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Minipress (Prazosin)

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Minipress is an effective strong preparation which is taken in treatment of hypertension diseases. Minipress is also helpful in treatment of male prostate enlargement symptoms, congestive heart failure, Raynaud's disease. Minipress acts as anti-hypertension remedy.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Prazosin.


Minipress is created by pharmacy specialists to combat hypertension disease. Target of Minipress is to control level of blood pressure.

Minipress acts as anti-hypertension remedy. Minipress operates by reducing blood pressure.

Minipress is also known as Prazosin, Prazopress, Vasoflex, Hypovase.

Minipress is alpha blocker.

Generic name of Minipress is Prazosin (oral).

Brand name of Minipress is Minipress.


You should take it by mouth with water.

It is better to take Minipress 2-3 times a day at the same time with meals or milk.

It is better to start the first Minipress dose when are going to bed.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Minipress suddenly.


If you overdose Minipress and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Minipress overdosage: feeling lightheaded, rash, weakness, troublesome breathing, pruritus, swelling.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Minipress are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Minipress if you are allergic to Minipress components.

Be careful with Minipress if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Minipress if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Minipress if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be careful with Minipress if you have liver or kidney disease, heart failure, low blood pressure, narcolepsy, prostate cancer.

Be careful with Minipress if you take muscle relaxants as carisoprodol; anti-anxiety drugs as diazepam; anti-seizure drugs as carbamazepine; tranquilizers; sleep medicines as sedatives; antihistamines as diphenhydramine; verapamil; psychiatric medicines as tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline), phenothiazines (chlorpromazine); sexual function problems drugs as vardenafil, sildenafil, tadalafil; narcotic pain relievers as codeine; beta blockers as metoprolol, propranolol, atenolol.

Avoid machine driving.

Use Minipress with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Avoid alcohol.

Minipress can be not safety for elderly people.

Try to be careful with sunbeams. Minipress makes skin sensitive to sunlight. Protect skin from the sun.

Do not stop taking Minipress suddenly.

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The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of prazosin, a selective postsynaptic alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blocking agent, on normoxic and hypoxic mice, in order to evaluate experimentally its use in the treatment of the excessive erythrocytosis that characterizes chronic mountain sickness. The drug, injected intraperitoneally to adult mice at a dose of 400 micrograms/kg per day, induced a significant depression of the rate or erythropoiesis, as measured by red blood cell 59iron uptake, with a decrease in the hematocrit from the 3rd day. The drug also inhibited the oxygen-dependent secretion of erythropoietin (estimated by the plasma immunoreactive hormone concentration) in hypoxemic mice when injected between 0 and 2 h after initiation of the hypoxic stimulation. When injected daily into mice exposed to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia, prazosin limited the degree of polycythemia or induced a sustained decrease in the hematocrit when polycythemia was already present due to previous exposure. It is postulated that the drug, by reducing the peripheral vascular resistance seen during hypoxia, could increase renal blood flow, thus improving the renal oxygen supply and partially restoring the imbalance between gas supply and demand, which drives erythropoietin formation.

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beta-Amyloid peptides (Abetas) share with lipopolysaccharide, a potent pro-inflammatory agent, the property of stimulating glial cells or macrophages to induce various inflammatory mediators. We recently reported that central administration of lipopolysaccharide induces peripheral interleukin-6 responses via both the central and peripheral norepinephrine system. In this study, the effect of intracerebroventricular injection of various synthetic Abetas on plasma interleukin-6 levels was examined in mice. Abeta(1-42) dose-dependently increased plasma interleukin-6 levels: 'aged' Abeta(1-42) was more effective than fresh, whereas Abeta(42-1) had no effect. 'Aged' Abeta(1-42) (205 pmol/mouse i.c.v.)-induced plasma interleukin-6 peaked at 2 h post injection, which is earlier than the peak time of the Abeta(1-42)-induced brain interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta levels, which was 4, 4 and 24 h, respectively. Among various peripheral organs, Abeta(1-42) (205 pmol/mouse i.c.v.) significantly increased interleukin-6 mRNA expression in lymph nodes and liver. Abeta(1-42) (205 pmol/mouse i.c.v.) significantly increased norepinephrine turnover in both hypothalamus and spleen. Either central or peripheral norepinephrine depletion effectively inhibited the Abeta(1-42)-induced peripheral interleukin-6 response. Pretreatment with prazosin (alpha(1)-adrenergic antagonist), yohimbine (alpha(2)-adrenergic antagonist), and ICI-118,551 (beta(2)-adrenergic antagonist), but not with betaxolol (beta(1)-adrenergic antagonist), inhibited Abeta(1-42)-induced plasma interleukin-6 levels. These results demonstrate that centrally administered Abeta(1-42) effectively induces the systemic interleukin-6 response which is mediated, in part, by central Abeta(1-42)-induced activation of the central and the peripheral norepinephrine systems.

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We have recently assigned a major stimulatory role to the brain catecholamines (CA) via alpha 1 and beta receptors on CRH-ACTH secretion, e.g. in the physiological response to stress. In the present study, we explored the possible participation in this regulation of post-synaptic alpha 2 receptors in free moving rats, one week after CA denervation of the hypothalamus by bilateral neurotoxic lesions of the noradrenergic ascending brain stem bundles (NAB). Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of clonidine (alpha 2 agonist; 1 nmol) induced a 3 fold rise of ACTH release (measured by RIA) above vehicle (PBS) injected controls (p less than 0.001). This stimulatory effect was completely reversed by an i.c.v. pretreatment with the alpha 2 antagonist idazoxan (10 nmol; without action by itself), whereas it was only slightly affected by an i.c.v. pretreatment with a combination of an alpha 1 and beta blocker (prazosin + propranolol; 5/5 nmol; p greater than 0.1). The results strongly suggest the participation of alpha 2 post-synaptic receptors in the central catecholaminergic activation of ACTH secretion.

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Caffeine and other methylxanthines induce a dose-dependent reduction in core body temperature in mice. These experiments investigated the effects of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator antagonists on caffeine-induced hypothermia. Pretreatment with the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, atipamezole; the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol; the dopamine antagonist, haloperidol; or the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, flumazenil had no intrinsic effects on core body temperature nor did they interact significantly with the hypothermic effects of caffeine. The alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin and the 5-HT receptor antagonist, metergoline significantly enhanced the hypothermic effects of caffeine, probably involving a combined effect with their intrinsic hypothermic actions. Pretreatment with the opiate receptor antagonist, naloxone (3 mg/kg i.p.), had no intrinsic effect on core body temperature but attenuated the hypothermic effect of caffeine reflected in a parallel shift to the right in the caffeine dose-effect curve. The naloxone-induced attenuation of the hypothermic effects of caffeine was also seen to be dose-dependent. The results reveal that opiate receptors (but not adrenoceptors, 5-HT, dopamine or benzodiazepine receptors) may play a role in modulating the hypothermic action of caffeine and possibly other methylxanthines.

