Moduretic is used for treating fluid retention (edema) and high blood pressure. It may be used alone or with other medicines.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Amiloride hydrochlorothiazide.
Moduretic is a diuretic (water pill) and a combination of a potassium-sparing diuretic (amiloride) and a thiazide diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide). It works by making the kidneys eliminate sodium (salt) and water from the body, which helps to lower blood pressure. The amiloride component helps minimize potassium loss.
Brand name of Moduretic is Moduretic.
Take Moduretic by mouth with food.
Moduretic may increase the amount of urine or cause you to urinate more often when you first start taking it. To keep this from disturbing your sleep, try to take your dose before 6 pm.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Moduretic suddenly.
If you overdose Moduretic and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Do not freeze. Keep container closed tightly. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Moduretic are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Moduretic if you are allergic to Moduretic components or to any ingredient in Moduretic or any other sulfonamide (eg, sulfamethoxazole).
Be careful with Moduretic if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.
Be careful with Moduretic if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.
Be careful with Moduretic if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.
Be careful with Moduretic if you have cirrhosis or liver problems, diabetes, gout, kidney problems or kidney stones, asthma, heart problems, or systemic lupus erythematosus.
Be careful with Moduretic if you have elevated blood acid, low folic acid levels, or electrolyte problems, or are dehydrated.
Be careful with Moduretic if you take potassium-sparing diuretics (eg, spironolactone), potassium supplements, or salt substitutes containing potassium because high blood potassium levels may occur and cause listlessness, confusion, abnormal skin sensations of the arms and legs, heaviness of limbs, slowed heart rate, irregular heart rhythm, or stopping of the heart; cholestyramine or colestipol because they may decrease Moduretic 's effectiveness; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, indomethacin) because they may decrease Moduretic 's effectiveness and risk of kidney problems may be increased; barbiturates (eg, phenobarbital), certain chemotherapy medicines, corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), digoxin, dofetilide, ketanserin, narcotic pain medicines (eg, codeine), or medicines for high blood pressure because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Moduretic; diazoxide, lithium, or nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers (eg, pancuronium) because their actions and the risk of their side effects may be increased by Moduretic; angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, enalapril) because the risk of high blood potassium and kidney problems may be increased by Moduretic; diabetes medicines (eg, glipizide) or insulin because their effectiveness may be decreased by Moduretic.
Do not stop taking Moduretic suddenly.
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Medical treatment of the disease improved the dilation in all cases, preventing its potential complications. Regardless of the good outcome of our patients, periodic urologic follow-up is recommended in NDI patients.
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No adverse effect upon cognitive function has been detected during the first 9 months of treatment by a thiazide diuretic (Moduretic; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Hoddesdon, UK) or a beta-blocking agent (atenolol) of moderately elevated blood pressure in a cohort of 2630 men and women aged between 65 and 74 years. Furthermore, no association was discovered between levels of systolic or diastolic blood pressure at outset and responses to standard tests of cognitive function. This study was carried out in general practices as part of the current Medical Research Council Treatment Trial of Mild Hypertension in the Elderly.
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Three patients with impaired renal function suffered complications of hyperkalaemia within 10 days of beginning therapy with hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride combination (Moduretic). The possible relationship between hyperkalaemia and this diuretic is discussed.
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In a randomized double-blind study to compare the effect of atenolol vs. hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride (Moduretic) on left ventricular dimensions and systolic function, 100 hypertensive men were followed up during 1 year of treatment, 50 subjects being randomized to each drug. Echocardiography was performed at baseline, and after 3 and 12 months of treatment. A significant reduction in left ventricular mass with atenolol was paralleled by a decrease in left ventricular wall thickness and an increase in stroke volume. A similar reduction of left ventricular mass with Moduretic without a change in relative wall thickness and a decrease in stroke volume was observed. Cardiac output decreased in both groups.
To estimate the frequency of diuretic-related electrolyte disorders in the elderly, 561 consecutive admissions to three acute geriatric units were studied. For the 287 admissions to one unit, discharge/death diagnoses were also examined in relation to admission diuretic therapy. Sodium concentrations were significantly lower, and urea and creatinine significantly higher, in patients on diuretics, though the size of the differences was small. Comparing different preparations sodium concentrations were significantly lower on Moduretic than on Dyazide or Navidrex K and on frusemide when combined with a potassium-retaining diuretic rather than a potassium supplement. Potassium concentrations were significantly lower on Bendrofluazide alone compared to Navidrex K or Moduretic. Diuretics were positively associated with cardiac failure, ischaemic heart disease, airflow obstruction and obstructive large bowel disorders but negatively with Parkinson's disease. No significant association was found with falls, immobility or confusion. Major electrolyte disorders on diuretics appear to be unusual but important differences exist between preparations. Similarly major illness resulting from diuretic therapy is rare but minor morbidity may be more common.
