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Moduretic (Amiloride hydrochlorothiazide)
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Moduretic

Moduretic is used for treating fluid retention (edema) and high blood pressure. It may be used alone or with other medicines.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Lasix, Norvasc, Toprol, Hyzaar, Cozaar, Frumil, Diovan

 

Also known as:  Amiloride hydrochlorothiazide.

Description

Moduretic is a diuretic (water pill) and a combination of a potassium-sparing diuretic (amiloride) and a thiazide diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide). It works by making the kidneys eliminate sodium (salt) and water from the body, which helps to lower blood pressure. The amiloride component helps minimize potassium loss.

Brand name of Moduretic is Moduretic.

Dosage

Take Moduretic by mouth with food.

Moduretic may increase the amount of urine or cause you to urinate more often when you first start taking it. To keep this from disturbing your sleep, try to take your dose before 6 pm.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Moduretic suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Moduretic and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Do not freeze. Keep container closed tightly. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Moduretic are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Moduretic if you are allergic to Moduretic components or to any ingredient in Moduretic or any other sulfonamide (eg, sulfamethoxazole).

Be careful with Moduretic if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Moduretic if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Moduretic if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be careful with Moduretic if you have cirrhosis or liver problems, diabetes, gout, kidney problems or kidney stones, asthma, heart problems, or systemic lupus erythematosus.

Be careful with Moduretic if you have elevated blood acid, low folic acid levels, or electrolyte problems, or are dehydrated.

Be careful with Moduretic if you take potassium-sparing diuretics (eg, spironolactone), potassium supplements, or salt substitutes containing potassium because high blood potassium levels may occur and cause listlessness, confusion, abnormal skin sensations of the arms and legs, heaviness of limbs, slowed heart rate, irregular heart rhythm, or stopping of the heart; cholestyramine or colestipol because they may decrease Moduretic 's effectiveness; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, indomethacin) because they may decrease Moduretic 's effectiveness and risk of kidney problems may be increased; barbiturates (eg, phenobarbital), certain chemotherapy medicines, corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), digoxin, dofetilide, ketanserin, narcotic pain medicines (eg, codeine), or medicines for high blood pressure because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Moduretic; diazoxide, lithium, or nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers (eg, pancuronium) because their actions and the risk of their side effects may be increased by Moduretic; angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, enalapril) because the risk of high blood potassium and kidney problems may be increased by Moduretic; diabetes medicines (eg, glipizide) or insulin because their effectiveness may be decreased by Moduretic.

Do not stop taking Moduretic suddenly.

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Medical treatment of the disease improved the dilation in all cases, preventing its potential complications. Regardless of the good outcome of our patients, periodic urologic follow-up is recommended in NDI patients.

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No adverse effect upon cognitive function has been detected during the first 9 months of treatment by a thiazide diuretic (Moduretic; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Hoddesdon, UK) or a beta-blocking agent (atenolol) of moderately elevated blood pressure in a cohort of 2630 men and women aged between 65 and 74 years. Furthermore, no association was discovered between levels of systolic or diastolic blood pressure at outset and responses to standard tests of cognitive function. This study was carried out in general practices as part of the current Medical Research Council Treatment Trial of Mild Hypertension in the Elderly.

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Three patients with impaired renal function suffered complications of hyperkalaemia within 10 days of beginning therapy with hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride combination (Moduretic). The possible relationship between hyperkalaemia and this diuretic is discussed.

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In a randomized double-blind study to compare the effect of atenolol vs. hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride (Moduretic) on left ventricular dimensions and systolic function, 100 hypertensive men were followed up during 1 year of treatment, 50 subjects being randomized to each drug. Echocardiography was performed at baseline, and after 3 and 12 months of treatment. A significant reduction in left ventricular mass with atenolol was paralleled by a decrease in left ventricular wall thickness and an increase in stroke volume. A similar reduction of left ventricular mass with Moduretic without a change in relative wall thickness and a decrease in stroke volume was observed. Cardiac output decreased in both groups.

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To estimate the frequency of diuretic-related electrolyte disorders in the elderly, 561 consecutive admissions to three acute geriatric units were studied. For the 287 admissions to one unit, discharge/death diagnoses were also examined in relation to admission diuretic therapy. Sodium concentrations were significantly lower, and urea and creatinine significantly higher, in patients on diuretics, though the size of the differences was small. Comparing different preparations sodium concentrations were significantly lower on Moduretic than on Dyazide or Navidrex K and on frusemide when combined with a potassium-retaining diuretic rather than a potassium supplement. Potassium concentrations were significantly lower on Bendrofluazide alone compared to Navidrex K or Moduretic. Diuretics were positively associated with cardiac failure, ischaemic heart disease, airflow obstruction and obstructive large bowel disorders but negatively with Parkinson's disease. No significant association was found with falls, immobility or confusion. Major electrolyte disorders on diuretics appear to be unusual but important differences exist between preparations. Similarly major illness resulting from diuretic therapy is rare but minor morbidity may be more common.

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Moduretic has been reported to inhibit the suppression of plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels by the alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine. To determine whether plasma volume reduction by hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or antagonism of Na+/H+ exchange by amiloride (the constituents of Moduretic) is responsible, the authors performed a modified clonidine suppression test (CST) in nine normal volunteers (aged 25 +/- 2 years), pretreated for 1 week with HCTZ 50 mg daily, amiloride 10 mg daily, or placebo, in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Baseline characteristics were identical on all study days, except serum [K+] and weight, which were lowest on HCTZ (3.6 +/- 0.2 mEq/L and 78.7 +/- 2.5 kg), compared with amiloride (4.2 +/- 0.1 mEq/L and 79.9 +/- 2.4 kg) and placebo (4.0 +/- 0.1 mEq/L and 80.2 +/- 2.7 kg, P less than .05). Oral clonidine (0.3 mg) produced a reduction in mean blood pressure by about 20%. Plasma norepinephrine levels were similar in patients receiving placebo, HCTZ, and amiloride (205 +/- 18, 272 +/- 40 and 277 +/- 44 pg/mL, P greater than .20), and decreased significantly during CST. The maximal reduction for each subject averaged 72.7 +/- 12.4%, 87.9 +/- 3.8%, and 82.9 +/- 5.7% for placebo, HCTZ, and amiloride. Clonidine also produced a four to seven-fold increase in plasma growth hormone levels, reduced salivary flow by about 75%, and increased the level of sedation. There were no differences among the three pretreatment regimens in the effects of clonidine, indicating that diuretic therapy does not need to be systematically discontinued in patients undergoing CST.

