the screening of PDE5Is in 5000 urine samples. Based on the obtained results, the proposed method appears to be of practical use in analytical and forensic toxicology, including doping analysis.
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Young men who use these drugs to enhance performance in the absence of erectile dysfunction may experience irreversible damage to the cavernosal tissue. However, more studies are needed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms by which PDE5 inhibitors affect the corpus cavernosum.