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Middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes but without severe albuminuria from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination With Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET; n=6,916).
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The present study was designed to investigate the potential of telmisartan, an angiotensin AT(1) receptor, in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Four loose ligatures were placed around the sciatic nerve to induce chronic constriction injury and neuropathic pain. Acetone drop, pin-prick, hot plate and paint brush tests were performed to assess cold allodynia; mechanical and heat hyperalgesia; and dynamic mechanical allodynia, respectively along with assessment of spontaneous pain and postural index in terms of foot deformity. The levels of TNF-α were measured in the sciatic nerve as an index of inflammation. Chronic constriction injury was associated with development of cold allodynia; mechanical and heat hyperalgesia; dynamic mechanical allodynia; and spontaneous pain and foot deformity along with rise in the levels of TNF-α. Telmisartan (1, 2, 5 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 14 days in chronic constriction injury subjected rats. Administration of telmisartan (2, 5 mg/kg) significantly attenuated chronic constriction injury-induced pain related behavior, foot deformity and rise in TNF-α level. It may be concluded that telmisartan has a potential in attenuating neuropathic pain behavior in chronic constriction injury model which may possibly be attributed to its anti-inflammatory properties.
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Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into five groups of 10 rats each: (i) non-ligated, given water; (ii) ligated, given water; (iii) ligated, given 1 mg/kg TELM; (iv) ligated, given 5 mg/kg TELM; and (v) ligated, given 10 mg/kg TELM. All groups were treated with saline or TELM for 10 days. Periodontal tissue was analysed by histopathology; by the immunohistochemical examination of COX-2, MMP-2, MMP-9 and the RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway; and by ELISA analysis of the levels of IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malonaldehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH).
AT1 antagonism inhibited vessel wall inflammation and inhibition of PI3K/Akt may be involved in the modulation of the MCP-1/CCR2 system by AT1 antagonists in SHRs.
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CCN genes are activated in heart failure. Their regulation is multidimensional both transcriptional and posttranscriptional. The involved pathways include angiotensin II and IL-6.
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Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and data regarding the efficacy and tolerability of telmisartan compared with losartan on blood pressure (BP) control in patients with hypertension.
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In this study, the binding of hemoglobin (Hb) with three benzimidazole-biphenyl derivatives (telmisartan (TST), candesartan (CST), and DB921) is investigated by molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and binding free energy calculation. Results demonstrate that the three drugs locate in the cavities formed by α1, α2, and β2 subunits. The average gyration radii are estimated and consistent with available experimental results. The binding free energies suggest that the binding site of CST/Hb is more stable than those of TST/Hb and DB921/Hb. The energy decomposition analysis is performed and reveals that the electrostatic interactions play an important role in the stabilization of the binding site of CST/Hb or DB921/Hb while the van der Waals interactions contribute largely to stabilization of the binding site of TST/Hb. The key residues stabilizing the binding sites of TST/Hb, CST/Hb, and DB921/Hb are identified based on the residue decomposition analysis. The probability densities of salt bridge distances demonstrate that there still exist the four salt bridges between α1 and α2 subunits of Hb in presence of these drugs.
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The effect of the AT1-receptor antagonists losartan, irbesartan, and telmisartan on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced facilitation of noradrenergic neurotransmission was investigated in the isolated rat mesenteric artery under isometric conditions. Electrical field stimulation (2, 4, and 8 Hz) caused a frequency-dependent increase of contractile force. At stimulation frequencies of 2, 4, and 8 Hz, Ang 11 (10 nM) increased the stimulation-induced vasoconstrictor responses by a factor 4.8 +/- 0.9, 2.9 +/- 0.7, and 1.3 +/- 0.1, respectively (p < 0.05 compared with control for all frequencies). The enhancement could be concentration-dependently antagonized by losartan (1 nM-1 microM), irbesartan (0.1 nM-0.1 microM), and telmisartan (0.01 nM-0.01 microM). At a stimulation frequency of 2 Hz, the relation between stimulation-induced vasoconstrictor responses (in presence of Ang II 10 nM) and the concentration of the AT1-antagonists used could be described by linear regression. The order of potency concerning sympathoinhibition was telmisartan > irbesartan > losartan (p < 0.05 between linear regression lines). Contractile responses to exogenous noradrenaline were unaltered in the presence of Ang II 10 nM. We conclude that the facilitating effect of Ang II on noradrenergic neurotransmission is mediated by presynaptically located AT1-receptors. Conversely, this facilitating effect can be dose-dependently counteracted by blockade of these receptors. Sympathoinhibitory properties are likely to contribute to the therapeutic effect of AT1-blockers, in particular in conditions in which the sympathetic nervous system is activated, such as congestive heart failure and hypertension.