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The clinical pharmacology of the diuretic amyloride was studied in 60 patients suffering from circulatory insufficiency of various origin. Midamor and moduretic of the "Merck" firm (USA) were used in a dose of 1 to 4 tablets. The duration of treatment was from 3 days to 18 months. It was found that under the effect of amyloride natriuresis increases moderately in patients with circulatory insufficiency with no simultaneous increase in the loss of potassium with the urine. As the circulatory insufficiency becomes more severe, the natriuretic and potassium-saving effect of the drug diminishes. Amyloride potentiates the diuretic and natriuretic effect of furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide well without increasing kaliuresis. In patients in whom the disease is less severe, two-week treatment with amyloride leads to an authentic increase in the total metabolic potassium in the organism. The patients tolerate the drug well. It is recommended for wide clinical use.

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We here showed that F may be administered to a patient with previous AmHTZ induced hyponatremia without risk for recurrent hyponatremia.

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Therapy resistance is an enduring problem in clinical hypertension. Our aims were to estimate: (1) the contribution of a low-renin status in therapy resistance; (2) whether such status could give a clue to more successful treatment; and (3) the contribution by adrenal cortical adenomas and by primary aldosteronism.

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This study tested the effects on cardiovascular outcomes of treatments based on nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) compared with the diuretic combination co-amilozide in a pre-specified subset of patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) enrolled in the International Nifedipine GITS Study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT) study.

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A double-blind study was carried out in 24 hypertensive patients with thiazide-induced hypokalaemia (serum potassium less than 3.2 mmol/l) to compare the effects of treatment with an amiloride/hydrochlorothiazide combination or hydrochlorothiazide alone. The study was divided into three phases: (i) potassium repletion (Weeks 0 to 4) with oral potassium chloride (40 mmol/day), (ii) stabilization (Weeks 4 to 6) of normokalaemia, and (iii) active drug treatment (Weeks 6 to 14), patients being allocated at random to receive one or other of the two treatments. Dosage was 2 tablets per day of the 5 mg amiloride plus 50 mg hydrochlorothiazide combination or of 50 mg hydrochlorothiazide alone. The results showed that blood pressure control was comparable in both treatment groups but hydrochlorothiazide alone caused a statistically significant reduction in serum potassium levels compared to the drug combination. Apart from 1 patient who developed hypokalaemia on hydrochlorothiazide alone, no other side-effects of treatment were reported.

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Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by the kidney's inability to concentrate urine, which causes intense polyuria that may lead to urinary tract dilation. We report the morphological findings of the urinary tract in ten boys with NDI specifically addressing the presence and changes of urinary tract dilation during treatment.

moduretic medication

Impaired salivary gland function can be a major cause of late morbidity following the treatment of head and neck cancer with radiotherapy. A large number of commonly prescribed medications can also reduce salivary gland function. We report three patients with already impaired salivary gland function following successful radiotherapy in whom additional prescribed medication led to an increased reduction in salivary flow, thus further impairing the quality of life of these patients. Stopping the medication resulted in subjective and objective improvement in salivary gland function.

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A 47 year old Nigerian male presented with headache, occasional blurring of vision and dyspnoea on mild exertion of 2/12 duration. He had been troubled by painful osteoarthritis of the knees for 2 years for which he was taking NSAIDs. He was found to be severely hypertensive, BP 210/130mmHg and had bilateral knee crepitus. BP was resistant to control on Nifedipine R and Moduretic. Serum urea, creatinine, uric acid were normal but there was hyperacalcaemia and hyperchloraemia. Haematological indices, urinalysis, microscopy and culture of urine were normal. Parathyroid hormone level was raised. A parathyroid MIBI scan study showed an extensive area of significance towards the inferior pole of the right lobe of thyroid medially with a second area of very low significance medial to the left pole. These findings indicated the presence of a right inferior parathyroid adenoma. He had parathyroid surgery and a large adenoma in the right inferior gland and a smaller left inferior gland were removed and confirmed histologically. Corrected calcium and parathyroid hormone levels dropped to normal, and the BP was easily controlled with Lisinopril 5mg daily subsequently. He is not currently on antihypertensive medication two years post surgery.

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We report a case of lithium overdose in a patient who presented in non-convulsive status epilepticus. The lithium toxicity was probably due to interaction with Moduretic. The diagnosis was not suspected until electroencephalography was performed. This case underscores the importance of therapeutic drug level monitoring of lithium, especially where toxicity is suspected, and the indispensable role electroencephalography plays by allowing a correct diagnosis to be made promptly.

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The Authors have studied the effects of fenquizone compared to those of hydrochlorothiazyde-amyloride therapy. They have found a good activity in hypertension and a powerful diuretic action, besides fenquizone has no remarkable side-effect.

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A method has been developed for the separation of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride by high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method on a C18 column with detection at 280 nm. The optimal conditions of separation were determined with the aid of 'window diagram' technique of Laub and Purnell. The effect of simultaneously varying the pH, proportion aqueous acetic acid and methanol in the mobile phase were studied to optimize the separation. A response surface diagram was used to optimize the experimental conditions for the separation. The mobile phase composition that provides an acceptable resolution hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride in a short elution time is water:methanol (60:40) and pH 3.2 (pH adjusted to 3.2 with CH3COOH). A method is applied for the quantitative analysis of Moduretic tablets (Merck Sharp & Dokme International). The powdered tablets are extracted with methanol, containing caffeine as the internal standard, and assayed by comparison of peak areas after liquid chromatography.