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Melatonin receptors were characterized in the brains of three mammals (rabbit, horse and sheep) by an in vitro binding technique, using 2-[125I]iodomelatonin as labelled ligand. Although binding sites for melatonin have been described recently in several vertebrate species (including the sheep), the rabbit and the horse have not been the subject of investigation so far. Apart from characterization, the present report describes receptor distribution in a number of brain regions, thus allowing for direct interspecies comparison under the same methodological conditions. 2-[125I]iodomelatonin labelled high-affinity binding sites in crude membrane preparations from these species. A series of kinetic and saturation experiments revealed that the binding was rapid, stable, saturable, reversible, of high affinity (Kd in the low picomolar range) and low capacity (Bmax between 1 and 20 fmol/mg protein). The competition studies showed that the relative order of potency of a variety of indoles for inhibition of 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding was as follows: 2-iodomelatonin greater than 6-chloromelatonin greater than melatonin much much greater than 5-methoxytryptophol greater than 5-methoxytryptamine, and that it was similar in the different brain regions. Prazosin, which has been reported as an extremely potent melatonin analog in the hamster brain, possessed no potency in all preparations from different regions in the three species under investigation. The regional distribution of the receptor showed insignificant species differences. Highest density was always recorded in the median eminence/pars tuberalis (ME/PT) area. Other regions (SCN, POA and certain cortical areas), showed lower, but significant, receptor content. Saturation and competition studies revealed that these binding sites were also of high affinity, low capacity and high specificity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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A single infusion of oxaliplatin, which is widely used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer, induces specific sensory neurotoxicity signs that are triggered or aggravated when exposed to cold or mechanical stimuli. Bee Venom (BV) has been traditionally used in Korea to treat various pain symptoms. Our recent study demonstrated that BV alleviates oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia in rats, via noradrenergic and serotonergic analgesic pathways. In this study, we have further investigated whether BV derived phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) attenuates oxaliplatin-induced cold and mechanical allodynia in mice and its mechanism. The behavioral signs of cold and mechanical allodynia were evaluated by acetone and a von Frey hair test on the hind paw, respectively. The significant allodynia signs were observed from one day after an oxaliplatin injection (6 mg/kg, i.p.). Daily administration of bvPLA2 (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) for five consecutive days markedly attenuated cold and mechanical allodynia, which was more potent than the effect of BV (1 mg/kg, i.p.). The depletion of noradrenaline by an injection of N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP4, 50 mg/kg, i.p.) blocked the analgesic effect of bvPLA2, whereas the depletion of serotonin by injecting DL-p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 150 mg/kg, i.p.) for three successive days did not. Furthermore, idazoxan (α2-adrenegic receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) completely blocked bvPLA2-induced anti-allodynic action, whereas prazosin (α1-adrenegic antagonist, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) did not. These results suggest that bvPLA2 treatment strongly alleviates oxaliplatin-induced acute cold and mechanical allodynia in mice through the activation of the noradrenergic system, via α2-adrenegic receptors, but not via the serotonergic system.

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It is estimated that 25% to 30% of patients with heart failure (HE) in the United States are black. Compared with nonblack patients, black patients have a reduced ability to produce endogenous nitric oxide, which may be associated with enhanced responsiveness to drugs that increase the delivery of nitric oxide, such as nitrates. When used with nitrates, hydralazine (HYD) acts as an antioxidant and prevents development of nitrate tolerance.

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Concern based on the reported short-term adverse effects of antihypertensive agents on plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles (PLPPs) has complicated the therapy for hypertension.

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The effects of drugs with selective action on alpha 1- or alpha 2-adrenoceptors were investigated on persistent head twitches, vertical neck dyskinesia, and the random circling behaviors induced by chronic intraperitoneal injections of IDPN. The alpha agonist clonidine and the alpha antagonist prazosin inhibited the IDPN-induced behavioral syndrome whereas the alpha antagonist yohimbine had no significant effect. These results suggest that dysregulation of a facilitatory noradrenergic input to cortical and/or subcortical motor areas may be involved in the abnormal movements caused by chronic treatment with IDPN.

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Investigation of the effects of the different adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes in memory formation may reveal discrete actions of noradrenaline in memory modulation and storage mediated through particular AR subtypes. Noradrenaline injected intracerebrally in the chick produced biphasic effects on memory consolidation with enhancement at low doses and inhibition at high doses. We have previously shown that the enhancement by the lower doses of noradrenaline is attributable to actions at beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptors, whereas the inhibitory effect of higher doses is attributable to alpha1-adrenoceptors. The present studies show that the inhibition of memory by high doses of noradrenaline is mimicked by the alpha1-AR agonist methoxamine, and the dose-response curve is shifted to the right by pretreatment with the alpha1-AR antagonist prazosin. alpha1-ARs may play a critical role in memory formation in highly stressful situations, when noradrenaline levels are high in particular brain regions. It is not known where the alpha1-ARs responsible for the effect on memory are localized. alpha1-ARs are found on neurons and astrocytes and in the cerebral vasculature and therefore the action of high doses of noradrenaline via alpha1-AR agonists could be via an action at any of these sites. Activation of alpha1-adrenoceptors in the intermediate hyperstriatum ventrale in the chick forebrain by the alpha1 adrenoceptor agonist methoxamine inhibits the consolidation of memory. Because the same effect is produced by high levels of noradrenaline, it is likely that stimulation of alpha1-ARs is the mechanism underlying this effect.

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A total of 45 patients who participated in a multicenter trial was evaluated with urodynamic pressure-flow studies before and after 26 weeks of treatment.

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1 Possible involvement of sympathetic purinergic transmission in the neurogenic response of dog cerebral and basilar arteries was examined with the use of alpha, beta-methylene ATP and adrenoceptor, cholinoceptor blocking agents. 2 In the isolated basilar arteries, electrical transmural stimulation produced a transient contraction which was frequently followed by a relaxation. This transient contraction was abolished after desensitization of P2-purinoceptors with alpha, beta-methylene ATP or by treatment with guanethidine. The relaxant response induced by electrical stimulation was also attenuated but was not abolished by such treatments. Prazosin, propranolol and atropine had no significant effect on the responses to electrical stimulation. Yohimbine augmented both the contractile and relaxant responses. 3 In most preparations of the dog middle cerebral arteries, electrical transmural stimulation produced only a relaxation. This relaxation was little affected after treatment with alpha, beta-methylene ATP or guanethidine, and was not inhibited by the other adrenoceptor and cholinoceptor blocking agents. 4 Tetrodotoxin abolished the responses induced by electrical transmural stimulation in both the basilar and middle cerebral arteries. 5 Exogenous ATP (10(-6) and 10(-5)M) produced a transient contraction followed by a relaxation of the basilar arteries and a relaxation of the middle cerebral arteries. Desensitization of P2-purinoceptors abolished the contractile response to ATP without affecting the amplitude of relaxation. 6. In the basilar and middle cerebral arteries preincubated with [3H]-noradrenaline, electrical transmural stimulation evoked an increase in 3H-efflux and this response was markedly inhibited by guanethidine or tetrodotoxin but was not affected by alpha, beta-methylene ATP. Yohimbine increased the evoked 3H-efflux. 7. These findings indicate that cerebral arteries of the dog are innervated by sympathetic purinergic nerves and non-sympathetic nerves which liberate unknown vasodilator substance(s), and that the former nerves are more dominant in the neurogenic response to electrical stimulation of the dog basilar artery than in the middle cerebral artery.

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Endothelin-1 (ET-1) (10 pmol) microinjected into the superficial layer of superior colliculus induces decreases in blood pressure (control, 108 +/- 5 mmHg, n=6; ET-1, 71 +/- 4 mmHg, n=5). The effects on blood pressure induced by endothelin-1 were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by pre-administration into the superior colliculus of the alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (1 nmol) (46 +/- 5%, n=5), beta1-adrenoceptor antagonist acebutolol (5 nmol) (51 +/- 6%, n=5) or beta1/beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (3.4 nmol) (51 +/- 11%, n=5). In contrast, endothelin-1-induced effects were increased (p<0.05) by microinjections into the superior colliculus of prazosin (2.4 nmol) (49 +/- 7%, n=5), an alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist; dobutamine (4 nmol) (51 +/- 9%, n=5), a beta1-adrenoceptor agonist or isoprenaline (1 nmol) (49 +/- 6%, n=5), a beta1/beta2-adrenoceptor agonist. No involvement of alpha2- or beta2-adrenoceptors has been detected. Therefore, ET-1 induces decreases in blood pressure with selective involvement of alpha1- and beta1-adrenoceptors.

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In vivo prostatic secretion was collected from retired breeder Sprague Dawley rats using a method for isolated perfusion of the rat prostatic urethra. Enzymatic acid phosphatase determination was performed on the collected effluent. Control acid phosphatase secretion was 24.2 +/- 2.7 nm over 30 minutes. Intravenous phenylephrine 5 mg/kg stimulated a 10 fold increase in acid phosphatase secretion. The secretion seen with phenylephrine was dose dependent and could be blocked with prazosin, but not yohimbine, atropine, or propranolol. Intravenous beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol caused no increase in the secretion of rat prostatic acid phosphatase. Intravenous administration of the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine also resulted in a dose dependent rise in acid phosphatase secretion. The stimulation seen could be blocked by atropine but not phentolamine or propranolol. The stimulation of acid phosphatase secretion seen with alpha 1 adrenergic or cholinergic agonists was not additive. Intravenous vasoactive intestinal peptide did not stimulate acid phosphatase secretion nor did it augment the secretion induced by alpha 1 adrenergic or cholinergic agonists. Release of acid phosphatase into rat prostatic exocrine secretion is under both alpha 1 adrenergic and cholinergic control.