A novel molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction with spectrofluorimetry method has been developed for the selective extraction of telmisartan from human urine. Molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared by a noncovalent imprinting approach through UV-radical polymerization using telmisartan as a template molecule, 2-dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, N,N-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator, chloroform as a porogen. Molecularly imprinted polymers and nonimprinted control polymer sorbents were dry-packed into solid-phase extraction cartridges, and eluates from cartridges were analyzed using a spectrofluorimeter. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation values were 11.0 and 36.0 ng/mL, respectively. A very high imprinting factor (16.1) was achieved and recovery values for the telmisartan spiked in human urine were in the range of 76.1-79.1%. In addition, relatively low within-day (0.14-1.6%) and between-day (0.11-1.31%) precision values were obtained. Valsartan was used to evaluate the selectivity of sorbent as well. As a result, a sensitive, selective, and simple molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction with spectrofluorimetry method has been developed and successfully applied to the direct determination telmisartan in human urine.
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To observe the effects of telmisartan on Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 potassium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes.
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Post hoc observational analysis of a multicenter trial involving 20,330 patients (age ≥50 years) with recent non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke; patients were recruited from 695 centers in 35 countries from September 2003 through July 2006 and followed up for 2.5 years (follow-up ended on February 8, 2008). Patients were categorized based on their mean SBP level: very low-normal (<120 mm Hg), low-normal (120-<130 mm Hg), high-normal (130-<140 mm Hg), high (140-<150 mm Hg), and very high (≥150 mm Hg).
Prolonged lowering of blood pressure after a stroke reduces the risk of recurrent stroke. In addition, inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system in high-risk patients reduces the rate of subsequent cardiovascular events, including stroke. However, the effect of lowering of blood pressure with a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor soon after a stroke has not been clearly established. We evaluated the effects of therapy with an angiotensin-receptor blocker, telmisartan, initiated early after a stroke.
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We tested the hypothesis that patients with ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema present during months when pollen counts are increased.
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The study included evaluation of respiratory function, bronchial conductivity, gas homeostasis, and 24-hour profile of blood pressure (BP) in 15 male patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and I-II stage arterial hypertension prior to and after 2 weeks of therapy with telmisartan. The drug, administered in a dose of 80 mg/day, significantly increased 1 sec forced expiratory volume, peak expiratory flow rate, decreased effective bronchial resistance and CO2 partial pressure in arterial blood. Telmisartan also significantly reduced mean systolic BP (SBP) (p < 0.003) and diastolic BP (DBP) (p < 0.001) during day hours, SBD (p < 0.01) and pulse BP (p < 0.05) during night hours, significantly reduced SBP load (p < 0.02) and DBP load (p < 0.003) during day hours, and SBP load during night hours (p < 0.02).
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Treatments with ACEI and ARBs reduced the incidence of the occurrence of cataract. The effect of combinational drugs of ACEI (ramipril) and AT1 receptor blocker (Telmisartan) was evaluated. The drugs used in combinations showed improvement in the histopathological and biochemical changes of the diabetic animals, both for the retina and kidney.
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A PubMed literature search was conducted to identify evidence on the use of telmisartan for preventing CV events.