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A cross-over study was done to compare the effects of doxazosin, moduretic and amlodipine on biochemical values in 9 hypertensive Nigerians aged 35 to 65 years. Doxazosin therapy was characterized by significant increase in the levels of mean plasma total protein and albumin, while moduretic therapy showed significant reduction in the mean values of plasma creatinine and calcium. All other parameters did not show any significant variation during doxazosin and moduretic treatment phases; and amlodipine therapy did not have any effect on the biochemical values of the hypertensive patients.

moduretic tablets dosage

Patients were referred from general and internal medicine practices following written invitations and included consecutively. Participants were examined and followed-up on an outpatient basis.

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Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) progression was compared between 4 years of treatment with nifedipine and diuretic.

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Physicians' prescribing of anti-hypertensive drug combinations in a tertiary care setting in southwestern Nigeria is considerable. However, this practice does not appear to have positively impacted on blood pressure control among hypertensive patients nor being modulated by an Institutionalised standard guide.

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Hypertensive patients who are at high risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) complications have become the focus of modern treatment guidelines. The choice of antihypertensive therapies in these patients should be evidence-based: in particular, there should be evidence of a beneficial impact on CV events in addition to blood pressure-lowering effects. The International Nifedipine GITS study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT) is the first, large, randomized, double-blind study undertaken exclusively in high-risk hypertensive patients, with CV events as a prospectively defined primary end-point. The choice of a diuretic (co-amilozide) as a comparator reflects the fact that this group of antihypertensive drugs has been shown to reduce CV events in high-risk hypertensive patients. Nifedipine, administered in a long-acting gastrointestinal-transport-system (GITS) formulation, and co amilozide were equally effective in preventing overall CV or cerebrovascular complications. This finding extended to the subgroup of patients with diabetes at baseline. Substudies to INSIGHT showed that, compared with coamilozide, nifedipine GITS was significantly more effective at preventing an increase in intima-media thickness in the carotid artery and significantly slowed the progression of coronary calcification. The results from INSIGHT support incorporating nifedipine GITS in the management of high-risk hypertensive patients to prevent atherosclerosis-related illness and death.

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Three cases are presented which emphasize the importance of hyponatraemia as a cause of grand mal seizures. The combination of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride appears to increase the risk of hyponatraemia. We discuss the aetiology and treatment of hyponatraemia and review the necessity for such combination therapy. We recommend caution in prescribing diuretics and preparations such as Moduretic should be used only in those few patients shown to need potassium supplementation.

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The efficacy of antihypertensive drugs newer than diuretics and beta-blockers has not been established. We compared the effects of the calcium-channel blocker nifedipine once daily with the diuretic combination co-amilozide on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in high-risk patients with hypertension.

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In order to determine how both diuretics affect water metabolism, we here compare the effects of a rechallenge with either amiloride-hydrochlorothiazide fixed association (AmHTZ; amiloride chlorhydrate 5 mg+hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg; Moduretic) or furosemide (F; 40 mg; Lasix) on water excretion in a 79 year old woman who was previously admitted for severe symptomatic hyponatremia secondary to a 5 days course of AmHTZ for systolic hypertension. After correction of initial hydromineral disturbances, a standard oral water load (WL; 20 mL per kg body weight) was administered before, during and after AmHTZ or F challenges.

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Thirty-seven patients (19 Blacks and 18 Indians) suffering from mild hypertension were given each of five diuretics separately for 4 weeks after a 'washout' period on placebo of the same duration. The diuretics used were hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg/d (Dichlotride; Frosst MSD), hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg plus triamterene 50 mg (Dyazide; SKF) 1 tablet per day, amiloride hydrochloride 5 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg (Moduretic; MSD) 1 tablet per day, chlorthalidone (Hygroton; Geigy) 50 mg/d and indapamide (Natrilix; Servier) 2.5 mg/d. The study showed that during the acute phase of diuretic therapy for the treatment of hypertension plasma potassium levels were decreased by thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics and increased by potassium-sparing diuretics. However, despite the decrease in plasma potassium levels produced by thiazide diuretics and indapamide these levels did not fall to 3.0 mmol/l or less. All the diuretics were effective in lowering the standing mean arterial pressure when compared with placebo values. In the absence of significant hypokalaemia, the choice of a diuretic for the Black hypertensive patient should therefore be determined by its cost.

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This study investigated the effects of aerobic dance combined with antihypertensive drugs on BP and number of antihypertensive drugs in individuals with hypertension.

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Prevalence of low-renin status in therapy resistance. Blood pressure and hormonal responses to specific treatment. Numbers of adrenocortical adenomas and primary aldosteronism.

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In 90 treatment-resistant hypertensive, 67% had plasma renin activity (PRA) below 0.5 nmol/l per hour. Of the 60 low-renin patients, 38 were studied on a fixed combination of amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide. Three weeks' treatment reduced blood pressure by 31/15 mmHg compared to placebo (P < or = 0.0001). Serum aldosterone and plasma renin activity increased substantially during active treatment. Through the subsequent 6-12 months of open treatment, seven patients (18%) showing an escape phenomenon had their high blood pressure effectively treated by extra amiloride. Of the 60 low-renin patients, eight had adrenal adenoma.

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We report the history of a diabetic man presenting with hyperkalaemia and rapidly progressing muscular paralysis with severe respiratory embarrassment. His symptoms resolved rapidly with reduction of the serum potassium concentration. Similar cases have been reported previously but this is a problem that few will have encountered and is a diagnosis which should not be overlooked before artificial ventilation is commenced.

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Elderly women are at risk to develop severe hyponatremia after thiazide but not loop diuretic administration. In patients with previous thiazide-induced hyponatremia, the risk for recurrent hyponatremia after furosemide has not been established.