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Clo reversed the changes of the myocardial beta-AR-AC-cAMP system resulted from the scalds in rats.

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We studied the effects of hydralazine, nicardipine, nitroglycerin, and fenoldopam (a dopamine D1-agonist) on isolated human umbilical arteries (HUA) from patients classified as normotensive and with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). Umbilical artery rings were contracted with the thromboxane A(2) analog (U46619; 10(-8) M) and then exposed to cumulative concentrations of fenoldopam, hydralazine, nicardipine, and nitroglycerin. Second, rings were preexposed to prazosin (10(-5) M), phenoxybenzamine (10(-5) M), or none, and the constriction responses to increasing doses of fenoldopam or dopamine were recorded. Nitroglycerin, hydralazine, and nicardipine produced concentration-dependent relaxation of U46619-preconstricted HUA segments from normotensive and PIH patients. Fenoldopam and dopamine induced umbilical artery constriction in both normal and PIH rings at concentrations > or = 10(-5) M and > or = 10(-3) M, respectively. Phenoxybenzamine, but not prazosin, pretreatment irreversibly abolished fenoldopam-induced contraction. In this in vitro study, nitroglycerin was the most potent vasodilator of the HUA constricted with U46619, followed by nicardipine and hydralazine. However, fenoldopam constricted HUA rings only at supratherapeutic concentrations. No significant differences of vascular responses to fenoldopam (P = 0.3534), nitroglycerin (P = 0.7416), nicardipine (P = 0.0615), and hydralazine (P = 0.5514) between rings from normotensive or hypertensive pregnant patients were shown.

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1. Neurotransmitters released from nerve endings are inactivated by re-uptake into the presynaptic nerve terminals and possibly into neighbouring glial cells. While analysing the functional properties of alpha 1-adrenoceptors in the hypothalamus, we observed a high-affinity uptake process for noradrenaline in postsynaptic peptidergic neurones. 2. In primary hypothalamic cell cultures and in a hypothalamic neuronal cell line, [3H]-prazosin bound with high affinity and was displaced by unlabelled prazosin in concentrations of 10(-10) to 10(-7) M. However, at concentrations of unlabelled prazosin above 10(-7) M, there was a paradoxical increase in apparent [3H]-prazosin binding. 3. Methoxamine, an alpha 1-adrenoceptor ligand that is not subject to significant neuronal uptake, displaced [3H]-prazosin but did not cause the paradoxical increase in the apparent binding of [3H]-prazosin. Cooling the cells to 4 degrees C reduced the total amount of prazosin associated with the cells; under these conditions, methoxamine almost completely inhibited [3H]-prazosin binding to the cells. 4. In the presence of desipramine (DMI), unlabelled prazosin displaced [3H]-prazosin as before, but no paradoxical increase in apparent binding was seen above 10(-7) M. 5. The paradoxical increase of [3H]-prazosin binding was not observed in membrane preparations of hypothalamic neurones. These findings indicated that the paradoxical increase in apparent [3H]-prazosin binding was due to a cellular uptake process that becomes evident at high concentrations of the ligand. 6. DMI (10(-5) M) had no effect on the specific binding of [3H]-prazosin. The presence of alpha1-adrenoceptors was confirmed by binding of [125]-HEAT, but [3H]-idazoxan (an alpha2- ligand) did not bind to the cells.7. The uptake of prazosin obeyed the Michaelis-Menten model, with similar Km and Vmax values in both types of cultures.8. Noradrenaline was taken up with high affinity by both types of cultures. (+/-)-[3H]-noradrenaline uptake was reduced by DMI and by excluding sodium from the medium, indicating that this process has some of the properties of uptake 1. (+/-)-[3H]-noradrenaline uptake in the cell line was unaffected by testosterone.9. The measured uptake of (-)-noradrenaline in the cell line was considerably increased by blockade of catechol-omicron-methyl-transferase and monoamine oxidase, suggesting that (-)-noradrenaline is metabolized to lipophilic products that escape across the plasma membrane.10. Studies in rats, in which the noradrenaline isomer 6-hydroxydopamine was used, suggested that the post synaptic uptake process is operative in hypothalamic CRH and vasopressin neurones in vivo.11. The Km for (-)-noradrenaline was within the range for the high affinity uptake, process in noradrenergic neurones. Uptake takes place in concentrations at which noradrenaline activates alpha1-adrenoceptors.Removal of noradrenaline from the vicinity of the receptors may prevent desensitization,thus maintaining the responsiveness of postsynaptic neurones to the actions of the neurotransmitter.

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We investigated the role of alpha-adrenergic antagonists and clonidine injected into the medial septal area (MSA) on water intake and the decrease in Na+, K+ and urine elicited by ANGII injection into the third ventricle (3rdV). Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted into the 3rdV and MSA were used. ANGII (12 nmol/ micro l) increased water intake (12.5 +/- 1.7 ml/120 min). Clonidine (20 nmol/ micro l) injected into the MSA reduced the ANGII-induced water intake (2.9 +/- 0.5 ml/120 min). Pretreatment with 80 nmol/ micro l yohimbine or prazosin into the MSA also reduced the ANGII-induced water intake (3.0 +/- 0.4 and 3.1 +/- 0.2 ml/120 min, respectively). Yohimbine + prazosin + clonidine injected into the MSA abolished the ANGII-induced water intake (0.2 +/- 0.1 and 0.2 +/- 0.1 ml/120 min, respectively). ANGII reduced Na+ (23 +/- 7 micro Eq/120 min), K+ (27 +/- 3 micro Eq/120 min) and urine volume (4.3 +/- 0.9 ml/120 min). Clonidine increased the parameters above. Clonidine injected into the MSA abolished the inhibitory effect of ANGII on urinary sodium. Yohimbine injected into the MSA also abolished the inhibitory effects of ANGII. Yohimbine + clonidine attenuated the inhibitory effects of ANGII. Prazosin injected into the MSA did not cause changes in ANGII responses. Prazosin + clonidine attenuated the inhibitory effects of ANGII. The results showed that MSA injections of alpha1- and alpha2-antagonists decreased ANGII-induced water intake, and abolished the Na+, K+ and urine decrease induced by ANGII into the 3rdV. These findings suggest the involvement of septal alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors in water intake and electrolyte and urine excretion induced by central ANGII.

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The aim was to analyse the influence of coronary postjunctional alpha 1 and alpha 2 adrenergic vasoconstriction in hypoperfused myocardium with special emphasis on transmural distribution of blood flow.

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The present study shows, for the first time, that urinary bladder distention caused vasoconstriction of coronary conduit and resistance vessels involved mechanisms related to alpha1 adrenoceptors. Pretreated administration of doxazosin reversed the changes toward baseline. Vasoconstriction during bladder distention can be relieved after nitroglycerin administration, suggesting an unchanged responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle cells to such distention.

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ABCG2, a transporter of the ATP-binding cassette family, is known to play a prominent role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of xenobiotics. Drug-transporter interactions are commonly screened by high-throughput systems using transfected insect and/or human cell lines. The determination of ABCG2-ATPase activity is one method to identify ABCG2 substrate and inhibitors. We demonstrate that the ATPase activities of the human ABCG2 transfected Sf9 cell membranes (MXR-Sf9) and ABCG2-overexpressing human cell membranes (MXR-M) differ. Variation due to disparity in the glycosylation level of the protein had no effect on the transporter. The influence of cholesterol on ABCG2-ATPase activity was investigated because the lipid compositions of insect and human cells are largely different from each other. Differences in cholesterol content, shown by cholesterol loading and depletion experiments, conferred the difference in stimulation of basal ABCG2-ATPase of the two cell membranes. Basal ABCG2-ATPase activity could be stimulated by sulfasalazine, prazosin, and topotecan, known substrates of ABCG2 in cholesterol-loaded MXR-Sf9 and MXR-M cell membranes. In contrast, ABCG2-ATPase could not be stimulated in MXR-Sf9 or in cholesterol-depleted MXR-M membranes. Moreover, cholesterol loading significantly improved the drug transport into inside-out membrane vesicles prepared from MXR-Sf9 cells. MXR-M and cholesterol-loaded MXR-Sf9 cell membranes displayed similar ABCG2-ATPase activity and vesicular transport. Our study indicates an essential role of membrane cholesterol for the function of ABCG2.

