Generic Micronase is used for treating type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Glyburide.
Generic Micronase is used for treating type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines.
Generic Micronase is a sulfonylurea antidiabetic medicine. It works by causing the pancreas to release insulin, which helps to lower blood sugar.
Brand name of Generic Micronase is Micronase.
Take Generic Micronase by mouth with food.
If you are taking 1 dose daily, take Generic Micronase with breakfast or the first main meal of the day unless your doctor tells you otherwise.
High amounts of dietary fiber may decrease Generic Micronase 's effectiveness, resulting in high blood sugar.
Generic Micronase works best if it is taken at the same time each day.
Continue to take Generic Micronase even if you feel well.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Micronase suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Micronase and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Micronase are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Micronase if you are allergic to Generic Micronase components.
Do not take Generic Micronase if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Micronase can ham your baby.
Do not take Generic Micronase if you have certain severe problems associated with diabetes (eg, diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic coma).
Do not take Generic Micronase if you have moderate to severe burns or very high blood acid levels (acidosis) you are taking bosentan.
Do not take Generic Micronase if you are taking bosentan.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have had a severe allergic reaction (eg, a severe rash, hives, itching, breathing difficulties, dizziness) to any other sulfonamide medicine, such as acetazolamide, celecoxib, certain diuretics (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), glipizide, probenecid, sulfamethoxazole, valdecoxib, or zonisamide.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have a history of liver, kidney, thyroid, or heart problems.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have stomach or bowel problems (eg, stomach or bowel blockage, stomach paralysis), drink alcohol, or have had poor nutrition.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have type 1 diabetes, very poor health, a high fever, a severe infection, severe diarrhea, or high blood acid levels, or have had a severe injury.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have a history of certain hormonal problems (eg, adrenal or pituitary problems, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone [SIADH]), low blood sodium levels, anemia, or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you will be having surgery.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you are taking bosentan because liver problems may occur; the effectiveness of both medicines may be decreased; beta-blockers (eg, propranolol) because the risk of low blood sugar may be increased; they may also hide certain signs of low blood sugar and make it more difficult to notice; angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, enalapril), anticoagulants (eg, warfarin), azole antifungals (eg, miconazole, ketoconazole), chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, clofibrate, fenfluramine, insulin, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (eg, phenelzine), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, ibuprofen), phenylbutazone, probenecid, quinolone antibiotics (eg, ciprofloxacin), salicylates (eg, aspirin), or sulfonamides (eg, sulfamethoxazole) because the risk of low blood sugar may be increased; calcium channel blockers (eg, diltiazem), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), decongestants (eg, pseudoephedrine), diazoxide, diuretics (eg, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogens, hormonal contraceptives (eg, birth control pills), isoniazid, niacin, phenothiazines (eg, promethazine), phenytoin, rifamycins (eg, rifampin), sympathomimetics (eg, albuterol, epinephrine, terbutaline), or thyroid supplements (eg, levothyroxine) because they may decrease Generic Micronase 's effectiveness, resulting in high blood sugar; gemfibrozil because blood sugar may be increased or decreased; cyclosporine because the risk of its side effects may be increased by Generic Micronase.
Do not stop taking Generic Micronase suddenly.
Patients' severity of illness correctly classified mortality for 89.8% of the patients (P less than 0.0001). Being younger, married, and white decreased severity adjusted risk of mortality. Exposure to the following medications increased severity adjusted risk of mortality: glyburide (odds ratio [OR] = 1.804, 95% CI from 1.518 to 2.145), glipizide (OR = 1.566, 95% CI from 1.333 to 1.839), rosiglitazone (OR = 1.805, 95% CI from 1.378 to 2.365), chlorpropamide (OR = 3.026, 95% CI from 1.096 to 8.351), insulin (OR = 2.382, 95% CI from 2.112 to 2.686). None of the other medications (metformin, acarbose, glimepiride, pioglitazone, repaglinide, troglitazone, or dipeptidyl peptidase-4) were associated with excess mortality beyond what could be expected from the patients' severity of illness or demographic characteristics. The reported excess mortality could not be explained away by use of other concurrent, nondiabetic classes of medications.
Hypoxic cardiac failure is accompanied by action potential shortening, which in part might be a consequence of opening of cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP) channels). Coupling of the adenosine-1 receptor (A-1 receptor) to these channels has been described; however, the interaction of A-1-receptors and K(ATP) channels in different models of ischemia is still under debate. The hypothesis as to whether A-1 receptors are involved in hypoxic K(ATP) channel-activation in the saline-perfused rat heart was tested.