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Moduretic has been reported to inhibit the suppression of plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels by the alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine. To determine whether plasma volume reduction by hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or antagonism of Na+/H+ exchange by amiloride (the constituents of Moduretic) is responsible, the authors performed a modified clonidine suppression test (CST) in nine normal volunteers (aged 25 +/- 2 years), pretreated for 1 week with HCTZ 50 mg daily, amiloride 10 mg daily, or placebo, in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Baseline characteristics were identical on all study days, except serum [K+] and weight, which were lowest on HCTZ (3.6 +/- 0.2 mEq/L and 78.7 +/- 2.5 kg), compared with amiloride (4.2 +/- 0.1 mEq/L and 79.9 +/- 2.4 kg) and placebo (4.0 +/- 0.1 mEq/L and 80.2 +/- 2.7 kg, P less than .05). Oral clonidine (0.3 mg) produced a reduction in mean blood pressure by about 20%. Plasma norepinephrine levels were similar in patients receiving placebo, HCTZ, and amiloride (205 +/- 18, 272 +/- 40 and 277 +/- 44 pg/mL, P greater than .20), and decreased significantly during CST. The maximal reduction for each subject averaged 72.7 +/- 12.4%, 87.9 +/- 3.8%, and 82.9 +/- 5.7% for placebo, HCTZ, and amiloride. Clonidine also produced a four to seven-fold increase in plasma growth hormone levels, reduced salivary flow by about 75%, and increased the level of sedation. There were no differences among the three pretreatment regimens in the effects of clonidine, indicating that diuretic therapy does not need to be systematically discontinued in patients undergoing CST.
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The clinical pharmacology of the diuretic amyloride was studied in 60 patients suffering from circulatory insufficiency of various origin. Midamor and moduretic of the "Merck" firm (USA) were used in a dose of 1 to 4 tablets. The duration of treatment was from 3 days to 18 months. It was found that under the effect of amyloride natriuresis increases moderately in patients with circulatory insufficiency with no simultaneous increase in the loss of potassium with the urine. As the circulatory insufficiency becomes more severe, the natriuretic and potassium-saving effect of the drug diminishes. Amyloride potentiates the diuretic and natriuretic effect of furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide well without increasing kaliuresis. In patients in whom the disease is less severe, two-week treatment with amyloride leads to an authentic increase in the total metabolic potassium in the organism. The patients tolerate the drug well. It is recommended for wide clinical use.
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We here showed that F may be administered to a patient with previous AmHTZ induced hyponatremia without risk for recurrent hyponatremia.
Therapy resistance is an enduring problem in clinical hypertension. Our aims were to estimate: (1) the contribution of a low-renin status in therapy resistance; (2) whether such status could give a clue to more successful treatment; and (3) the contribution by adrenal cortical adenomas and by primary aldosteronism.
This study tested the effects on cardiovascular outcomes of treatments based on nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) compared with the diuretic combination co-amilozide in a pre-specified subset of patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) enrolled in the International Nifedipine GITS Study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT) study.
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A double-blind study was carried out in 24 hypertensive patients with thiazide-induced hypokalaemia (serum potassium less than 3.2 mmol/l) to compare the effects of treatment with an amiloride/hydrochlorothiazide combination or hydrochlorothiazide alone. The study was divided into three phases: (i) potassium repletion (Weeks 0 to 4) with oral potassium chloride (40 mmol/day), (ii) stabilization (Weeks 4 to 6) of normokalaemia, and (iii) active drug treatment (Weeks 6 to 14), patients being allocated at random to receive one or other of the two treatments. Dosage was 2 tablets per day of the 5 mg amiloride plus 50 mg hydrochlorothiazide combination or of 50 mg hydrochlorothiazide alone. The results showed that blood pressure control was comparable in both treatment groups but hydrochlorothiazide alone caused a statistically significant reduction in serum potassium levels compared to the drug combination. Apart from 1 patient who developed hypokalaemia on hydrochlorothiazide alone, no other side-effects of treatment were reported.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by the kidney's inability to concentrate urine, which causes intense polyuria that may lead to urinary tract dilation. We report the morphological findings of the urinary tract in ten boys with NDI specifically addressing the presence and changes of urinary tract dilation during treatment.