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Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonistic properties. Telmisartan prevents weight gain and decreases food intake in models of obesity and in glitazone-treated rodents. This study further investigates the influence of telmisartan and pioglitazone and their association on weight gain and body composition by examining their influence on neuroendocrine mediators involved in food intake. Male C57/Black 6 mice were fed a high-fat diet, weight matched, and randomized in 4 treatment groups: vehicle, pioglitazone, telmisartan, and pioglitazone-telmisartan. Weight gain, food and water intake, body composition, plasma leptin levels, and the hypothalamic expression of neuroendocrine mediators were analyzed. Additional studies were performed with irbesartan and in angiotensin II 1(A) receptor-knockout mice. Telmisartan abolished weight and fat gain in vehicle- and pioglitazone-treated mice while decreasing food intake, the hypothalamic expression of the agouti-related protein, and plasma leptin levels. Modifications in neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin were not consistent with changes in food intake. The effects on weight gain and expression of the agouti-related protein were intermediate with irbesartan. The effects of telmisartan on weight gain were even more pronounced in angiotensin II 1(A) receptor-knockout mice. This study confirms the anorexigenic effects of telmisartan in mice fed a high-fat diet and suggests for the first time a functional role of telmisartan on hypothalamic orexigenic agouti-related protein regulation. These anorexigenic properties abolish both weight gain and body composition modifications in fat-fed and glitazone-treated mice. The anorexigenic properties are independent from the angiotensin II 1(A) receptor.
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The mean +/- SE fall in renal plasma flow (RPF) in response to intravenous N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), reflecting the magnitude of nitric oxide (NO) activity, increased with telmisartan from 71.9 +/- 9.0 ml/min before therapy to 105.2 +/- 9.7 ml/min at the end of treatment (P < 0.001). With ramipril, RPF response to L-NMMA increased from 60.1 +/- 12.2 to 87.8 +/- 9.2 ml/min (P = 0.018). The adjusted difference between treatments was -17.1 +/- 13.7 ml/min (P = 0.214). In accordance, telmisartan increased RPF at rest (i.e., without L-NMMA) from 652.0 +/- 27.0 to 696.1 +/- 31.0 ml/min (P = 0.047), whereas ramipril produced no significant changes in RPF. The more the basal NO activity improved, the greater was the vasodilatory effect on renal vasculature (r = 0.47, P < 0.001).
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham operation, abdominal aortic coarctation (AAC) and AAC + telmisartan. Telmisartan (5 mg · kg · d) or vehicle was infused into the stomach 1 week after the operation. ER stress signaling pathway molecules and apoptosis were studied in pressure-overloaded hearts 9 weeks after AAC.
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The CD feeding induced obesity, hyperphagia, hyperlipidaemia, and leptin and insulin resistance. Telmisartan reduced the CD-induced increase in body weight and abdominal fat mass. Whereas energy intake was higher rather than lower, the respiratory ratio was lower. After telmisartan, leptin-induced energy intake was reduced and respiratory ratio was increased compared with C(CD) rats. Telmisartan also decreased plasma levels of triglycerides, free fatty acids and low-density lipoprotein. Amlodipine alone or the combination telmisartan + amlodipine did not affect body weight and eating behaviour. Telmisartan, but not amlodipine and telmisartan + amlodipine, improved glucose utilization. The decrease in BP reduction was almost the same in all treatment groups.
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This study examined the effects of increasing the thiazide diuretic dose in a fixed-dose ARB/diuretic combination in patients with uncontrolled hypertension despite 6 weeks' open-label treatment with the ARB/diuretic combination, telmisartan 80 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (T80/H12.5). 713 patients with trough seated DBP =90 mmHg were then randomized to 8 weeks' double-blind treatment with telmisartan 80 mg and an increased dose of 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide (T80/H25) or T80/H12.5. Adjusted mean seated DBP changes from baselines of 95.3 (T80/H25) and 95.0 mmHg (T80/H12.5) were -7.1 and --5.5 mmHg (difference: 1.6 mm Hg), respectively (P=.0012). Changes in systolic blood pressure from 147.9 mmHg (T80/H25) and 147.4 mmHg (T80/H12.5) were -9.8 and -7.1 mmHg (difference: 2.7 mm Hg) (P=.0003). Adverse events occurred in 31.5% (T80/H25) and 29.6% (T80/H12.5), with serious events in 1.4% and 0.8%, respectively. Hypokalemia was rare. These results show that higher-dose thiazide diuretic in combination with T80 in patients with hypertension uncontrolled by T80/H12.5 provides additional blood pressure reductions and is well tolerated.