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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder with symptoms that include insomnia due to hyperarousal and recurring nightmares. These symptoms are believed to be due to a conditioned response that is regulated by norepinephrine. Prazosin, an α(1) antagonist, can decrease levels of norepinephrine in the central nervous system, thereby reducing nightmares related to PTSD.

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Human BPH tissue possesses both alpha 1H- and alpha 1L-adrenoceptor subtypes according to the affinities for prazosin, and only the alpha 1H subtype can be completely inhibited by some concentration of phenoxybenzamine. Treatment by alpha 1 blocker may not change the conditions of alpha 1-adrenoceptors in prostatic tissue.

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The use of cardiovascular medications can have a variety of neuropsychiatric consequences. Many cardiovascular agents cause higher rates of fatigue and sedation than placebo, and case reports of medication-induced mood syndromes, psychosis, and cognitive disturbances exist for many cardiovascular drugs. Depression has been associated with P3-blockers, methyldopa, and reserpine, but more recent syntheses of the data have suggested that these associations are much weaker than originally believed. Though low cholesterol levels have been associated with depression and suicide, lipid-lowering agents have not been associated with these adverse effects. Finally, cardiovascular medications may have beneficial neuropsychiatric consequences; for example, the use of clonidine in patients with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, the use of prazosin for patients with post-traumatic stress disorder; and the use of propranolol for performance anxiety and akathisia.

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The effects of the nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril on pressor responses to the selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist cirazoline (10 ng/kg-3.0 mg/kg) in the pithed rat were compared. In addition, the effects of losartan and captopril on pressor responses to cirazoline were compared in the presence of the selective irreversible alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist SZL-49 (1-(4-amino-6,7-dimethoxy-2-quinazolinyl)-4-(2-bicyclo[2,2,2]octa-2,5- dienyl-carbonyl)-piperzine) and/or the Ca2+ channel antagonist nifedipine. Losartan (5.0 mg/kg) and captopril (3.0 mg/kg), as compared to saline, significantly lowered the blood pressure of intact, anaesthetized and pithed rats. Continuous infusion with vasopressin was used to restore the blood pressure of pithed rats pretreated with losartan or captopril to a level comparable to animals that had received saline. Losartan, captopril, nifedipine (1.0 mg/kg), and SZL-49 (10.0 mg/kg) antagonized the pressor actions of cirazoline, which displaced the dose-diastolic blood pressure response curve for the agonist to the right. Moreover, pressor responses to cirazoline were significantly reduced in rats that had received losartan and nifedipine in comparison to nifedipine alone. In contrast, in rats treated with nifedipine, further administration of captopril did not significantly reduce pressor responses to cirazoline as compared to nifedipine alone. Cirazoline-mediated pressor responses at all doses were significantly attenuated in rats treated with SZL-49 and either losartan or nifedipine combined as compared to SZL-49 alone. In contrast, only cirazoline-mediated pressor responses at lower doses were significantly reduced by pretreatment with a combination of SZL-49 and captopril as compared to SZL-49 alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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A transient peak of cytosolic calmodulin (CaM) was produced during the prereplicative phase of rat liver cell proliferation following partial hepatectomy. After accumulating in the cytosol, CaM apparently translocated into the nuclei, associating with the nuclear matrix. The administration of alpha 1-adrenergic blockers to hepatectomized rats prevented the association of CaM with the nuclear matrix without affecting the increase in the total nuclear CaM. The inhibitory effect of the alpha 1-antagonists was reversed by the simultaneous injection of the alpha-agonist noradrenaline. Since the activation of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors results in the release of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum stores, the results suggest that the association of CaM with the nuclear matrix during proliferative activation is mediated by Ca2+ released from endoplasmic reticulum and show that the association with the matrix is independent of its intranuclear accumulation.

minipress drug class

A series of substituted phenethyl derivatives of 3-benzisothiazolylpiperazine incorporating potent D2 and 5-HT2A antagonist activity was investigated as an approach to a novel atypical antipsychotic agent. The in vitro profile of 8e from this series is a combination of D2 receptor affinity comparable to the typical antipsychotic agent haloperidol and a 5-HT2A/D2 ratio comparable to the atypical agent clozapine. In vivo 8e possesses activity consistent with an efficacious antipsychotic agent with less tendency to induce extrapyramidal side effects in man.

minipress drug information

The role of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor stimulation in the regulation of systemic vascular capacity and venous return, a major determinant of cardiac output, is not well understood. With the influence of the central nervous system isolated from the systemic circulation, the direct peripheral vascular effects of two specific, chemically distinct alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonists, UK 14,304 and B-HT 920, were investigated in 19 dogs on total cardiopulmonary bypass with constant arterial perfusion and central venous pressure. Five-minute intra-arterial infusions of UK 14,304 (200 micrograms/min) resulted in increased arterial resistance (mean arterial pressure increased 18 +/- 4 [SEM] mm Hg; p less than 0.01) and a decrease in systemic vascular capacity (81 +/- 20 ml; p less than 0.01). This decrease in systemic vascular capacity appears to result from vasoconstriction, since there was no decrease in transhepatic resistance to portal flow and no significant change in hepatic vein flow to suggest redistribution of arterial blood flow. Yohimbine abolished both the arterial and systemic capacity effects, whereas prazosin did not. Intra-arterial administration of B-HT 920 (200 theta grams/min) in five dogs produced similar changes in arterial resistance and systemic capacity. These findings provide direct evidence for beta 2-adrenergic control, not only of arterial resistance but also of systemic vascular capacity, which in the intact animal would increase venous return to the heart.

minipress dosage

The VA Academic Detailing Service Informatics Toolset provides prescribing, demographic and risk factor data for veterans with PTSD treated at the White River Junction VA Medical Center (WRJ VA) and affiliated rural clinics in Vermont and New Hampshire. Individualized academic detailing visits were provided to clinicians identified by the informatics tool with the aim of increasing guideline-concordant care. Other educational efforts included traditional, didactic group education on evidence-based PTSD care and the development and dissemination of educational materials for clinicians and patients. Prescribing trends of benzodiazepines, off-label atypical antipsychotics, and prazosin were collected quarterly for 2 years (January 1, 2014 to March 30, 2016).

minipress xl dosage

Two young adult monkeys (Macaca mullata) were trained to perform a delayed-response task that required the monkeys to remember a cued spatial position (left or right) over a delay interval and then to make a response to the cued position. Local injection of the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine (10 micrograms in 2 microliters saline) into the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Walker's area 46 and area 9) impaired the performance of the delayed-response task, and it was without effect on the performance of the task if there was no delay between the cue and choice signals. The main performing error after injection of yohimbine was that the monkeys responded to uncued position with higher rate. Local injection of the alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin (10 microgram in 2 microliters saline) or the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol (10 micrograms in 2 microliters saline) into the same cortical areas induced no significant effect on the performance of the task. The present study suggests that prefrontal alpha 2-adrenoceptors play an important role in the spatial working memory in young adult monkeys.

minipress nightmares dosage

Inhibition of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors caused transient dilation that was substantially greater than the contribution of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors to the constriction. This reflects a slowly reversing alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation and provides a rapid, sensitive test of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor activity. This approach also clearly emphasizes the poor selectivity of phenylephrine at vascular alpha-adrenoceptors.