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1. The ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP channel) in A10 cells, a cell line derived from rat thoracic aorta, was characterized by binding studies with the tritiated KATP channel opener, [3H]-P1075, and by electrophysiological techniques. 2. Saturation binding experiments gave a KD value of 9.2 +/- 5.2 nM and a binding capacity (BMax) of 140 +/- 40 fmol mg-1 protein for [3H]-P1075 binding to A10 cells; from the BMax value a density of binding sites of 5-10 per microns2 plasmalemma was estimated. 3. KATP channel modulators such as the openers P1075, pinacidil, levcromakalim and minoxidil sulphate and the blocker glibenclamide inhibited [3H]-P1075 binding. The extent of inhibition at saturation depended on the compound, levcromakalim inhibiting specific [3H]-P1075 binding by 85%, minoxidil sulphate and glibenclamide by 70%. The inhibition constants were similar to those determined in strips of rat aorta. 4. Resting membrane potential, recorded with microelectrodes, was -51 +/- 1 mV. P1075 and levcromakalim produced a concentration-dependent hyperpolarization by up to -25 mV with EC50 values of 170 +/- 40 nM and 870 +/- 190 nM, respectively. The hyperpolarization induced by levcromakalim (3 microM) was completely reversed by glibenclamide with an IC50 value of 86 +/- 17 nM. 5. Voltage clamp experiments were performed in the whole cell configuration under a physiological K+ gradient. Levcromakalim (10 microM) induced a current which reversed around -80 mV; the current-voltage relationship showed considerable outward rectification. Glibenclamide (3 microM) abolished the effect of levcromakalim. 6. Analysis of the noise of the levcromakalim (10 microM)-induced current at -40 and -20 mV yielded estimates of the channel density, the single channel conductance and the probability of the channel to be open of 0.14 micron-2, 8.8 pS and 0.39, respectively. 7. The experiments showed that A10 cells are endowed with functional KATP channels which resemble those in vascular tissue; hence, these cells provide an easily accessible source of channels for biochemical and pharmacological studies. The density of binding sites for [3H]-P1075 was estimated to be one order of magnitude higher than the density of functional KATP channels; assuming a plasmalemmal localization of the binding sites this suggests a large receptor reserve for the openers in A10 cells.
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We examined 223 552 prescription records: 19% were for TZDs, 48% for metformin, 20% for glyburide, and 13% for insulin. Prior to automation, there were, on average, 571 benefit-approved TZD records per week; however, the number of benefit-approved TZD records increased immediately after the automated process was introduced by 240 prescriptions per week (95% CI 200-280, p < 0.001). The average proportion of TZD benefit-approved records was 73% before and increased to 93% immediately following policy change (20% absolute change, 95% CI 18.7-20.4%). No changes were observed for metformin, glyburide, or insulin (p > 0.1 for all).
Genetic evaluation revealed a missense mutation (His46Leu) in KCNJ11, which encodes the Kir6.2 subunit of the K(ATP) channel, conferring reduced ATP sensitivity. Functional studies demonstrated that the mutant channels were strongly inhibited by the sulfonylurea tolbutamide.
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The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of a potassium channel opener, nicorandil, and to elucidate its possible mechanism of action in aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced and ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. In an attempt to ascertain the involvement of K(ATP) channels in the modulation of gastric ulcers, the effects of nicorandil alone as well as in the presence of the K(ATP) channel blocker glibenclamide were studied. Nicorandil and glibenclamide were administered orally at a dose of 2 mg/kg throughout the study. Nicorandil showed significant protection in all the selected models that was evident from a significant reduction in the ulcer index. The results of nicorandil treatment were comparable with those of cimetidine treatment in both models. Glibenclamide was found to inhibit this effect of nicorandil. Further, glibenclamide showed proulcerogenic potential in ethanol and aspirin plus pylorus ligation models. In the aspirin plus pylorus ligation model, nicorandil showed a significant reduction in total acidity, pepsin activity, and protein content and a significant rise in mucin activity. The effect of nicorandil was also studied on gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF). The GMBF was found to be more increased in the test group than in the control group, indicating enhancement of GMBF by nicorandil. Glibenclamide reversed this effect of nicorandil as well. It is concluded from our study that nicorandil possesses antiulcer activity in the models employed in the present study. This may be attributed to the opening of K(ATP) channels, inhibition of acid secretion, enhancement of mucin activity, and improvement in GMBF.
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To establish whether cacalol, cacalone epimer mixture and cacalol acetate may block adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP) channels) in a similar way to the antidiabetic drug glibenclamide.
To determine the effect of plasma glucose lowering on coronary circulatory function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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This study was undertaken to compare the use of glyburide with insulin for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) unresponsive to diet therapy.
