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Our results demonstrate a low affinity of fluvoxamine and a very high affinity of mirtazapine for the human brain H₁R in vivo. This study provides a basis for investigating the efficacy of new-generation antidepressants in central histamine systems.
Upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as nausea and vomiting are common adverse events associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and may result in discontinuation of drug therapy in patients with depressive disorder. Rikkunshi-to (formulation TJ-43), a traditional herbal medicine, has been reported to improve upper GI symptoms and comorbid depressive symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. The aim of the present study was to determine if TJ-43 reduces GI symptoms and potentiates an antidepressant effect in a randomized controlled study of depressed patients treated with fluvoxamine (FLV).
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In this study, the efficacy of duloxetine in switched patients was comparable to that observed in patients initiating duloxetine therapy. Immediate switching from an SSRI or venlafaxine to duloxetine (60 mg QD) was well tolerated.
No consistent predictors of outcome have been identified for the pharmaco-therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Recent factor analytic studies have identified meaningful symptom dimensions that may be related to response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other treatments.
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This paper reviews the use of medication in the treatment of bulimia nervosa and of binge eating disorder. There is now compelling evidence from double blind, placebo-controlled studies that antidepressant medication is useful in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. What is less clear is which patients are most likely to benefit from antidepressant medications and how to best sequence the various therapeutic interventions available. The utility of antidepressant medications in bulimia nervosa has led to their evaluation in binge eating disorder. The limited information currently available suggests that antidepressant treatment may be associated with a reduction in binge frequency in obese patients with binge eating disorder, but does not lead to weight reduction. Additional studies of the use of medication in the treatment of binge eating disorder and of the role of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of bulimia nervosa are needed.
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The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of antidepressants (ADs) belonging to different pharmacological groups and risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic drug), given separately or jointly, on immobility time in the forced swimming test in male C57BL/6J mice. The antidepressants: citalopram, fluvoxamine, sertraline, reboxetine, milnacipran (5 and 10 mg/kg), or risperidone in low doses (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) given alone did not change the immobility time of mice in the forced swimming test. Co-treatment with reboxetine or milnacipran (10 mg/kg) and risperidone in a lower dose of 0.05 mg/kg or with sertraline, reboxetine (5 and 10 mg/kg), citalopram, fluvoxamine, milnacipran (10 mg/kg) and risperidone in a higher dose of 0.1 mg/kg produced antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test. WAY100635 (a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) inhibited the effects induced by co-administration of ADs and risperidone. Active behavior in the forced swimming test was not a consequence of an increased general activity, since the combined treatment with ADs and risperidone failed to enhance the locomotor activity of mice. The obtained results indicate that a low dose of risperidone enhances the activity of ADs in an animal model of depression, and that, among other mechanisms, 5-HT(1A) receptors may play a role in these effects.
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Sixty-eight treatment-resistant inpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups for 12 weeks. The monotherapy group (N = 34) received clozapine (< or = 600 mg/day). The coadministration group (N = 34) received fluvoxamine (50 mg/day) plus low-dose clozapine (< or = 250 mg/day). The study was conducted from August 1999 to October 2002.
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Studies and case reports evaluating treatment outcomes associated with the use of SSRIs in managing impairments of autism were reviewed. Multiple SSRI dosing ranges were evaluated in autistic patients of different ages with various functional impairments. No specific SSRI or dose range has been shown to improve a specific autistic symptom although some patients have demonstrated improvements.
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To investigate functional changes in the brain serotonin transporter (SERT) after chronic antidepressant treatment, several techniques were used to assess SERT activity, density, or its mRNA content. Rats were treated by osmotic minipump for 21 d with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) paroxetine or sertraline, the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine (DMI), or the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine. High-speed in vivo electrochemical recordings were used to assess the ability of the SSRI fluvoxamine to modulate the clearance of locally applied serotonin in the CA3 region of hippocampus in drug- or vehicle-treated rats. Fluvoxamine decreased the clearance of serotonin in rats treated with vehicle, DMI, or phenelzine but had no effect on the clearance of serotonin in SSRI-treated rats. SERT density in the CA3 region of the hippocampus of the same rats, assessed by quantitative autoradiography with tritiated cyanoimipramine ([(3)H]CN-IMI), was decreased by 80-90% in SSRI-treated rats but not in those treated with phenelzine or DMI. The serotonin content of the hippocampus was unaffected by paroxetine or sertraline treatment, ruling out neurotoxicity as a possible explanation for the SSRI-induced decrease in SERT binding and alteration in 5-HT clearance. Levels of mRNA for the SERT in the raphe nucleus were also unaltered by chronic paroxetine treatment. Based on these results, it appears that the SERT is downregulated by chronic administration of SSRIs but not other types of antidepressants; furthermore, the downregulation is not caused by decreases in SERT gene expression.