minipress 1mg tablet

1. alpha 1-Adrenoceptor activation caused two separate effects in rat dorsal raphe neurons: a depolarization and an increase in the duration of the after-hyperpolarization following the action potential. The depolarization often resulted in repetitive action potentials. The alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin and WB 4101 blocked the depolarization induced by phenylephrine. The concentration-response curve to phenylephrine was shifted to the right by WB 4101. 2. Under voltage clamp, alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists caused an inward current at -60 mV, which often became smaller at negative potentials but rarely reversed polarity even at strongly negative potentials. Using whole-cell recording, the inward current reversed polarity at the equilibrium potential for potassium in the majority of cells. Intracellular Cs+ decreased or abolished the alpha 1-mediated inward current. The inward current was dependent on external calcium, but not on the degree of internal calcium buffering. Removal of external calcium or addition of MgCl2, CoCl2 or CdCl2 reduced or blocked the effects of alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists. Barium and strontium supported and even augmented the inward current induced by alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists, whereas nifedipine and omega-conous toxin had no effect. In contrast, internal dialysis with the calcium chelator 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) did not inhibit the inward current. 3. The alpha 1-induced depolarization was blocked (or occluded) by the inclusion of GTP-gamma-S (100 microM) in the recording pipette. The phorbol-ester 4-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) had no action on the membrane potential and depressed the phenylephrine-induced depolarization. This depression was reversed by the non-selective protein kinase inhibitor staurosporin. 4. Phenylephrine and noradrenaline increased a late component of the after-hyperpolarization (late-AHP) that followed a single action potential. The alpha 1-sensitive late-AHP was blocked by apamine suggesting that it is a calcium-dependent potassium conductance. 5. Thapsigargin reduced the duration of the late-AHP and blocked the phenylephrine-mediated prolongation. Caffeine also augmented the late-AHP and ryanodine blocked the augmentation induced by caffeine. The augmentation induced by phenylephrine was not occluded by caffeine and was still present after the caffeine-induced augmentation was blocked by ryanodine. 6. In slices pretreated with manoalide the depolarization induced by alpha 1-agonists was not changed; however, the late-AHP was reduced in duration and the alpha 1-receptor-mediated augmentation of the late-AHP was decreased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

minipress medicine

Quantitative in vitro autoradiographic methods were used to examine for the effect of repeated administration of electroconvulsive shock (ECS) on binding to subtypes of the alpha-1 receptor in rat brain. Rats were treated once daily for 10 d with ECS or sham ECS, then killed, and brains were removed and sectioned for autoradiographic analysis. Total alpha-1 binding (including both alpha-1a and alpha-1b subtypes) was assessed with [3H]prazosin; alpha-1b binding was assessed with [3H]prazosin in the presence of 10 nM WB4 101 to mask alpha-1a binding; and alpha-1a binding was assessed with [3H]WB4 101. ECS caused a significant increase in [3H]prazosin binding in most cortical regions: this increase was confined to a band corresponding to cortical laminae I-III. Subtype analysis indicated that the increase in cortical binding was due to an increase in binding to the alpha-1b subtype. Dense alpha-1 binding was detected in most thalamic nuclei: however, only 1 small area, the parafascicular nucleus, showed a significant increase in alpha-1 binding following repeated ECS. The only other region where ECS was shown to significantly affect alpha-1 binding was the amygdala. Binding to all regions of the amygdala except the central nuclei was increased by ECS: in the lateral amygdala, this was due primarily to an increase in alpha-1b binding, while in the remaining regions the increase was primarily an alpha-1a phenomenon. Thus the effect of repeated ECS on alpha-1 binding in rat brain was found to be confined to several specific regions of the cortex, thalamus, and amygdala. Furthermore, in each of these regions, the ECS effect was limited to 1 or the other of the 2 subtypes of the alpha-1 receptor.

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Plasma adiponectin levels were correlated with the total cholesterol (r = -0.244, P = 0.017), triglyceride (r = -0.306, P = 0.002), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r = 0.286, P = 0.005), body mass index (r = -374, P < 0.001), systolic (r = -502, P < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressures (r = -235, P = 0.021). The independent predictors of plasma adiponectin levels were HOMA (beta = -0.199, P = 0.02), body mass index (beta = -0.313, P < 0.001) and systolic blood pressures (beta = -0.483, P < 0.001). Ramipril and valsartan increased the plasma adiponectin levels significantly higher than the other regimens (P < 0.05 for both) while metoprolol did not make a significant effect.

minipress overdose

How can we treat patients with reduced morphine doses without loosing the pain killing effect or morphine antinociceptive effects (MAE)? To address this question, we hypothesized that serotonin (5-HT2) receptor antagonism could enhance MAE mediated by kappa-opioid receptors. We pretreated mice with ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, and measured the morphine dose required to observe analgesia. The morphine dose effective in 50% of animals (ED(50)) was reduced from 4.7 to 1.3mg/kg, and the morphine dose effective in 100% of animals (ED(max)) from 13.7 to 2.5mg/kg. Ketanserin has a similar enhancer effect when morphine, which has a dual role via mu and kappa receptors, was substituted by the antinociceptive spiradoline, a selective κ-opioid agonist. At a morphine dose of 3.5mg/kg, 30% of the mice showed antinociceptive behaviour, rising to 100% when ketanserin was co-administered and then reduced to 20% in the presence of nor-binaltorphimine, a kappa-opioid receptor antagonist. Our data strongly suggests a serotonergic inhibition of the kappa-opioid component of MAE and the possibility that this serotonergic inhibition could be reversed through 5-HT2 receptor antagonism.

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Randomized, double-blind, multicenter (eight government and private facilities), placebo-controlled study.

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minipress 6 mg 2015-08-03

This study was performed to characterize the subtype of adrenergic receptor(s) (AR) involved in prostacyclin synthesis [measured as 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG)F1 alpha] elicited by buy minipress online AR agonists in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells of rabbit aorta. Both alpha-1 and alpha-2 AR agonists enhanced 6-keto-PGF1 alpha synthesis in a dose-dependent manner with the following order of potency: norepinephrine greater than BHT 933 greater than UK 14304 greater than xylazine greater than phenylephrine greater than or equal to methoxamine greater than cirazoline. Isoproterenol and oxymetazoline did not alter 6-keto-PGF1 alpha synthesis. Methoxamine-induced 6-keto-PGF1 alpha synthesis was not reduced by the alpha-2 AR antagonist rauwolscine. The affinities of AR antagonists (PA2 value) in inhibiting methoxamine-induced 6-keto-PGF1 alpha synthesis were of the following order: prazosin greater than WB 4101 greater than corynanthine greater than yohimbine. Administration of WB 4101 and the irreversible alpha-1B AR antagonist chloroethylclonidine reduced norepinephrine (in the presence of rauwolscine, 10(-8) M)- or methoxamine-induced 6-keto-PGF1 alpha synthesis; WB 4101 was more potent than chloroethylclonidine. UK 14304-induced 6-keto-PGF1 alpha synthesis was not reduced by chloroethylclonidine or BRL 44408, a selective alpha-2A AR antagonist, but it was inhibited by other alpha AR antagonists. The affinities of AR antagonists (PA2 values) in inhibiting UK 14304-induced 6-keto-PGF1 alpha synthesis were of the following order: rauwolscine greater than yohimbine greater than BAM 1303 greater than BRL 41992 greater than WB 4101 greater than ARC 239 greater than or equal to prazosin greater than SKF 104078 greater than or equal to corynanthine. The order of affinity of alpha-2 AR antagonists in inhibiting UK 14304-induced 6-keto-PGF1 alpha synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells was similar to that derived from radioligand binding studies in opossum kidney cell line receptors classified as alpha-2C receptors. These data suggest that 6-keto-PGF1 alpha synthesis elicited by adrenergic stimuli in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells of rabbit aorta is mediated primarily via alpha-2C and to a lesser extent alpha-1A receptors.

tab minipress dose 2016-10-23

Sympathetic nervous system restraint of skeletal muscle blood flow during dynamic exercise has been well documented. However, whether sympathetic restraint of muscle blood flow persists and is constant throughout prolonged exercise has not been established. We hypothesized that both alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors would restrain skeletal muscle blood buy minipress online flow throughout prolonged constant-load exercise and that the restraint would increase as a function of exercise duration. Mongrel dogs were instrumented chronically with transit-time flow probes on the external iliac arteries and an indwelling catheter in a branch of the femoral artery. Flow-adjusted doses of selective alpha1- (prazosin) and alpha2-adrenergic receptor (rauwolscine) antagonists were infused after 5, 30, and 50 min of treadmill exercise at 3 and 6 miles/h. During mild-intensity exercise (3 miles/h), prazosin infusion resulted in a greater (P < 0.05) increase in vascular conductance (VC) after 5 [42% (SD 6)], compared with 30 [28% (SD 6)] and 50 [28% (SD 8)] min of running. In contrast, prazosin resulted in a similar increase in VC after 5 [29% (SD 10)], 30 [24% (SD 9)], and 50 [22% (SD 9)] min of moderate-intensity (6 miles/h) exercise. Rauwolscine infusion resulted in a greater (P < 0.05) increase in VC after 5 [39% (SD 14)] compared with 30 [26% (SD 9)] and 50 [22% (SD 4)] min of exercise at 3 miles/h. Rauwolscine infusion produced a similar increase in VC after 5 [19% (SD 3)], 30 [15% (SD 6)], and 50 [16% (SD 2)] min of exercise at 6 miles/h. These results suggest that the ability of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors to produce vasoconstriction and restrain blood flow to active muscles may be influenced by both the intensity and duration of exercise.