Impaired salivary gland function can be a major cause of late morbidity following the treatment of head and neck cancer with radiotherapy. A large number of commonly prescribed medications can also reduce salivary gland function. We report three patients with already impaired salivary gland function following successful radiotherapy in whom additional prescribed medication led to an increased reduction in salivary flow, thus further impairing the quality of life of these patients. Stopping the medication resulted in subjective and objective improvement in salivary gland function.
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A 47 year old Nigerian male presented with headache, occasional blurring of vision and dyspnoea on mild exertion of 2/12 duration. He had been troubled by painful osteoarthritis of the knees for 2 years for which he was taking NSAIDs. He was found to be severely hypertensive, BP 210/130mmHg and had bilateral knee crepitus. BP was resistant to control on Nifedipine R and Moduretic. Serum urea, creatinine, uric acid were normal but there was hyperacalcaemia and hyperchloraemia. Haematological indices, urinalysis, microscopy and culture of urine were normal. Parathyroid hormone level was raised. A parathyroid MIBI scan study showed an extensive area of significance towards the inferior pole of the right lobe of thyroid medially with a second area of very low significance medial to the left pole. These findings indicated the presence of a right inferior parathyroid adenoma. He had parathyroid surgery and a large adenoma in the right inferior gland and a smaller left inferior gland were removed and confirmed histologically. Corrected calcium and parathyroid hormone levels dropped to normal, and the BP was easily controlled with Lisinopril 5mg daily subsequently. He is not currently on antihypertensive medication two years post surgery.
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We report a case of lithium overdose in a patient who presented in non-convulsive status epilepticus. The lithium toxicity was probably due to interaction with Moduretic. The diagnosis was not suspected until electroencephalography was performed. This case underscores the importance of therapeutic drug level monitoring of lithium, especially where toxicity is suspected, and the indispensable role electroencephalography plays by allowing a correct diagnosis to be made promptly.
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The Authors have studied the effects of fenquizone compared to those of hydrochlorothiazyde-amyloride therapy. They have found a good activity in hypertension and a powerful diuretic action, besides fenquizone has no remarkable side-effect.
A method has been developed for the separation of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride by high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method on a C18 column with detection at 280 nm. The optimal conditions of separation were determined with the aid of 'window diagram' technique of Laub and Purnell. The effect of simultaneously varying the pH, proportion aqueous acetic acid and methanol in the mobile phase were studied to optimize the separation. A response surface diagram was used to optimize the experimental conditions for the separation. The mobile phase composition that provides an acceptable resolution hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride in a short elution time is water:methanol (60:40) and pH 3.2 (pH adjusted to 3.2 with CH3COOH). A method is applied for the quantitative analysis of Moduretic tablets (Merck Sharp & Dokme International). The powdered tablets are extracted with methanol, containing caffeine as the internal standard, and assayed by comparison of peak areas after liquid chromatography.
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A cross-over study was done to compare the effects of doxazosin, moduretic and amlodipine on biochemical values in 9 hypertensive Nigerians aged 35 to 65 years. Doxazosin therapy was characterized by significant increase in the levels of mean plasma total protein and albumin, while moduretic therapy showed significant reduction in the mean values of plasma creatinine and calcium. All other parameters did not show any significant variation during doxazosin and moduretic treatment phases; and amlodipine therapy did not have any effect on the biochemical values of the hypertensive patients.
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Patients were referred from general and internal medicine practices following written invitations and included consecutively. Participants were examined and followed-up on an outpatient basis.
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Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) progression was compared between 4 years of treatment with nifedipine and diuretic.
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Physicians' prescribing of anti-hypertensive drug combinations in a tertiary care setting in southwestern Nigeria is considerable. However, this practice does not appear to have positively impacted on blood pressure control among hypertensive patients nor being modulated by an Institutionalised standard guide.
Hypertensive patients who are at high risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) complications have become the focus of modern treatment guidelines. The choice of antihypertensive therapies in these patients should be evidence-based: in particular, there should be evidence of a beneficial impact on CV events in addition to blood pressure-lowering effects. The International Nifedipine GITS study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT) is the first, large, randomized, double-blind study undertaken exclusively in high-risk hypertensive patients, with CV events as a prospectively defined primary end-point. The choice of a diuretic (co-amilozide) as a comparator reflects the fact that this group of antihypertensive drugs has been shown to reduce CV events in high-risk hypertensive patients. Nifedipine, administered in a long-acting gastrointestinal-transport-system (GITS) formulation, and co amilozide were equally effective in preventing overall CV or cerebrovascular complications. This finding extended to the subgroup of patients with diabetes at baseline. Substudies to INSIGHT showed that, compared with coamilozide, nifedipine GITS was significantly more effective at preventing an increase in intima-media thickness in the carotid artery and significantly slowed the progression of coronary calcification. The results from INSIGHT support incorporating nifedipine GITS in the management of high-risk hypertensive patients to prevent atherosclerosis-related illness and death.