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A study was carried out of plasma electrolyte estimations made before and after long-term use of a combination of amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide in 23 patients. The mean duration of use was 20.3 months. No significant differences were found in plasma potassium, sodium, bicarbonate or urea from baseline levels.

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Of 13,542 patients randomized, 13,080 (96.6%) completed the study: 6529 in Group A and 6551 in Group T. At endpoint, the BP levels were reduced by 27.4/14.3 mmHg in Group A and 27.1/14.5 mmHg in Group T. The BP control rates were similar for the two therapeutic regimens (87.5% vs 86.1%). Less than 4% of patients in each group discontinued their drugs during follow-up. Peripheral edema was one of the most common AEs, and occurred in only 24 patients in Group A and 19 in Group T.

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In a multicenter open-label clinical trial, eligible patients were randomized to receive treatment with amlodipine 2.5-5 mg plus amiloride/hydrochlorothiazide 1.25-2.5 mg/12.5-25 mg (Group A) or amlodipine 2.5-5 mg plus telmisartan 40-80 mg (Group T). If a target BP was not reached, other antihypertensive agents would be added. The target BP was <130/80 mmHg for patients with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease and <140/90 mmHg for others. Efficacy variables were changes from baseline in systolic BP and diastolic BP at the endpoint of 96 weeks. Safety evaluations included monitoring of any adverse events (AEs).

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Twenty hypertensive outpatients WHO stage I or II, with supine diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mmHg at the end of a 4-week treatment period with atenolol (Tenormin) 100 mg daily, continued atenolol in free association with half a tablet of Moduretic (i.e., hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg + amiloride 2.5 mg) for a further 4 weeks. Atenolol monotherapy induced a drop of systolic blood pressure from 175.0 +/- 11 (mean +/- s.d.) mmHg to 158.7 +/- 6 mmHg (p less than 0.01), and of diastolic blood pressure from 113.5 +/- 8 mmHg to 102.7 +/- 5 mmHg (p less than 0.01). After 4 weeks with atenolol in association with half a tablet of Moduretic, systolic blood pressure further decreased to 145.7 +/- 8 mmHg (p less than 0.01), and diastolic blood pressure to 90.2 +/- 10 mmHg (p less than 0.01). Seven out of 20 patients remained with diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mmHg despite the above combination therapy. In these patients, the doubling of diuretic dose (hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg + amiloride 5 mg) in combination with atenolol resulted in a further drop in systolic pressure (to 142.1 +/- 9 mmHg) and diastolic (to 92.1 +/- 6 mmHg) (both p less than 0.01). Plasma potassium concentration showed a slight and non-significant increase during atenolol monotherapy (from 4.4 +/- 0.5 mEq/l to 4.6 +/- 0.7 mEq/l; n.s.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Old people are commonly receiving diuretics on admission to hospital. Diuretics are recognized as a risk factor for electrolyte disturbances; controversy exists about the relative risks of different combinations (in particular, co-amilozide [Moduretic]). We recorded the drug history and serum electrolytes in 1000 consecutive admissions to a geriatric hospital, and examined the relative prescribing rates of various diuretics in the community. Full results were obtained in 929 patients. A history of diuretic prescription was present in 353 (38%) of the patients; the mean serum sodium in this group (95% CI 136.0-137.1 mmol/l) was lower than in the 586 not prescribed diuretics (137.1-137.9 mmol/l). The difference was small but statistically significant (95% CI difference = 0.3-1.6 mmol/l; P less than 0.01). Hyponatraemia (serum sodium less than 130 mmol/l) was not significantly commoner in the 41 patients prescribed co-amilozide than in patients prescribed other diuretics. In general patients prescribed potassium-retaining diuretics had a lower serum sodium than the others. There was a significant positive correlation between the serum potassium and the log [serum urea] (r = 0.26, P less than 0.001) and a weak negative correlation existed between sodium and potassium (r = -0.14; P less than 0.001). There was an association between the prescription of potassium-retaining diuretics and a higher serum potassium; also an association between the prescription of a loop or thiazide diuretic and a lower serum potassium. These interactions were shown by multiple regression analysis to be independent and additive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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A randomized double-blind, crossover trial was carried out in twenty hypertensive patients to evaluate the hypotensive efficacy and safety of indapamide. Indapamide in doses of 2.5 mg per day in combination with other antihypertensive agents was as effective in reducing the blood pressure in hypertensive patients as one tablet of Moduretic (50 mg hydrochlorothiazide and 5 mg amiloride). Indapamide induced no changes in serum potassium or uric acid levels and there were no major side effects.

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Of 6321 randomized patients, 1498 (23.7%) had ISH with a baseline mean BP of 173/88 mmHg in both treatment groups. Mean BP fell by 29/10 mmHg in the nifedipine and 30/10 mmHg in the diuretic group to a mean BP of 144/78 mmHg and 143/79 mmHg, respectively, at endpoint. The percentage of primary outcomes in patients with ISH was not significantly different between the two treatment groups (nifedipine GITS 6.0%, co-amilozide 6.6%). The number of ISH patients with composite secondary outcomes was 90 (12.2%) in the nifedipine GITS group and 110 (14.5%) in the co-amilozide group (not significant). The incidence rates of primary and secondary outcomes were similar in patients without ISH.