minipress drug interactions 2016-04-14

Cocaine acutely increases the duration and integrated area of spontaneous contractions in isolated rat myometrium by mechanisms not buy minipress online completely explained by inhibition of catecholamine reuptake and potentiation of adrenergic pathways.

minipress tablets 2016-10-31

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of terazosin enantiomers in healthy Chinese male subjects. After a single oral dose of 2-mg terazosin, the plasma concentrations of terazosin enantiomers were measured over the buy minipress online course of 48 h in 12 healthy subjects. The plasma concentrations of (+)-(R)-terazosin at all time points were higher than those of (-)-(S)-terazosin. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-∞) ) and maximum plasma concentration of (+)-(R)-terazosin were significantly greater than those of the (-)-(S)-terazosin (P < 0.01, respectively). The R/S ratio of AUC(0-∞) of terazosin was 1.68. For the first time, it was proven that the pharmacokinetics of terazosin was stereoselective in healthy Chinese male subjects.

minipress reviews 2016-09-06

Through extensive screening of marine sponge compounds, the authors have found that sipholenol A, a sipholane triterpene isolated from the Red Sea sponge, Callyspongia siphonella, potently reversed multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells that overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In experiments, sipholenol A potentiated the cytotoxicity of several P-gp substrate anticancer drugs, including colchicine, vinblastine, and paclitaxel, but not the non-P-gp substrate cisplatin, and significantly reversed the MDR of cancer cells KB-C2 and KB-V1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, sipholenol A had no effect on the response to cytotoxic agents in cells lacking P-gp expression or expressing MDR protein 1 or breast cancer resistance protein. Sipholenol A (IC(50) > 50 microM) is not toxic to all the cell lines that were used, regardless of their membrane transporter status. Accumulation and efflux studies with the P-gp substrate [(3)H]-paclitaxel demonstrated that sipholenol A time-dependently increased the intracellular accumulation of [(3)H]-paclitaxel by directly inhibiting P-gp-mediated drug efflux. In addition, sipholenol A did not alter the expression of P-gp after treating KB-C2 and KB-V1 cells for 36 h and 72 h. However, it efficaciously stimulated the activity of ATPase of P-gp and inhibited the photolabeling of this transporter with its transport substrate [(125)I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin. Overall, the present results indicate that sipholenol A efficiently inhibits the function buy minipress online of P-gp through direct interactions, and sipholane triterpenes are a new class of potential reversing agents for treatment of MDR in P-gp-overexpressing tumors.

minipress cost 2017-06-18

Antihypertensive treatment is known to reduce mortality in severe hypertension and cardiovascular morbidity in mild and moderately severe hypertension, for example, from stroke and left ventricular failure. However, treated hypertensive patients still have significantly higher mortality and morbidity than matched control subjects. In particular, risk of coronary heart disease is affected little by antihypertensive treatment. There may be several explanations for these less than optimal results. For example, blood pressure may not have been brought down to strictly normotensive levels or an antihypertensive agent, which adversely affects serum lipoproteins, may have been used, thereby offsetting the intended therapeutic effect. Doxazosin, buy minipress online a new selective alpha 1-inhibitor, offers both effective antihypertensive action and a favorable lipid effect. Both of these effects could have a positive impact on risk of coronary heart disease and therefore may prove to be more effective than previously used antihypertensive treatments.

minipress 1mg tablet 2017-08-24

This study was designed to evaluate the capacity of norepinephrine (NE) to induce hypertrophic remodeling of small arteries in rats, and to determine the involvement of endothelin (ET) buy minipress online to initiate and maintain it.

minipress medication 2015-04-23

A previous study from our laboratory has shown the facilitatory effect of Ceratonia siliqua L. (Fabaceae) on the dopaminergic function. This study investigates the involvement of monoamines in the antidepressant activity of the total polyphenol content of Ceratonia siliqua extract (CS) in mice using a tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). The immobility time in the TST and FST were significantly reduced by CS (25 and 50 mg kg(-1), i.p.). The extract considerably attenuated the duration of immobility induced by prazosin (62.5 µg kg(-1), i.p., an α-adrenoceptor antagonist) and eticlopride (0.1 µg kg(-1), i.p., a classical D2-like dopamine receptor antagonist) in both TST and FST, whereas the extract could not modify the immobility in mice treated with p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg kg(-1), i.p., ×3 days; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) and baclofen (10 mg kg(-1), i.p., buy minipress online GABAB agonist). This suggests that the antidepressant effect of CS is mediated by dopamine and noradrenaline.

minipress xl drug 2017-10-11

Mirabegron produced concentration-dependent urethral relaxations that were shifted to the right by the selective β3 -adrenoceptor antagonist L-748,337 but unaffected by β1 - and β2 -adrenoceptor antagonists (atenolol and ICI-118,551 respectively). Mirabegron-induced relaxations were enhanced by the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram, and the agonist stimulated cAMP synthesis. Mirabegron also produced rightward shifts in urethral contractions induced by the α1 -adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Schild regression analysis revealed that mirabegron behaves as a competitive antagonist of α1 -adrenoceptors in urethra, vas deferens and prostate (α1A -adrenoceptor, pA2  ≅ 5.6) and aorta (α1D -adrenoceptor, pA2  ≅ 5.4) but not in spleen (α1B -adrenoceptor). The affinities estimated for mirabegron in functional assays were consistent buy minipress online with those estimated in radioligand binding with human recombinant α1A - and α1D -adrenoceptors (pKi  ≅ 6.0).

minipress nightmares dosage 2016-09-04

8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and RU 24969 have been used to investigate whether 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors are involved in the naloxone-induced jumping behaviour of the chronically morphine-dependent mouse. To control for possible interactions with catecholaminergic systems, the effects of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists were investigated. 8-OH-DPAT and RU 24969, as well as buspirone, ipsapirone and flesinoxan, were found to suppress jumping. The effects were mimicked by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, idazoxan, WY 26392, yohimbine and rauwolscine. Inhibition of 5-HT synthesis with para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) had only minimal effects on withdrawal jumping per se; the attenuating effects of 8-OH-DPAT and RU 24969 were not altered in pCPA-pretreated animals. The effects of RU 24969 were blocked by (-)-pindolol and, stereoselectively, buy minipress online by (-)-SDZ 21-009. (-)-Pindolol neither influenced the action of 8-OH-DPAT nor showed any effect per se. The actions of 8-OH-DPAT and buspirone, but not of RU 24969 and idazoxan, were blocked by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, spiroperidol. Similarly, both haloperidol and prazosin prevented the attenuating action of 8-OH-DPAT but did not interfere with the action of RU 24969. We conclude that the actions of 8-OH-DPAT and RU 24969 are mediated by postsynaptic receptors. The 5-HT1B receptor appears to mediate the attenuating action of RU 24969; the exact mechanism of action of 8-OH-DPAT remains open but activation of an alpha 1-adrenoceptor is implicated.

minipress xl tablets 2016-08-23

Clozapine administration (25 mg/kg/day i.p., 21 days) significantly increased alpha(1)-adrenoceptor density in the frontal cortex (44%), remaining cortex (49%) and thalamus (93%) but binding levels in the hippocampus and spinal cord were unchanged relative to vehicle. Haloperidol treatment (1.5 mg/kg/day i.p., 21 days) also significantly increased the density of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor binding in the thalamus (73%), but had no effect on alpha(1)-adrenoceptor levels in any other region examined. alpha(1)-Adrenoceptor affinity in the cortex was buy minipress online not significantly altered by either antipsychotic treatment. Haloperidol, in contrast to clozapine, significantly upregulated dopamine D(2)-like binding in the striatum.

minipress generic name 2015-03-15

Forty-five patients diagnosed as having BPH and clinically diagnosed micturition disorders were entered in a therapeutic protocol. Twenty-five patients received buy minipress online Prazosin and the remaining 20 patients were treated with Serenoa Repens for a period of 12 weeks. The symptomatology was assessed by flowmetry and the patients were questioned as to the irritative symptoms. It can be concluded from the study that Prazosin is slightly more effective in controlling the irritative symptoms produced by BPH.