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Melatonin, the predominant product of the pineal gland, is involved in the maintenance of diurnal rhythms. Nocturnal blood concentrations of melatonin have been shown to be enhanced by fluvoxamine, but not by other serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Because fluvoxamine is an inhibitor of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, the authors studied the biotransformation of melatonin and the effects of fluvoxamine on the metabolism of melatonin in vitro using human liver microsomes and recombinant human CYP isoenzymes. Melatonin was found to be almost exclusively metabolized by CYP1A2 to 6-hydroxymelatonin and N-acetylserotonin with a minimal contribution of CYP2C19. Both reactions were potently inhibited by fluvoxamine, with a Ki of 0.02 microM for the formation of 6-hydroxymelatonin and 0.05 microM for the formation of N-acetylserotonin. Other than fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram, imipramine, and desipramine were also tested at 2 and 20 microM. Among the other antidepressants, only paroxetine was able to affect the metabolism of melatonin at supratherapeutic concentrations of 20 microM, which did not reach by far the magnitude of the inhibitory potency of fluvoxamine. The authors concluded that fluvoxamine is a potent inhibitor of melatonin degradation. Because this inhibitory action is also found in vivo, fluvoxamine might be used as an enhancer of melatonin, which might offer new therapeutic possibilities of fluvoxamine.
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The literature is reviewed on knowledge of the role of serotonergic neurons in brain function, studies on monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), various stress neuropeptides, neuroendocrine and behavioural challenge after administration of direct and indirect serotomimetic compounds, and neuroanatomical data on brain circuits organising behaviour.
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In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: citalopram, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (individual or group, to prevent relapse), electroconvulsive therapy, escitalopram, family therapy, fluoxetine (alone or with cognitive therapy or CBT), fluvoxamine, group therapeutic support (other than CBT), guided self-help, individual psychodynamic psychotherapy, interpersonal therapy, lithium, mirtazapine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, paroxetine, sertraline (alone or with CBT), St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), tricyclic antidepressants, and venlafaxine.
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Artificial neural networks (ANN) represent a promising tool for combining multiple predictors in complex diseases. Antidepressant response in mood disorders is a typical complex phenomenon were a number of predictors influence outcome under non-linear interactions. In the present study we tested a neural network strategy for antidepressant outcome in subjects affected by major depression. One hundred and forty-five never reported depressed inpatients were included in this study (major depressives/bipolars: 111/34). A multi layer perceptron network composed of 1 hidden layer with 13 nodes was chosen. The network was performed on the sample of 145 cases divided as follows: train 73+verify 36+test 36. Correlation of predicted versus observed response was 0.46 in the test (independent) sample that corresponds to 21% of variance explained. Number of episodes, side effects, delusional features, baseline HAM-D, length of current episode, lithium augmentation, current medical condition and personality disorders were the main factors identified by the model. Sex, age at onset, polarity, plasma level and baseline VAS score were part of the model but with a lower rank. Overall, our findings suggest that neural networks could be a valid technique for the analysis of psychopharmacology studies. The complex interactions modelled through ANN may be eventually applied at the clinical level for the individualized therapy.