Three cases are presented which emphasize the importance of hyponatraemia as a cause of grand mal seizures. The combination of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride appears to increase the risk of hyponatraemia. We discuss the aetiology and treatment of hyponatraemia and review the necessity for such combination therapy. We recommend caution in prescribing diuretics and preparations such as Moduretic should be used only in those few patients shown to need potassium supplementation.
The efficacy of antihypertensive drugs newer than diuretics and beta-blockers has not been established. We compared the effects of the calcium-channel blocker nifedipine once daily with the diuretic combination co-amilozide on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in high-risk patients with hypertension.
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In order to determine how both diuretics affect water metabolism, we here compare the effects of a rechallenge with either amiloride-hydrochlorothiazide fixed association (AmHTZ; amiloride chlorhydrate 5 mg+hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg; Moduretic) or furosemide (F; 40 mg; Lasix) on water excretion in a 79 year old woman who was previously admitted for severe symptomatic hyponatremia secondary to a 5 days course of AmHTZ for systolic hypertension. After correction of initial hydromineral disturbances, a standard oral water load (WL; 20 mL per kg body weight) was administered before, during and after AmHTZ or F challenges.
Thirty-seven patients (19 Blacks and 18 Indians) suffering from mild hypertension were given each of five diuretics separately for 4 weeks after a 'washout' period on placebo of the same duration. The diuretics used were hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg/d (Dichlotride; Frosst MSD), hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg plus triamterene 50 mg (Dyazide; SKF) 1 tablet per day, amiloride hydrochloride 5 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg (Moduretic; MSD) 1 tablet per day, chlorthalidone (Hygroton; Geigy) 50 mg/d and indapamide (Natrilix; Servier) 2.5 mg/d. The study showed that during the acute phase of diuretic therapy for the treatment of hypertension plasma potassium levels were decreased by thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics and increased by potassium-sparing diuretics. However, despite the decrease in plasma potassium levels produced by thiazide diuretics and indapamide these levels did not fall to 3.0 mmol/l or less. All the diuretics were effective in lowering the standing mean arterial pressure when compared with placebo values. In the absence of significant hypokalaemia, the choice of a diuretic for the Black hypertensive patient should therefore be determined by its cost.
This study investigated the effects of aerobic dance combined with antihypertensive drugs on BP and number of antihypertensive drugs in individuals with hypertension.
Prevalence of low-renin status in therapy resistance. Blood pressure and hormonal responses to specific treatment. Numbers of adrenocortical adenomas and primary aldosteronism.
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In 90 treatment-resistant hypertensive, 67% had plasma renin activity (PRA) below 0.5 nmol/l per hour. Of the 60 low-renin patients, 38 were studied on a fixed combination of amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide. Three weeks' treatment reduced blood pressure by 31/15 mmHg compared to placebo (P < or = 0.0001). Serum aldosterone and plasma renin activity increased substantially during active treatment. Through the subsequent 6-12 months of open treatment, seven patients (18%) showing an escape phenomenon had their high blood pressure effectively treated by extra amiloride. Of the 60 low-renin patients, eight had adrenal adenoma.
We report the history of a diabetic man presenting with hyperkalaemia and rapidly progressing muscular paralysis with severe respiratory embarrassment. His symptoms resolved rapidly with reduction of the serum potassium concentration. Similar cases have been reported previously but this is a problem that few will have encountered and is a diagnosis which should not be overlooked before artificial ventilation is commenced.
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Elderly women are at risk to develop severe hyponatremia after thiazide but not loop diuretic administration. In patients with previous thiazide-induced hyponatremia, the risk for recurrent hyponatremia after furosemide has not been established.
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A study was carried out of plasma electrolyte estimations made before and after long-term use of a combination of amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide in 23 patients. The mean duration of use was 20.3 months. No significant differences were found in plasma potassium, sodium, bicarbonate or urea from baseline levels.
Of 13,542 patients randomized, 13,080 (96.6%) completed the study: 6529 in Group A and 6551 in Group T. At endpoint, the BP levels were reduced by 27.4/14.3 mmHg in Group A and 27.1/14.5 mmHg in Group T. The BP control rates were similar for the two therapeutic regimens (87.5% vs 86.1%). Less than 4% of patients in each group discontinued their drugs during follow-up. Peripheral edema was one of the most common AEs, and occurred in only 24 patients in Group A and 19 in Group T.