minipress user reviews 2017-02-04

A videoconference-based collaborative care program for bipolar disorder was implemented in the Department of Veterans Affairs. Program evaluation assessed experience with the first 400 participants, guided buy minipress online by five domains specified by the American Telemedicine Association: treatment engagement, including identification of subpopulations at risk for not being reached; participation in treatment; clinical impact; patient safety; and quality of care.

minipress drug information 2016-04-01

Tinospora crispa has been used in folkloric medicine for the control of blood pressure. We previously found that an extract of Tinospora crispa stems decreased the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) buy minipress online with a transient decrease, followed by an increase in the heart rate (HR) in rats.

minipress 2 mg 2017-04-02

In the prostatic portion of rat vas deferens, the non-selective adenosine receptor agonist NECA (0.1-30 microM), but not the A(2A) agonist CGS 21680 (0.001-10 microM), caused a facilitation of electrically evoked noradrenaline release (up to 43 +/- 4%), when inhibitory adenosine A(1) receptors were blocked. NECA-elicited facilitation of noradrenaline release was prevented by the A(2B) receptor-antagonist MRS 1754, enhanced by preventing cyclic-AMP degradation with rolipram, abolished by the protein kinase A inhibitors H-89, KT 5720 and cyclic-AMPS-Rp and attenuated by the protein kinase C inhibitors Ro 32-0432 and calphostin C. The adenosine uptake inhibitor NBTI also elicited a facilitation of noradrenaline release; an effect that was abolished by adenosine deaminase and attenuated by MRS 1754, by inhibitors of the extracellular nucleotide metabolism and by blockade of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors and P2X receptors with prazosin and NF023, respectively. It was concluded that adenosine A(2B) receptors are involved in a facilitation of noradrenaline release in the prostatic portion of rat vas deferens that can be activated by adenosine formed by extracellular catabolism of nucleotides. The receptors seem to be coupled to the adenylyl cyclase-protein kinase A pathway but activation of the protein kinase C by protein kinase A, may also contribute to Inderal 20 Mg the adenosine A(2B) receptor-mediated facilitation of noradrenaline release.

minipress ptsd dosage 2016-12-28

1. We carried out experiments in anesthetized rats to study the hemodynamic effects of intravenous injections of epinine. 2. Epinine (1-320 micrograms/kg) produced a biphasic effect on mean arterial blood pressure (n = 30). At doses lower than 40 micrograms/kg, arterial blood pressure decreased (by as much as 21.5 +/- 3.4%), though at higher doses it increased dose dependently (by as much as 73.2 +/- 14.5%). Epinine also produced bradicardia in a dose-dependent manner (by as much as 26.4 +/- 4.9%). Sulpiride (100 micrograms/kg) suppressed the hypotensive effect of epinine but did not change the hypertensive effect. In the presence of prazosin (1,000 micrograms/kg), arterial blood pressure remained significantly decreased at all doses of epinine. Neither sulpiride nor prazosin changed the bradycardic effect of epinine. 3. Prazosin produced a significant decrease in renal vascular resistance. Epinine (5 micrograms/kg) after prazosin reverted the effects of prazosin in renal vascular resistance, without any significant modification in the renal blood flows. However, 20 micrograms/kg epinine increased the renal vascular resistances and, moreover, produced a significant decrease in the blood flows of both kidneys. Neither prazosin nor epinine produced modifications in the intestinal vascular bed. 4. Although epinine possesses significant dopamine and alpha-adrenergic activities that are involved in the biphasic effect of the agent on mean arterial blood pressure in anesthetized rats, in the presence of prazosin, it is not possible to manifest dopaminergic activity involved in the increase Levitra Generic Cost in renal or mesenteric blood flow; this may be due to the low tone of the vascular wall induced by the alpha-adrenergic antagonist, though an alpha 2-activity cannot be discarded.

minipress pill 2015-12-26

Significant associations between initiation of CCBs, ACEIs, ARBs, and hypnotic-sedatives and subsequent initiation of oxybutynin were found. ASRs ranged from 1.28 (95% CI = 1.19-1.39) for ACEIs to 1.59 (95% CI = 1.29-1.96) for verapamil. In women, there was greater risk of initiation of oxybutynin after prazosin (ASR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.29-2.63) and HRT (ASR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.42-1.67) initiation. PSSA showed no significant association with initiation of opioids, anticonvulsants, levodopa, Periactin Syrup SSRIs, venlafaxine, or anticholinesterases and subsequent initiation of oxybutynin.

minipress medicine 2015-02-20

In the present study we showed that the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists phentolamine, yohimbine, prazosin, corynanthine and idazoxan, when cumulatively applied in high concentrations (1-100 mumol/l), can increase spontaneous myogenic activity in the rat portal vein. 5-Methyl-urapidil and rauwolscine were ineffective in this respect. Pretreatment with phenoxybenzamine in a concentration of 1 mumol/l (20 min), which results in alkylation of all functional alpha-adrenoceptors in the rat portal vein, was unable to antagonize the increase in spontaneous myogenic activity elicited by phentolamine. Antazoline (1-100 mumol/l), a H1 antagonist and 2-substituted imidazoline which is devoid of alpha-adrenoceptor blocking properties, exhibited similar effects on spontaneous myogenic activity as its structurally closely related analogue phentolamine. Since phentolamine is reported to interact with ATP-sensitive K+ channels we investigated the role of K+ channels in more detail. The K+ channel openers cromakalim and diazoxide elicited a decrease in spontaneous myogenic activity. Glibenclamide (0.3-3 mumol/l), a selective blocker of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in cardiac and pancreatic tissues, and phentolamine (1-10 Coreg 40 Mg mumol/l) shifted the concentration-response curves of cromakalim and diazoxide concentration dependently to the right. Yohimbine showed only a modest effect in the highest concentration (100 mumol/l) applied. E-4031 (0.01-0.3 mumol/l), a sotalol derivative and one of the most selective blockers of the delayed rectifier current (Ik) in cardiac tissue, was a potent contractile agent when added to the rat portal vein in the same way as the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

minipress overdose death 2016-01-07

A series of new arylpiperazine derivatives 2, which are devoid of the terminal amide fragment present in related 5-HT1A ligands, was prepared and evaluated for affinity at 5-HT1A and alpha 1 receptors. All the compounds 2 demonstrated high affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor and moderate affinity for alpha 1 receptor binding sites. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies suggest that there is influence of electronic Reglan Renal Dosing factors on the no-pharmacophoric part of the alpha 1 receptor site. However there is no influence of electronic interactions on the stabilization of the 5-HT1A receptor-ligand complex.

minipress xl dose 2016-12-12

In Langendorff-perfused adult rat heart with constant pressure at 80 mmHg, we found doxazosin, an alpha(1) adrenoceptor blocker, at 10 muM prolonged PR interval and induced occasional arrhythmia followed by complete inhibition of the sinus rhythm, whereas bunazosin, another alpha(1)-blocker, at same concentration did not. The results of voltage-clamp study showed that, at the concentration of 10 muM, doxazosin inhibited I (Na), I ( (Ca,L) ), I (to), and Iss without changing I (k1) but bunazosin only inhibited I ( (Ca,L) ) about 30%. Doxazosin also caused markedly negative shift of the I (Na) inactivation curve. In current-clamp study, doxazosin prolonged action potential duration in association with the decreased action potential amplitude and upstroke velocity, whereas bunazosin did not. We hypothesize that doxazosin-induced arrhythmia may result from the heterogeneous or different Lipitor 300 Mg level of I ( (Ca,L) ) blockade of AV nodal tissue. In conclusion, the present study suggests that bunazosin is safer than doxazosin for long-term treatment in view of electrophysiological effect. However, the underlying mechanism of doxazosin induced nodal arrhythmia is still needed to be determined.