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Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) is a coenzyme of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), which are rate-limiting enzymes of monoamine biosynthesis. According to the monoamine hypothesis of depression, antidepressants will restore the function of the brain monoaminergic system and the BH(4) concentration. In the present study, we investigated the effect of paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on the BH(4) levels and dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) turnover in the mesoprefrontal system, incorporating two risk factors of depression, social isolation and acute environmental change. Male ddY mice (8W) were divided into two housing groups, i.e., group-housing (eight animals per cage; 28 days), and isolation-housing (one per cage; 28 days), being p.o.-administered paroxetine (5 or 10 mg/kg; days 15-28), and exposed to a 20-min novelty stress (day 28). The levels of BH(4), DA, homovanilic acid (HVA), 5-HT, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured in the prefrontal cortex and midbrain. In both the regions, novelty stress significantly increased BH(4) levels under the isolation-housing condition, whereas these levels were decreased under the group-housing condition. Thus, social isolation altered the neurochemical response to novelty stress. Paroxetine significantly decreased BH(4) levels under the isolation-housing condition, whereas decreased HVA/DA and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios were observed under the group-housing condition. Thus, social isolation may have influenced the suppressive effects of paroxetine on BH(4) levels as well as exerted an influence on DA and 5-HT turnover. We replicated our recent findings that SSRI, fluvoxamine, suppressed BH(4) levels, as well as DA and 5-HT turnover in the mouse mesoprefrontal system.
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One hundred fifty-five inpatients were treated with fluvoxamine 300 mg and either placebo or pindolol in a double-blind design for 6 weeks. The severity of depressive symptoms was weekly assessed with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Allelic variation of 5-HTTLPR in each subject was determined using a polymerase chain reaction-based technique.
Sessions, 63 +/- 8, were necessary to reach the criterion for 14 rats that all subsequently recognized (100%) mirtazapine at the training dose. Mirtazapine blocks serotonin (5-HT)(2C) receptors, and the 5-HT(2C) antagonists, SB242,084, SB243,213 and S32006, revealed dose-dependent and full (> or =80%) substitution at doses of 2.5, 2.5, and 0.63 mg/kg, respectively. By contrast, the 5-HT(2A) antagonists, MDL100,907 and SR46349-B, the 5-HT(2B) antagonist, SB204,741, and the 5-HT(3) antagonist, ondansetron, showed no significant substitution. Though mirtazapine indirectly recruits 5-HT(1A) receptors, the 5-HT(1A) agonists, buspirone and 8-OH-DPAT, did not substitute. Mirtazapine blocks alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, but several alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists (yohimbine, RX821,002 and atipamezole) failed to substitute. Despite blockade by mirtazapine of histamine H(1) receptors, no substitution was seen with the selective H(1) antagonist, pyrilamine. Finally, the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine (0.16), fully substituted for mirtazapine, whereas the 5-HT/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, duloxetine and S33005, several 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (citalopram, fluvoxamine, and paroxetine) and the dopamine reuptake inhibitors, bupropion and GBR12,935, did not substitute.
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We have evaluated, with the use of vertical microdialysis, the effects of fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on the increase in serotonin and norepinephrine output elicited in rats prefrontal cortex by exposure to footshock stress. Exposure to footshock stress induced a marked increase in the cortical extracellular concentration of both serotonin and norepinephrine (+70% and +100%, respectively) in control rats. Long term, but not acute administration of fluvoxamine (10 mg/kg, i.p. once a days for 21 days) completely antagonized the stress induced increase in cortical serotonin extracellular concentration, while failed to modify the sensitivity of cortical noradrenergic neurons to the same stressful stimulus. Our results have shown that it is possible to independently modulate the sensitivity of cortical serotonergic neurons to stressful stimuli without altering the responsiveness of noradrenergic neurons to the same stress. Given the different role played by serotonin and norepinephrine in the modulation of the stress response, the availability of drugs able to selectively modulate the plastic response of serotonergic neurons to stress in specific brain areas might be important for the pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders.