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moduretic tablets used 2015-12-18

To investigate the impact of treatment on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, we assessed outcomes in patients with hypertension and diabetes who received co-amilozide or nifedipine in the International Nifedipine GITS Study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension. Participants had to be 55 to 80 years of age, with hypertension (> or =150/95 or > or =160 mm Hg) and at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. Patients received 30 mg nifedipine once daily or co-amilozide (25 mg hydrochlorothiazide and 2.5 mg amiloride) daily. Doses were doubled if target blood pressures (<140/90 mm Hg) were not achieved. Primary (composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke) and secondary outcomes (composite of primary outcomes, including all-cause mortality and death from buy moduretic online vascular and nonvascular causes) were assessed by means of intent-to-treat analyses. There was no significant difference in the incidence of primary outcomes between nifedipine-treated and co-amilozide-treated patients with diabetes at baseline (n=1302) (8.3% versus 8.4%; relative risk, 0.99, 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.42; P=1.00). A significant benefit for nifedipine-treated patients was seen for the composite secondary outcome (14.2% versus 18.7%; relative risk, 0.76, 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.97; P=0.03). Among patients without diabetes at baseline (n=5019), there was a significant difference in the incidence of new diabetes (nifedipine 4.3% versus co-amilozide 5.6%, P=0.023). Nifedipine GITS once daily is as effective as diuretic therapy in reducing cardiovascular complications in hypertensive diabetics. Nifedipine-treated patients were also less likely to have diabetes or have secondary events (a composite of all-cause mortality, death from a vascular cause, and death from a nonvascular cause) than co-amilozide recipients. Our results suggest that nifedipine could be considered as first-line therapy for hypertensive diabetics.

moduretic tablets dose 2017-01-28

This case highlights the need for thorough investigation of cases of hypertension buy moduretic online to exclude specifically secondary causes, which in some cases may be endocrine in origin and may easily be corrected.

moduretic tablets 2016-04-13

In a randomized double-blind study to compare the effect of atenolol vs. hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride (Moduretic) on left ventricular dimensions and systolic function, 100 hypertensive men were followed up during 1 year of treatment, 50 subjects being randomized to each drug. Echocardiography was performed at baseline, and after 3 and 12 months of treatment. A significant reduction in left ventricular mass with atenolol was paralleled by a decrease in left ventricular wall thickness and an increase in stroke volume. A similar reduction of left ventricular mass with Moduretic without a change in relative wall thickness and a decrease in stroke buy moduretic online volume was observed. Cardiac output decreased in both groups.

moduretic tabs 2015-05-27

The clinical pharmacology of the diuretic amyloride was studied in 60 patients suffering from circulatory insufficiency of various origin. Midamor and moduretic of the "Merck" firm (USA) were used in a dose of 1 to 4 tablets. The duration of treatment was from 3 days to 18 months. It was found that under the effect of buy moduretic online amyloride natriuresis increases moderately in patients with circulatory insufficiency with no simultaneous increase in the loss of potassium with the urine. As the circulatory insufficiency becomes more severe, the natriuretic and potassium-saving effect of the drug diminishes. Amyloride potentiates the diuretic and natriuretic effect of furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide well without increasing kaliuresis. In patients in whom the disease is less severe, two-week treatment with amyloride leads to an authentic increase in the total metabolic potassium in the organism. The patients tolerate the drug well. It is recommended for wide clinical use.

moduretic drug 2015-05-24

Amiloride hydrochloride has now been recognized as a safe and effective potassium-sparing diuretic alternative to triamterene with a similar mechanism of pharmacologic activity. Studies were undertaken to assess the difference between therapy with the triamterene-hydrochlorothiazide combination (Dyazide) and an amiloride hydrochloride-hydrochlorothiazide combination (Moduretic) on renal prostaglandin production, since an increase in renal prostaglandin synthesis has been shown to mediate or enhance the pharmacologic action of certain diuretic drugs. Eight subjects treated for four weeks with triamterene-hydrochlorothiazide were compared with nine patients similarly treated with amiloride-hydrochlorothiazide. A 24-hour urine sample for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) assay was collected under control conditions and after six weeks of therapy with either diuretic in all patients. The PGE2 excretion increased in the amiloride-hydrochlorothiazide-treated group; in the other group PGE2 excretion actually declined. It is concluded from these studies that therapy with amiloride-hydrochlorothiazide enhanced renal PGE2 production, whereas that with triamterene-hydrochlorothiazide actually decreased renal PGE2 production. This difference is an important buy moduretic online renal consequence of the use of either drug and should be considered in the choice between these diuretic combinations.

moduretic drug interactions 2016-09-03

Thiazide diuretics frequently cause a decrease in serum potassium levels. In this study, 34 percent of patients taking hydrochlorothiazide had serum potassium levels below 3.5 meq/liter. The response of the serum potassium level was studied after treatment in 56 patients was switched from 50 buy moduretic online mg of hydrochlorothiazide daily to either two capsules of hydrochlorothiazide/triampterene (Dyazide), or one tablet of hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride (Moduretic) daily, over nine to 15 months. The 24 patients whose treatment was changed to Dyazide had a rise in serum potassium levels from a mean of 3.56 meq/liter to 4.17 meq/liter in two to three weeks. The 32 patients whose treatment was changed to Moduretic had a rise in serum potassium levels from a mean of 3.76 meq/liter to 4.14 meq/liter in two to three weeks. The resultant rise in potassium levels was stable throughout the follow-up period in both groups. Patient acceptance of this change was excellent.

moduretic online 2016-07-13

In 90 treatment-resistant hypertensive, 67% had plasma renin activity (PRA) below 0.5 nmol/l per hour. Of the 60 low-renin patients, 38 were studied on a fixed combination of amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide. Three weeks' treatment reduced blood pressure by 31/15 mmHg compared to placebo (P < or = 0.0001). Serum aldosterone and plasma renin buy moduretic online activity increased substantially during active treatment. Through the subsequent 6-12 months of open treatment, seven patients (18%) showing an escape phenomenon had their high blood pressure effectively treated by extra amiloride. Of the 60 low-renin patients, eight had adrenal adenoma.

moduretic tablets uses 2017-10-17

A randomized double-blind, crossover trial was carried out in twenty hypertensive patients to evaluate the hypotensive efficacy and safety of indapamide. Indapamide in doses of 2.5 mg per day in combination with other antihypertensive agents was as effective in reducing the blood pressure in hypertensive patients as one tablet of Moduretic (50 mg hydrochlorothiazide and 5 mg amiloride). Indapamide induced no changes in serum potassium or uric acid levels and there were no major side buy moduretic online effects.