The metabolic syndrome is associated with activation of the renin-angiotensin system. However, whether the coronary vascular response to ANG II is altered under this condition is unknown. Experiments were conducted in control and chronically high-fat-fed dogs with the prediabetic metabolic syndrome both in vitro (isolated coronary arterioles, 60-110 microm) and in vivo (anesthetized and conscious). We found that plasma renin activity and ANG II levels are elevated in high-fat-fed dogs and that this increase in ANG II is associated with a significant increase in ANG II-mediated coronary vasoconstriction in isolated coronary arterioles and in anesthetized open-chest dogs. The vasoconstriction to ANG II is abolished by ANG II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockade. In conscious chronically instrumented dogs, AT1 receptor blockade with telmisartan improved the balance between coronary blood flow and myocardial oxygen consumption in the high-fat-fed dogs but not in normal control dogs, i.e., the relationship between coronary venous Po2 and myocardial oxygen consumption was shifted upward, toward normal control values. Quantitative assessment of coronary arteriolar AT1 and ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptor mRNA levels by real-time PCR revealed no significant difference between normal control and high-fat-fed dogs; however, Western blot analysis showed a significant increase in AT1 receptor protein level with no change in AT2 receptor protein density. These findings indicate that AT1 receptor-mediated coronary constriction is augmented in the prediabetic metabolic syndrome and contributes to impaired control of coronary blood flow via increases in circulating ANG II and/or coronary arteriolar AT1 receptor density.
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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Telmisartan (Tel) and Losartan (Los) on nanoparticle intratumoral distribution and anticancer effects in lung cancer. A549 lung tumor cells were orthotopically and metastatically administered to Nu/nu mice. Fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles (FPNPs, size ~200 nm) beads were used to study their intratumoral distribution after Tel and Los treatments. Animals were administered with FPNPs and after 2h, FPNPs intratumoral distribution was studied by fluorescent microscopy. Tel (~1.12 mg/kg) and Los (~4.5mg/kg) were administered by inhalation delivery at alternative days for 4 weeks to tumor bearing animals. Collagen-1, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), cleaved caspase-3, Vimentin and E-Cadherin expressions were studied by western blotting. To correlate the AT1 receptor blockage to anticancer effects, VEGF levels and microvessel densities (MVD) were quantified. Los and Tel treated group resulted in the 5.33 and 14.33 fold increase respectively in the FPNPs intratumoral distribution as compared to the controls. Tel treatment attenuated 2.23 and 1.70 fold Collagen 1 expression compared to untreated control and Los groups, respectively. Further, in Tel and Los treated groups, the TGF-β1 active levels were significantly (p<0.05) decreased. Tel (at four times less dose) was 1.89 and 1.92 fold superior in anticancer activity to Los respectively in A549 orthotopic and metastatic tumor models (p<0.05) when given by inhalation route. Tel, by virtue of its dual pharmacophoric nature could be an ideal candidate for combination therapy to improve the nanoparticle intratumoral distribution and anticancer effects.
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Diabetic nephropathy, a complex disorder with heterogeneous etiologies, remains one of the most threatening diseases worldwide. There were around 177 million people with diabetes mellitus worldwide, and it has been estimated to be increased to 360 million by 2030. Given that about 20-30% of these people develop diabetic nephropathy, the present treatment protocols primarily aim for an efficient glucose and blood pressure control to arrest the initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy. The treatment of diabetic nephropathy near the beginning at microalbuminuria stage with angiotensin-II-AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) improves blood pressure control and halts disease progression of diabetic nephropathy. In fact, ARBs exert renoprotective effects independently of their blood pressure lowering effect, as they have direct defensive action on the diabetic kidney. Indubitably, it would be better if an ARB has both glucose-lowering and blood pressure controlling potentials efficiently. Intriguingly, telmisartan has such possessions considering its dual role of AT1 receptor blocking action and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) partial agonistic property. The additional PPARγ agonistic potential of telmisartan could make it a distinctive intervention in the ARB class to prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy through activation of PPARγ-mediated insulin sensitization, and renal anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions. Indeed, telmisartan reduced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, and halted the progressive renal dysfunction associated with diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting the incidence of albuminuria, and preventing the progression of glomerulosclerosis, renal interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. This review will discuss the current status of therapeutic potentials of telmisartan in treating diabetic nephropathy.