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The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A2 is crucial for the metabolism of many drugs, for example, tizanidine. As the effects of several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and female sex steroids on CYP1A2 activity in vitro are unknown, their effects on phenacetin O-deethylation were studied and compared with the effects of model inhibitors in human liver microsomes, followed by prediction of their interaction potential with tizanidine in vivo. In vitro, fluvoxamine, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid and rofecoxib potently inhibited CYP1A2 [the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) < 10 microM]. Ethinyloestradiol, celecoxib, desogestrel and zolmitriptan were moderate (IC(50) 20-200 microM), and etodolac, ciprofloxacin, etoricoxib and gestodene weak inhibitors of CYP1A2 (IC(50) > 200 microM). At 100 microM, the other tested NSAIDs and steroids inhibited CYP1A2 less than 35%. Pre-incubation increased the inhibitory effects of rofecoxib, progesterone and desogestrel. Using the free portal plasma inhibitor concentration and the competitive inhibition model, the effect of fluvoxamine and the lack of effects of tolfenamic acid and celecoxib on tizanidine pharmacokinetics in human beings were well predicted. However, the effects of ciprofloxacin, rofecoxib and oral contraceptives were greatly underestimated even when the predictions were based on their total portal plasma concentration. Besides rofecoxib, and possibly mefenamic acid, other NSAIDs were predicted not to significantly inhibit CYP1A2 in human beings. The type of enzyme inhibition, particularly metabolism-dependent inhibition, free inhibitor concentration and accumulation of the inhibitor into the hepatocytes should be considered in extrapolations of in vitro results to human beings.
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The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to estimate the cost and effectiveness of venlafaxine extended-release (VXR) compared with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the outpatient treatment of major depressive disorder.
Ten sertraline-treated patients meeting 'Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV' criteria for both generalized anxiety disorder and major depression were compared with 18 healthy volunteers and 18 non-treated patients with similar psychopathology. Sertraline hydrochloride was administered orally at 50 mg daily for 10 months to 1 year. The participants were selected on the basis of similar responses to a questionnaire assessing risk of genotoxicity related to other aspects of life. All participants had very similar lifestyles, medical histories, biological and dietary factors. All subjects were non-smokers.
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Although being a drug therapeutically used for a long time, the enzymatic metabolism of selegiline has not been adequately studied. In the current work we have studied the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-catalyzed oxidative metabolism of selegiline to desmethylselegiline and 1-methamphetamine and the effects of selegiline, desmethylselegiline and 1-methamphetamine on hepatic CYP enzymes in human liver microsomes in vitro. The apparent Km values for desmethylselegiline and 1-methamphetamine formation were on an average 149 microM and 293 microM, and the apparent Vmax values, 243 pmol/min./mg and 1351 pmol/min./mg, respectively. Furafylline and ketoconazole, the known reference inhibitors for CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, respectively, inhibited the formation of desmethylselegiline with Ki value of 1.7 microM and 15 microM. Ketoconazole inhibited also the formation of 1-methamphetamine with Ki of 18 microM. Fluvoxamine, an inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, inhibited the formation of desmethylselegiline and 1-methamphetamine with Ki values of 9 and 25 microM, respectively. On the basis of these results we suggest that CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 contribute to the formation of desmethylselegiline and that CYP3A4 participates in the formation of 1-methamphetamine. In studies with CYP-specific model activities, both selegiline and desmethylselegiline inhibited the CYP2C19-mediated S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation with average IC50 values of 21 microM and 26 microM, respectively. The Ki for selegiline was determined to be around 7 microM. Selegiline inhibited CYP1A2-mediated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation with a Ki value of 76 microM. Inhibitory potencies of selegiline, desmethylselegiline and 1-methamphetamine towards other CYP-model activities were much lower. On this basis, selegiline and desmethylselegiline were shown to have a relatively high affinity for CYP2C19, but no evidence about selegiline metabolism by CYP2C19 was obtained.
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It has been shown previously that sigma receptor agonists reveal potential antidepressant activity in experimental models. Moreover, some data indicate sigma receptor contribution to stress-induced responses (e.g., conditioned fear stress in mice), though the mechanism by which sigma ligands can exert their effects, remains unclear. Recent studies have indicated that antidepressant drugs (ADs) inhibit glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function in vitro. The aim of the present study was to find out whether sigma receptor ligands are able to directly affect GR action. To this end, we evaluated the effect of sigma receptor agonists and antagonists on GR function in mouse fibroblast cells (L929) stably transfected with mouse mammary tumor virus-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (MMTV-CAT) plasmid (LMCAT cells). For this study, we chose SA4503, PRE 084, DTG (selective sigma(1) or sigma(1/2) receptor agonists) and BD 1047, SM 21, rimcazole (sigma receptor antagonists). Fluvoxamine, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with sigma(1/2) receptor affinity, was used for comparison. It was found that SM 21 (at 1, 3, 10 and 30 microM), BD 1047 (3, 10 and 30 microM) rimcazole (10 microM), and fluvoxamine (at 3, 10 and 30 microM) significantly inhibited corticosterone-induced gene transcription, while DTG, SA 4503 and PRE 084 remained ineffective. Thus, the sigma receptor agonists that predominantly showed antidepressant-like activity in behavioral models, were without effect in this in vitro model. These results suggest that antidepressant-like activity of sigma receptor agonists is independent of corticosterone-induced gene transcription. Therefore, the attenuation of GR function induced by sigma receptor antagonists remains ambiguous and requires further study.