moduretic cost 2015-09-23

We report a case of lithium overdose in a patient who presented in non-convulsive status epilepticus. The lithium toxicity was probably due to interaction with Moduretic. The diagnosis was not suspected until electroencephalography was performed. This case underscores the buy moduretic online importance of therapeutic drug level monitoring of lithium, especially where toxicity is suspected, and the indispensable role electroencephalography plays by allowing a correct diagnosis to be made promptly.

moduretic tablet 2015-08-28

Simultaneous administration of indomethacin and Moduretic (Merck Sharp & Dohme, USA, 5 mg of amiloride HCl, 50 mg hydrochlorothiazide) to a 78-yr-old patient resulted in severe hyperkalemia twice. When administered alone, neither drug significantly changed the normal serum potassium levels. Laboratory findings suggest an alteration of the internal balance of potassium as the main mechanism of this particular drug-induced hyperkalemia. buy moduretic online

moduretic tab 2017-08-06

A study was carried out of plasma electrolyte estimations made before and after long-term use of a combination of amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide in buy moduretic online 23 patients. The mean duration of use was 20.3 months. No significant differences were found in plasma potassium, sodium, bicarbonate or urea from baseline levels.

moduretic 50 mg 2017-04-15

The authors buy moduretic online have performed a between-patient study in 76 patients with mild or moderate essential arterial hypertension, with the aim of comparing the results of atenolol 100 mg daily, hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg + amiloride 5 mg 1 tablet daily, and the combination of the above two agents at the same daily doses. Thirty-one patients received the free combination diuretic-beta-blocker throughout the study period; 26 patients non-responders to atenolol 100 mg daily (supine diastolic blood pressure greater than 90 mmHg) after a one-month treatment period received the above combination for a further four months; and 19 patients non-responders to hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg + amiloride 5 mg, 1 tablet daily, after a one-month treatment period received the above combination for a further four months. In the patients who were non-responders to either atenolol or the diuretic, supine and upright blood pressure showed a further and clinically consistent decrease as a result of the combination therapy. A similar consistent decrease was seen in the patients receiving the combination therapy throughout the study. Plasma levels of glucose, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and uric acid were not modified either by the single agents or during administration of the combination therapy. In particular, plasma potassium concentration did not show any statistical or clinical changes. Any side-effects were of little clinical importance and never required discontinuation of therapy. In conclusion, atenolol combined with hydrochlorothiazide + amiloride (100 mg + 50 mg + 5 mg) provides an effective and well tolerated blood pressure control in most patients with mild or moderate arterial hypertension, including non-responders to diuretic or beta-blocker alone.

moduretic tablets dosage 2016-12-21

The effect of hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg, amiloride 5 mg (HCTZ-A) (Moduretic; MSD) and its combination with pindolol and nadolol on renal function were compared in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension (mean untreated supine blood pressure 179 +/- 5.7/108 +/- 2.6 mmHg) with compromised renal function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 85 ml/min). After randomisation to a beta-blocker plus diuretic, the beta-blocker was washed out (diuretic-only period) and the other beta-blocker added. Eleven patients completed the randomised cross-over comparative study, 5 receiving pindolol 15 mg plus 1 dose of HCTZ-A daily for 6 weeks, and 6 nadolol 120 mg plus 1 dose of HCTZ-A daily. The beta-blocker was then withdrawn for 4 weeks, after which each group of patients received 1 dose of HCTZ-A plus the alternative beta-blocker daily for 6 weeks. The GFR was measured using chromium-51-ethylenediamine-tetra-acetic acid at the end of each treatment phase. The mean GFR (+/- SE) fell from 69.6 +/- 5.8 to 60.6 +/- 5.1 ml/min (P < 0.01) during HCTZ-A therapy, whereas the addition of pindolol or nadolol caused no further drop in the GFR. Paxil Tablet We conclude that mild degrees of renal impairment in essential hypertension may be aggravated by HCTZ-A therapy when given as one tablet of Moduretic daily.

moduretic overdose 2015-06-04

Hypertensive patients who are at high risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) complications have become the focus of modern treatment guidelines. The choice of antihypertensive therapies in these patients should be evidence-based: in particular, there should be evidence of a beneficial impact on CV events in addition to blood pressure-lowering effects. The International Nifedipine GITS study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT) is the first, large, randomized, double-blind study undertaken exclusively in high-risk hypertensive patients, with CV events as a prospectively defined primary end-point. The choice of a diuretic (co-amilozide) as a comparator reflects the fact that this group of antihypertensive drugs has been shown to reduce CV events in high-risk hypertensive patients. Nifedipine, administered in a long-acting gastrointestinal-transport-system (GITS) formulation, and co amilozide were equally effective in preventing overall CV or cerebrovascular complications. This finding extended to the subgroup of patients with diabetes at baseline. Substudies to INSIGHT showed that, compared with coamilozide, nifedipine GITS was significantly more effective at preventing an increase in intima-media thickness in the carotid artery and significantly slowed the progression of coronary calcification. The results from INSIGHT support incorporating nifedipine GITS in the management of high Avapro Dosing Information -risk hypertensive patients to prevent atherosclerosis-related illness and death.

moduretic generic name 2015-12-22

In a randomized double-blind cross Diovan Hct Dosage -over study the effects of antihypertensive pharmacotherapy were compared with those of homeopathic treatment in 10 patients with essential hypertension. The conclusions are: 1. The blood pressure lowering effect under pharmacotherapy is clearly superior to that under homeotherapy, where it was negligible and statistically not significant. 2. As far as improvement of subjective complaints of the patients is concerned there was no superiority of pharmacotherapy over homeopathic treatment. 3. The cross-over design appears less suitable than, perhaps, a design with parallel treatment groups because of the long duration of such a study and the observed carry-over effect.