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In a multicenter open-label clinical trial, eligible patients were randomized to receive treatment with amlodipine 2.5-5 mg plus amiloride/hydrochlorothiazide 1.25-2.5 mg/12.5-25 mg (Group A) or amlodipine 2.5-5 mg plus telmisartan 40-80 mg (Group T). If a target BP was not reached, other antihypertensive agents would be added. The target BP was <130/80 mmHg for patients with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease and <140/90 mmHg for others. Efficacy variables were changes from baseline in systolic BP and diastolic BP at the endpoint of 96 weeks. Safety evaluations included monitoring of any adverse events (AEs).
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Twenty hypertensive outpatients WHO stage I or II, with supine diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mmHg at the end of a 4-week treatment period with atenolol (Tenormin) 100 mg daily, continued atenolol in free association with half a tablet of Moduretic (i.e., hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg + amiloride 2.5 mg) for a further 4 weeks. Atenolol monotherapy induced a drop of systolic blood pressure from 175.0 +/- 11 (mean +/- s.d.) mmHg to 158.7 +/- 6 mmHg (p less than 0.01), and of diastolic blood pressure from 113.5 +/- 8 mmHg to 102.7 +/- 5 mmHg (p less than 0.01). After 4 weeks with atenolol in association with half a tablet of Moduretic, systolic blood pressure further decreased to 145.7 +/- 8 mmHg (p less than 0.01), and diastolic blood pressure to 90.2 +/- 10 mmHg (p less than 0.01). Seven out of 20 patients remained with diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mmHg despite the above combination therapy. In these patients, the doubling of diuretic dose (hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg + amiloride 5 mg) in combination with atenolol resulted in a further drop in systolic pressure (to 142.1 +/- 9 mmHg) and diastolic (to 92.1 +/- 6 mmHg) (both p less than 0.01). Plasma potassium concentration showed a slight and non-significant increase during atenolol monotherapy (from 4.4 +/- 0.5 mEq/l to 4.6 +/- 0.7 mEq/l; n.s.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Old people are commonly receiving diuretics on admission to hospital. Diuretics are recognized as a risk factor for electrolyte disturbances; controversy exists about the relative risks of different combinations (in particular, co-amilozide [Moduretic]). We recorded the drug history and serum electrolytes in 1000 consecutive admissions to a geriatric hospital, and examined the relative prescribing rates of various diuretics in the community. Full results were obtained in 929 patients. A history of diuretic prescription was present in 353 (38%) of the patients; the mean serum sodium in this group (95% CI 136.0-137.1 mmol/l) was lower than in the 586 not prescribed diuretics (137.1-137.9 mmol/l). The difference was small but statistically significant (95% CI difference = 0.3-1.6 mmol/l; P less than 0.01). Hyponatraemia (serum sodium less than 130 mmol/l) was not significantly commoner in the 41 patients prescribed co-amilozide than in patients prescribed other diuretics. In general patients prescribed potassium-retaining diuretics had a lower serum sodium than the others. There was a significant positive correlation between the serum potassium and the log [serum urea] (r = 0.26, P less than 0.001) and a weak negative correlation existed between sodium and potassium (r = -0.14; P less than 0.001). There was an association between the prescription of potassium-retaining diuretics and a higher serum potassium; also an association between the prescription of a loop or thiazide diuretic and a lower serum potassium. These interactions were shown by multiple regression analysis to be independent and additive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
A randomized double-blind, crossover trial was carried out in twenty hypertensive patients to evaluate the hypotensive efficacy and safety of indapamide. Indapamide in doses of 2.5 mg per day in combination with other antihypertensive agents was as effective in reducing the blood pressure in hypertensive patients as one tablet of Moduretic (50 mg hydrochlorothiazide and 5 mg amiloride). Indapamide induced no changes in serum potassium or uric acid levels and there were no major side effects.
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Of 6321 randomized patients, 1498 (23.7%) had ISH with a baseline mean BP of 173/88 mmHg in both treatment groups. Mean BP fell by 29/10 mmHg in the nifedipine and 30/10 mmHg in the diuretic group to a mean BP of 144/78 mmHg and 143/79 mmHg, respectively, at endpoint. The percentage of primary outcomes in patients with ISH was not significantly different between the two treatment groups (nifedipine GITS 6.0%, co-amilozide 6.6%). The number of ISH patients with composite secondary outcomes was 90 (12.2%) in the nifedipine GITS group and 110 (14.5%) in the co-amilozide group (not significant). The incidence rates of primary and secondary outcomes were similar in patients without ISH.
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