Fourteen CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer (EM) and 14 CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer (IM) subjects were coadministered a single oral dose of aripiprazole 3 mg after steady-state plasma concentrations of the SSRIs paroxetine (20 mg/day) or fluvoxamine (100 mg/day) were reached by repeated oral doses for 6-7 days. The pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole with and without coadministration of SSRIs were compared according to CYP2D6 genotypes.
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Designed as an open-label, non-randomized clinical trial, the study included 2 periods. In period 1 (reference), each subject received ATX 25 mg (single-dose), whereas in period 2 (test), all subjects were given a combination of ATX 25 mg + FVX 100 mg, following a 6-day pretreatment regimen with the enzymatic inhibitor. Non-compartmental methods were employed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of ATX and its main active metabolite (glucuronidated form), 4-hydroxyatomoxetine-O-glucuronide.
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5,718 children and adolescents received a total of 25,542 prescriptions between 2000 and 2004. The median number of prescriptions per patient was two (interquartile range 1-5). Common indications included depression and anxiety. Antidepressant prevalence increased from 2000 to 2002 (from 5.4 to 6.6 patients per 1,000 people), with a rise in the number of patients prescribed venlafaxine and SSRIs. However, between 2002 and 2004 there was a decrease in antidepressant prevalence (from 6.6 to 5.7 per 1,000). The prevalence of CSM-contraindicated antidepressants (citalopram, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline and venlafaxine) declined by a third (from 3.1 to 2.0 per 1,000), but there was no change in fluoxetine prevalence (from 2.1 to 2.3 per 1,000). The number of patients prescribed tricyclic antidepressants dropped marginally (from 2.0 to 1.7 per 1,000). Incidences followed the same trends as the prevalences, but there was a 48% reduction in the incidence of CSM-contraindicated antidepressants between 2002 and 2004. National antidepressant prescribing trends increased; paediatric prescribing trends were similar to national trends between 2000 and 2003; however, there was a 27% reduction in the paediatric prescribing rate of CSM-contraindicated antidepressants between 2002 and 2004.
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Fluoxetine, zimelidine, sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, indalpine and citalopram are the selective inhibitors of serotonin uptake that have been most widely studied. Some of these compounds are or have been used clinically in the treatment of mental depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and bulimia, and therapeutic benefit has been claimed in additional diseases as well. By blocking the membrane uptake carrier which transports serotonin from the extracellular space to inside the serotonin nerve terminals, these compounds increase extracellular concentrations of serotonin and amplify signals sent by serotonin neurons. Because serotonin neurons are widespread in the central nervous system, the functional consequences of blocking serotonin uptake are diverse, but are generally subtle. Animals treated with serotonin uptake inhibitors look normal in gross appearance, but effects such as reduced aggressive behavior, decreased food intake and altered food selection, analgesia, anticonvulsant activity, endocrine changes and neurochemical changes have been demonstrated and characterized. Serotonin uptake inhibitors have helped in revealing some dynamics of serotonin neurons; for example, when uptake is inhibited and extracellular serotonin concentration increases, presynaptic as well as postsynaptic receptors for serotonin are activated to a greater degree. A consequence of increased activation of autoreceptors on serotonin cell bodies and nerve terminals is a reduction in firing of serotonin neurons and a decrease in serotonin synthesis and release. The result is a limit on the degree to which extracellular serotonin and serotonergic neurotransmission are increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Fifty OC patients were consecutively recruited. All underwent a challenge with 25 mg i.v. clomipramine and placebo and were administered 10-week oral clomipramine or fluvoxamine according to a double-blind design. The efficacy of the antiobsessional treatment was evaluated by Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and Clinical Global Impression scale scores.