moduretic drug information 2016-10-27

In 75 patients with circulatory insufficiency of various degree the diuretic effect of moduretic was studied. In 25 of them besides the potassium and sodium metabolism and in 33 others, with a background of chronic ischemic disease of the heart and hypertensive disease, the state of the hemocoagulation system was investigated in the moduretic medication. In 24 patients with hypertensive disease of the I--IIA stage subject to study was the effect of moduretic on the arterial pressure, with this drug administered by mouth in doses of 3 to 1 Cymbalta Antidepressant Dose /2 tablet a day. The drug proved to have a marked duretic effect in patients with different degree of circulatory insufficiency. It increases sodium excretion with urine and retains potassium in the organism, without causing hyperkaliemia. In patients with circulatory insufficiency of the I degree the drug can provoke thrombogenesis and in cases of the IIA, IIB and III degree may be considered a drug of choice. Moduretic brings down the systolic and diastolic pressure in patients with hypertensive disease of the I and II stages.

moduretic drug class 2015-07-07

We Trental 250 Mg here showed that F may be administered to a patient with previous AmHTZ induced hyponatremia without risk for recurrent hyponatremia.

moduretic generic 2017-07-30

Nifedipine once daily and co-amilozide were equally effective in preventing overall Avodart Drug Class cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications. The choice of drug can be decided by tolerability and blood-pressure response rather than long-term safety or efficacy.

moduretic online kaufen 2016-04-04

The Swedish trial in old patients with hypertension was initiated by the Swedish League against Hypertension. It will be conducted as a prospective Zetia Dosage multicentre study in Swedish primary health care, and will comprise approximately 2 000 patients on active treatment and 2 000 on placebo to be studied for three years. The primary goal with this study is to investigate whether pharmacological treatment of hypertension in men and women aged 70-84 years will reduce the incidence of fatal and nonfatal cardiac and cerebrovascular disease. Before starting the main trial a pilot study comprising 400 patients will be carried out during one year to evaluate all logistical aspects of the study. This pilot study commenced in October 1985.

moduretic online purchase 2015-08-04

The efficacy and biochemical effects of two low-dose thiazide plus potassium-sparing diuretic preparations were compared in the treatment of elderly patients with stable, mild to moderate congestive heart failure. Sixty patients (mean age 80 years) were randomly allocated to treatment with 1 tablet daily of either 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide/2.5 mg amiloride or 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide/50 mg triamterene. The dose was increased to 2 tablets daily if necessary, after 2 weeks, for a further 6 weeks. Patients' response to treatment was assessed at 2, 4 and 8 weeks using a simple clinical scoring system for signs and symptoms of their condition, and routine biochemical analysis was carried out at baseline and the end of treatment. One patient was withdrawn from the study due to a rash which was probably related to hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride treatment. A further 11 patients were excluded from the analysis because of intercurrent illness or inadequate records. Analysis of the results from 48 patients showed that both treatments resulted in an improvement in clinical score and weight reduction, with more than three-quarters of the patients responding Cialis Drug Impotence to treatment. No serious biochemical disturbances occurred; in particular, no new cases of hyponatraemia (serum sodium less than 130 mmol/l) developed. Both preparations, therefore, were effective and tolerated forms of treatment for mild to moderate congestive heart failure in the elderly and there were no significant differences between them.

moduretic 30 tablet 2015-10-11

Patients were referred from general and internal medicine practices following Flonase Off Brand written invitations and included consecutively. Participants were examined and followed-up on an outpatient basis.

moduretic tablet dosage 2015-11-26

A cross-sectional retrospective drug use review was conducted between June 1st and August 31st 2002 using randomly selected 200 case notes of patients attending the Hypertension Clinic at a 900-bed tertiary care facility in southwestern Nigeria. 11 case Epivir Syrup notes were not used due to incompleteness.

moduretic buy online 2016-09-13

A cross-over study, comparing the effects of doxazosin, moduretic and amlodipine on plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels in 9 hypertensive Nigerians aged 35 to 65 years is presented. Doxazosin therapy had favourable lipid changes characterized by a statistically significant reduction in total cholesterol (TC) at 6 months. Though consistent reduction was observed in total triglycerides (TG) low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDLC) upto 6 months, no effect was seen Depakote 250 Mg on high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). This is against unfavourable increments in the mean values of TC, VLDLC, LDLC/HDLC and decrease in HDLC/TC during moduretic treatment phase. Amlodipine therapy did not alter the lipid and lipoprotein levels. The non-significant variation in the mean high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC) level observed with these agents, seem to suggest that HDL-cholesterol metabolism may be maintained during antihypertensive pharmacotherapy.

moduretic 25 mg 2016-02-23

This open label randomised-controlled trial involved new-diagnosed male and female individuals with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension after at least four weeks of treatment. They were randomly assigned to drug therapy (Normoretic: Hydrochlorothiazide + amiloride hydrochloride, and Amlodipine) (control: n=33) and aerobic dance combined with drug therapy (exercise: n=30) Risperdal Oral Medication groups. Intervention in each group lasted 12 weeks. BP was measured at baseline and during and pos-intervention. Number of antihypertensive drugs was recorded post-intervention.

moduretic pills 2016-09-20

A woman with unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the thymus was treated with combination chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, cisplatin, and prednisone. Rapid tumor response and hyperuricemia occurred within 10 days after the first course of chemotherapy. Mediastinal irradiation was given after two courses of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was continued until the total dose of adriamycin reached 450 mg/m2. The patient is alive and well in remission more than 111 weeks after therapy was begun and more than 63 weeks after treatment was discontinued. Tofranil Max Dose Further study of this chemotherapeutic regimen in squamous cell carcinoma of the thymus is needed. Monitoring of serum uric acid levels may be required.

moduretic reviews 2017-06-03

Impaired salivary gland function can be a major cause of late morbidity following the treatment of head and neck cancer with radiotherapy. A large number of commonly prescribed medications can also reduce salivary gland function. We report three patients with already impaired salivary gland function following successful radiotherapy in whom additional prescribed medication led to an increased reduction in salivary flow, thus further impairing the quality of life of these patients. Stopping the medication resulted in subjective and objective improvement in salivary gland function.