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The present studies describe the blood pressure lowering, and some other haemodynamic effects, of the potassium channel activator, BRL 38227 ((-) enantiomer of cromakalim, CAS 94470-67-4) in various animal models. BRL 38227 was a potent antihypertensive agent following oral administration to conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR, (0.038, 0.075 and 0.15 mg/kg), renal hypertensive cats (0.035 and 0.05 mg/kg) and renal hypertensive dogs (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg). The (+) enantiomer of cromakalim (BRL 38226) was without effect on blood pressure in the conscious rat and cat confirming the stereospecific mode of action of this potassium channel activator. Tachycardia accompanied the antihypertensive effect of BRL 38227 in these models and in the rat this effect could be abolished by pretreatment with atenolol (conscious SHR), diltiazem, verapamil, propranolol and alinidine (anaesthetised rats). In addition to reflex tachycardia, BRL 38227 also increased plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels in the conscious renal hypertensive cat. In both the anaesthetised normotensive cat (0.001 mg/kg/min i.v.) and dog (0.0025 to 0.02 mg/kg i.v.) BRL 38227 lowered blood pressure and total peripheral resistance while increasing cardiac output via increased heart rate and stroke volume in the cat and via increased heart rate alone in the dog. BRL 38227 reduced renal vascular resistance in both conscious (0.01, 0.015 and 0.02 mg/kg p.o.) and anaesthetised (0.001 mg/kg/min i.v.) cats and the effect was maintained despite marked reductions in blood pressure. In the anaesthetised dog, BRL 38227 was a potent coronary arterial dilator and this effect was also maintained in the face of marked blood pressure lowering activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Warm-up effect is preserved in diabetic patients with stable angina treated with diet, partially preserved in gliclazide-treated and abolished in glibenclamide-treated patients.
Ischemia of hippocampal slices leads to 86Rb+ efflux and to amino acid neurotransmitter release. This 86Rb+ efflux which corresponds to the massive K+ efflux from neuronal cells observed in ischemic animals is inhibited by glucose (IC50 = 1.7 mM). Glucose also inhibits the ischemia induced liberation of GABA and aspartate. 86Rb+ efflux is insensitive to any type of known blockers for ATP-sensitive, Ca2(+)-sensitive and voltage-sensitive K+ channels.
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We microinjected several gap junction tracers, differing in size and charge, into individual insulin-producing cells and evaluated their intercellular exchange either within intact islets of control, knockout and transgenic mice featuring beta cells with various levels of Cx36, or in cultures of wild-type and Cx36-transfected MIN6 cells.
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To evaluate risk factors, notably drugs, for acute pancreatitis.
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GDM patients were treated with diet alone, insulin or glyburide. Weight gain was stratified into: prior to GDM diagnosis, from diagnosis to delivery and total pregnancy weight gain. Good glycemic control was defined as mean blood glucose ≤ 105 mg/dl and obesity as Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2), overweight BMI 25-29 kg/m(2) and normal < 25 kg/m(2).
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The antinociceptive activity of the extract (at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was evaluated by using chemical- and heat-induced pain models such as acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate, tail immersion, formalin, and glutamate test. To verify the possible involvement of opioid receptor in the central antinociceptive effect of EELC, naloxone was used to antagonize the effect. Besides, the involvements of ATP-sensitive K(+) channel and cGMP pathway were also justified by using glibenclemide and methylene blue.
The mechanisms by which glyburide and tolbutamide signal insulin secretion were examined using a beta cell line (Hamster insulin-secreting tumor (HIT) cells). Insulin secretion was measured in static incubations, free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was monitored in quin 2-loaded cells, and cAMP quantitated by radioimmunoassay. Insulin secretory dose-response curves utilizing static incubations fit a single binding site model and established that glyburide (ED50 = 112 +/- 18 nM) is a more potent secretagogue than tolbutamide (ED50 = 15 +/- 3 microM). Basal HIT cell [Ca2+]i was 76 +/- 7 nM (mean +/- S.E., n = 141) and increased in a dose-dependent manner with both glyburide and tolbutamide with ED50 values of 525 +/- 75 nM and 67 +/- 9 microM, respectively. The less active tolbutamide metabolite, carboxytolbutamide, had no effect on [Ca2+]i or insulin secretion. Chelation of extracellular Ca2+ with 4 mM EGTA completely inhibited the sulfonylurea-induced changes in [Ca2+]i and insulin release and established that the rise in [Ca2+]i came from an extracellular Ca2+ pool. The Ca2+ channel blocker, verapamil, inhibited glyburide- or tolbutamide-stimulated insulin release and the rise in [Ca2+]i at similar concentrations with IC50 values of 3 and 2.5 microM, respectively. At all concentrations tested, the sulfonylureas did not alter HIT cell cAMP content. These findings provide direct experimental evidence that glyburide and tolbutamide allow extracellular Ca2+ to enter the beta cell through verapamil-sensitive, voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, causing a rise in [Ca2+]i which is the second messenger that stimulates insulin release.