minipress tab 2016-03-25

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the increased contractile responsiveness of aortae from male rats with 12-14 week streptozotocin-induced diabetes to noradrenaline is associated with alterations in phosphoinositide metabolism. The contractile response to noradrenaline (10 microM) in both the presence and absence of extracellular calcium was significantly enhanced in aortae from diabetic rats. No significant differences were found between control and diabetic arteries in the basal incorporation of 32P and [3H]myo-inositol into phosphoinositides, or in the basal accumulation of [32P]phosphatidic acid and [3H]inositol phosphates. However, noradrenaline (10 microM) caused significantly greater breakdown of [32P]phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and formation of [32P]phosphatidic acid and [3H]inositol phosphates in diabetic aortae than in control preparations. The production of [3H]inositol phosphates induced by noradrenaline was selectively reduced by the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin, in both control and diabetic tissues. These results indicate that phosphoinositide metabolism in response to noradrenaline via stimulation of alpha 1-adrenoceptors is enhanced in aortae from chronic streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The increase Depakote Overdose Amount in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and 1,2-diacylglycerol production that presumably results could be responsible, at least in part, for the enhanced contractile response of aortae from diabetic rats to noradrenaline.

minipress xl dosage 2016-06-06

Acute alcohol intoxication results in impaired hemodynamic counterregulation to blood loss and is associated with an attenuated hemorrhage-induced release of catecholamines and AVP. We speculated that restoration of the neuroendocrine response to hemorrhage would improve mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) recovery during acute alcohol intoxication. Previously, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) choline, a precursor of acetylcholine, transiently increases sympathetic nervous system (SNS) outflow but is not capable of improving neuroendocrine and hemodynamic compensation to hemorrhage in alcohol-treated rats. We hypothesized that prolongation of the observed effect via i.c.v. neostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, would enhance SNS outflow, restore the neuroendocrine response, and in turn improve hemodynamic responses to hemorrhage during acute alcohol intoxication. I.c.v. neostigmine (1 microg) increased MABP, catecholamines, and AVP within 5 min and reversed hypotension due to 40% hemorrhage and intragastric alcohol (30% wt/vol, 2.5 g/kg) administration in chronically catheterized male Sprague-Dawley rats (225-250 g body wt). Acute alcohol intoxication before 50% hemorrhage decreased basal MABP, accentuated hypotension midhemorrhage, suppressed the hemorrhage-induced release of norepinephrine and AVP, and prevented restoration of MABP to basal levels Calan 5 Mg after fluid resuscitation with lactated Ringer solution. I.c.v. neostigmine (0.5 microg) produced a sustained increase in MABP beginning at 30 min of hemorrhage that persisted throughout fluid resuscitation in control and alcohol-treated animals. I.c.v. neostigmine enhanced epinephrine responses and restored the hemorrhage-induced release of norepinephrine and AVP in alcohol-treated rats. These results demonstrate that inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in the central nervous system enhances SNS outflow, restores the neuroendocrine response to severe blood loss, and thereby improves hemodynamic counterregulation during acute alcohol intoxication. This study provides evidence for a central (and not peripheral) role of alcohol in impairing hemodynamic stability during hemorrhagic shock.

minipress drug class 2016-10-30

The study comprised samples of human prostate and prostatic urethra, obtained by open prostatectomy of patients with Requip Drug benign prostatic hyperplasia, and of the proximal urethra and prostate from male Beagle dogs and rabbits. Specimens were homogenized, filtered and pelleted by centrifugation. Nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of 1 mmol/L prazosin when assessing [3H]YM-617 (tamsulosin) binding, and 10 mmol/L phentolamine when assessing [3H]prazosin binding. Specific binding was defined as the difference between total binding and nonspecific binding.

minipress medication information 2017-12-24

Most alpha-receptor blocking drugs require divided daily administration because of a short plasma half-life. This multicenter study examined the effectiveness and safety of once-daily administration with doxazosin, a quinazoline analog alpha 1-receptor blocking drug with a plasma half-life of 19 hours. Patients with diastolic blood pressure (BP) of 90 to 115 mm Hg entered 4 weeks of single-blind placebo therapy and then were randomized to Aggrenox Capsule double-blind treatment with doxazosin (63 patients) or placebo (67 patients). After 10 weeks of titration, standing arterial BP was lowered by 14/11 mm Hg with doxazosin and by 0.5/0.9 mm Hg with placebo (p less than 0.001). Measured hourly for 12 hours after the dose, all standing and supine arterial BP values were significantly lower in the doxazosin group at each hour. Pulse rate increased slightly in both groups int he double-blind phase, but the increase with doxazosin never significantly exceeded that of placebo. Dizziness was the most common complaint with doxazosin, but syncope did not occur. Side effects were mild and transient and did not necessitate withdrawing any participants from the study. Body weight increased by 1.5 kg in the doxazosin group and decreased by 0.2 kg in the placebo group (p less than 0.01). Safe and effective in once-daily administration, doxazosin is suitable for initial therapy in mild and moderate hypertension.

minipress and alcohol 2015-08-12

Hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) has been permanently abolished by aggressive treatment regimens targeted against the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal medulla, initiated during the pre-weaning period (guanethidine and nerve growth factor antiserum combined with either adrenal demedullation or prazosin treatment). To investigate the components of the sympatho-adrenal system involved, we treated pre-weaning SHR with the combined alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonist carvedilol (60 mg/kg/day s.c.; postnatal days 1-21). Carvedilol treatment significantly blocked adrenoceptors during the treatment period, delayed development (eye opening), reduced growth, and reduced arterial pressure and heart rate. However, there was only modest attenuation of the subsequent development of hypertension at 10 weeks of age (mean arterial pressure 129.5+/-1.8 versus 136.1+/-1.6 mm Hg in vehicle-treated littermates; P<0.05). Thus pre-weaning carvedilol treatment slightly but significantly attenuated the development of SHR hypertension at 10 weeks, suggesting that the profound antihypertensive effects of pre-weaning sympatho-adrenal ablation are attributable to factors other than alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoceptor-mediated effects of catecholamines during this period.

tab minipress dosage 2016-08-06

A group of 55 black men with mild or moderate hypertension who were being treated with methyldopa, prazosin, and a thiazide diuretic in combination with sotalol, were studied before and after changing their treatment to captopril and a thiazide diuretic. The level of blood pressure control was similar in the 11 men with mild hypertension but the 44 men with moderate hypertension were less well controlled with captopril and a thiazide diuretic. In the men with moderate hypertension the mean increase in the systolic blood pressure after the change in treatment was 4.7 mmHg (not significant) and in the diastolic pressure 6.2 mmHg (P less than 0.02). The mean blood pressure was higher during treatment with captopril in 37 men and lower in 18 men (P = 0.01). Thirty-seven men found both regimens acceptable and 33 of these men preferred the captopril regimen; however, 15 men said they did not like the captopril regimen while only 4 men did not like the methyldopa/prazosin regimen (P less than 0.01). Side-effects from the captopril regimen were reported by 18 of the men and from the methyldopa/prazosin regimen by 6 men (P less than 0.02). It was concluded that the captopril/thiazide regimen was less effective than the methyldopa/prazosin/sotalol/thiazide regimen for the control of moderate hypertension in this population of black men. Although the men who liked both regimens preferred the captopril regimen, that regimen was associated with significantly more side-effects and was disliked by more of the men than was the methyldopa/prazosin regimen.

minipress overdose symptoms 2016-04-15

Experiments were performed to assess the effects of acute moderate cooling on postjunctional alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors in isolated rings of tail arteries from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rings were contracted with norepinephrine (NE; 10(-9) to 10(-4) M) alone or in the presence of prazosin (Pz; 3 x 10(-7) M) or rauwolscine (Rw; 10(-7) M). NE concentration-response curves were inhibited by alpha 1-blockade (Pz) but not significantly affected by alpha 2-blockade (Rw). In all rings, cooling caused an increase in the slope of the dose-response curve and a significant increase in the concentration of agonist required to evoke contractions, as assessed by that concentration of NE required to evoke a contraction equal to 10% of maximal (EC10). Cooling inhibited contractions evoked by the selective alpha 1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PE) as assessed by EC10 but had no significant effect on the weak contractions elicited by the selective alpha 2-adrenergic agonist B-HT 920. Prior elevation of tone with either KCl or prostaglandin F2 alpha enhanced alpha 2-mediated contractions. These contractions were augmented by cooling, whereas those caused by either KCl or prostaglandin F2 alpha alone were not significantly affected. Our results suggest that alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated responses in this blood vessel are dependent on the level of preexisting tone and are potentiated by cooling.