moduretic dosage dogs 2017-12-23

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by the kidney's inability to concentrate urine, which causes intense polyuria that may lead to urinary tract dilation. We report the morphological findings of the urinary tract in ten boys with NDI specifically addressing the presence and changes of urinary tract dilation during treatment.

moduretic dose 2015-05-28

A national multicenter study (34 centers) compared six treatments in 328 patients with cirrhotic ascites. Excluded were patients with g.i. bleeding within the last six months, chronic encephalopathy, cancer, tuberculosis or the following complications persisting after three weeks: acute encephalopythy, fever greater than 38 degrees C, infected ascites or biochemical abnormalities: blood urea greater than 8 mmol/l, natremia less than 130 mmol/l, kaliemia less than 2.5 or greater than 5.5 mmol/l, WBC greater than 12000 mm3, total bilirubin greater than 85.5 mumol/l. In each center patients were randomized into two treatment groups, each center using 2 of 6 proposed treatments: (1) Spironolactone and 500 mg Na p.d (77 patients), (2) Spironolactone + furosemide or Moduretic (amiloride + hydrochlorothiazide) and 500 mg Na p.d (80 patients), (3) Spironolactone + Furosemide or Moduretic and unrestricted sodium diet (86 patients), (4) Concentrated ascites reinfusion and 500 mg Na p.d. (36 patients), (5) Unmodified ascites reinfusion and 500 mg Na p.d. (23 patients), (6) Slow ascites drainage and 500 mg Na p.d. (31 patients). Statistical analysis methods were X2, variance analysis and Spotvoll-Stoline and Dunn-Sidak tests. Before treatment, there was no significant difference between the 6 groups.

moduretic dosage 2016-11-24

Antihypertensive therapy is effective in reducing the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. However, blood pressure (BP) control rate remains poor and the optimal combination therapy against hypertension is not established in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of two antihypertensive regimens, amlodipine plus telmisartan and amlodipine plus amiloride/hydrochlorothiazide, in patients with essential hypertension and at least one cardiovascular risk factor.

moduretic fluid tablets 2016-10-04

A patient who developed significant metabolic acidosis and severe hyperkalaemia while taking Moduretic (amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide) is reported. During the period of hyperkalaemia (maximum potassium 7-6 mmol/l) the patient's whole body potassium content was normal. His acid-base balance and serum potassium returned to normal some 10 days after stopping the drug. The possible mechanism of acidosis and hyperkalaemia in this patient is discussed.

moduretic medicine 2016-03-23

Long-term combination therapy with amlodipine plus telmisartan or amlodipine plus amiloride/hydrochlorothiazide was not only well tolerated but also efficacious in reducing BP levels with acceptable control rates in the majority of hypertensive patients.

moduretic medication 2017-03-02

In patients with ISH, nifedipine GITS and co-amilozide had similar effects on clinical outcomes and BP lowering. They lend support to international guidelines for the treatment of hypertension recommending the use of long-acting dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers as one treatment option for patients with ISH.

moduretic 5mg tablet 2017-07-27

Three cases are presented which emphasize the importance of hyponatraemia as a cause of grand mal seizures. The combination of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride appears to increase the risk of hyponatraemia. We discuss the aetiology and treatment of hyponatraemia and review the necessity for such combination therapy. We recommend caution in prescribing diuretics and preparations such as Moduretic should be used only in those few patients shown to need potassium supplementation.

moduretic tablet indication 2015-03-07

In order to determine how both diuretics affect water metabolism, we here compare the effects of a rechallenge with either amiloride-hydrochlorothiazide fixed association (AmHTZ; amiloride chlorhydrate 5 mg+hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg; Moduretic) or furosemide (F; 40 mg; Lasix) on water excretion in a 79 year old woman who was previously admitted for severe symptomatic hyponatremia secondary to a 5 days course of AmHTZ for systolic hypertension. After correction of initial hydromineral disturbances, a standard oral water load (WL; 20 mL per kg body weight) was administered before, during and after AmHTZ or F challenges.

moduretic dosage bodybuilding 2015-03-29

To draw attention to primary hyperparathyroidism as a cause of severe hypertension.

moduretic 40 mg 2016-05-11

Thirty-seven patients (19 Blacks and 18 Indians) suffering from mild hypertension were given each of five diuretics separately for 4 weeks after a 'washout' period on placebo of the same duration. The diuretics used were hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg/d (Dichlotride; Frosst MSD), hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg plus triamterene 50 mg (Dyazide; SKF) 1 tablet per day, amiloride hydrochloride 5 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg (Moduretic; MSD) 1 tablet per day, chlorthalidone (Hygroton; Geigy) 50 mg/d and indapamide (Natrilix; Servier) 2.5 mg/d. The study showed that during the acute phase of diuretic therapy for the treatment of hypertension plasma potassium levels were decreased by thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics and increased by potassium-sparing diuretics. However, despite the decrease in plasma potassium levels produced by thiazide diuretics and indapamide these levels did not fall to 3.0 mmol/l or less. All the diuretics were effective in lowering the standing mean arterial pressure when compared with placebo values. In the absence of significant hypokalaemia, the choice of a diuretic for the Black hypertensive patient should therefore be determined by its cost.

moduretic maximum dose 2015-01-01

After one month of treatment, no difference was found in the frequency of total or partial regression of ascites, complications of cirrhosis, mortality, acceptability of treatment. Mechanical treatments induced more rapid weight loss but more frequent recurrence; comparison of groups 2 and 3 did not confirm any benefit associated with unrestricted Na diet. Duration of treatment and hospitalization were shorter in group 4 than in groups 3 and 6.

moduretic buy 2016-10-01

This study investigated the effects of aerobic dance combined with antihypertensive drugs on BP and number of antihypertensive drugs in individuals with hypertension.