NaHS concentration-dependently induced a change in Isc, that was only partially inhibited by the neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin. Lower concentrations (< or =10(-3) mol.L(-1)) of NaHS induced a monophasic increase in Isc, whereas higher concentrations induced an additional, secondary fall of Isc, before a third phase when Isc rose again. Blockers of H(2)S-producing enzymes (expression demonstrated immunohistochemically) decreased basal Isc, suggesting that endogenous production of H(2)S contributes to spontaneous anion secretion. The positive Isc phases induced by NaHS were due to Cl(-) secretion as shown by anion substitution and transport inhibitor experiments, whereas the transient negative Isc induced by higher concentrations of the H(2)S-donor was inhibited by mucosal tetrapentylammonium suggesting a transient K(+) secretion. When applied from the serosal side, glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, and tetrapentylammonium, a blocker of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels, suppressed NaHS-induced Cl(-) secretion suggesting different types of K(+) channels are stimulated by the H(2)S-donor. NaHS-induced increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration was confirmed in isolated, fura-2-loaded colonic crypts. This response was not dependent on extracellular Ca(2+), but was inhibited by blockers of intracellular Ca(2+) channels present on Ca(2+) storage organelles.
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Seventy-three patients aged 60 to 80 years were randomized to Mix25 (Mix25 group, 37 participants) or a continuation with maximum dose glibenclamide (control group, 36 participants). The Mix25 group was subdivided into a group of 18 patients who were injecting insulin after meals and 19 who were injecting before.
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To examine comparative efficacies of adjunctive therapy with insulin in subjects with type 2 diabetes manifesting lapse of glycemic control while receiving various individual sulfonylurea drugs.
The efficacy and safety of the preprandial injection of insulin lispro was compared with the oral administration of glibenclamide in patients with early type 2 diabetes. In this open-label, multicenter study, 143 patients with a glucagon-stimulated increase in C-peptide of at least 0.4 nmol/L were randomized to receive preprandial insulin lispro (LP) or glibenclamide (GB) for 26 weeks. Seventy-five patients received LP (51 male/24 female; age 40 to 70 years, duration of diabetes 4.4 +/- 2.9 years) and 68 patients received GB (39 male/29 female; age 39 to 70 years; duration of diabetes 4.3 +/- 3.4 years). After 12 weeks, mean 90 minute blood glucose excursions were 0.9 +/- 1.0 mmol/L for LP and 1.8 +/- 1.2 mmol/L for GB (p < 0.0001). After 24 weeks, mean blood glucose excursions were 1.0 +/- 1.1 mmol/L for LP and 1.7 +/- 1.2 mmol/L for GB (p = 0.002). Body weight decreased slightly from 87.2 +/- 2.3 to 86.5 +/- 12.2 kg in the LP group and increased from 84.1 +/- 13.7 to 84.4 +/- 13.3 kg in the GB group. LP versus GB induced changes from baseline to endpoint in fasting C-peptide (nmol/L), proinsulin and insulin levels (pmol/L) were - 0.2 +/- 0.4 versus - 0.1 +/- 0.6 (p = 0.04), - 11.2 +/- 26.0 versus - 1.1 +/- 17.3 (p = 0.03), and - 27.8 +/- 147.4 versus + 32.6 +/- 286.2 (not significant), respectively. HbA 1c at baseline was 7.5 +/- 1.0 % for LP and 7.7 +/- 1.2 % for GB and did not change significantly in either group during the investigation. No significant difference was observed between the groups with respect to hypoglycemic episodes. Treatment with LP improved postprandial blood glucose control more than GB without increasing body weight or hypoglycemic episodes. In addition, use of LP was associated with a decrease in fasting C-peptide and proinsulin levels, suggesting a potential down regulation of endogenous insulin production and improved proinsulin processing efficiency.
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We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis for the U.S. population aged 25-64. A lifetime analytic horizon and health care system perspective were used. Costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were discounted at 3% annually, and costs are presented in 2008 U.S. dollars. We compared three glycemic control strategies: 1) glyburide as a second-line agent, 2) exenatide as a second-line agent, and 3) sitagliptin as a second-line agent. Outcome measures included QALYs gained, incremental costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with each strategy.
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Articles were selected from MEDLINE searches (key words: postprandial glucose, postprandial hyperglycemia, and cardiovascular disease) and from our personal reference files, with emphasis on the contribution of postprandial hyperglycemia to overall glycemic load or cardiovascular (CV) risk.
β2-AR agonist induced myometrial relaxation was inhibited by glibenclamide and enhanced by pinacidil on day 6, when SUR1 expression levels were high. Neither glibenclamide nor pinacidil mediated tocolytic effect was measured on day 22.
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