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Neem

Neem is a unique herb with anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and blood purifying properties which is used in skin disorders and keeps the skin healthy. Neem is effective to most epidermal dysfunctions such as acne, psoriasis, eczema, antifungal.

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Description

Neem is a high-quality herbal medication which is used in skin problems like mild acne, itchy skin, flakey scalp and many other mild dermatological problems. Neem inhibits the growth of microbes and protect the skin.

Neem also fights minor skin eruptions, reduces oiliness and inflammation, stimulates the skin’s circulation and cell renewal. It gently cleanses the skin and maintains moisture balance.

The growth of acne-causing bacteria such as propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and staphylococcus epidermidis is also inhibited by Neem. The role of Neem in acne is further supported by studies which have shown that it exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing P. acnes-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a and IL-8.

Neem's main ingredient are: Neem components and Turmeric.

Dosage

Neem is available in capsules which are taken by mouth.

It is recommended to take 1 Neem capsule twice a day after meals.

Overdose

If you overdose Neem and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep this medicine in the original bottle. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Neem are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Neem if you are allergic to Neem components.

Do not take Neem if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not use Neem in children under 12 years of age. It may cause serious side effects such as seizures, coma.

Neem should never be used in place of insulin.

Avoid dehydration.

Always give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use.

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The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs.

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The efficacy of neem (1500 ppm azadirachtin (AI)), Delfin WG, a biological insecticide based on selected strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) subspecies kurstaki, and Cry1Ac protein, either individually or in combination, were examined against first to fourth instar Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae. Using an oral administration method, various growth inhibitory concentrations (EC) and lethal concentrations (LC) were determined for each bioagent. Combinations of sublethal concentrations of Bt spray formulation with azadirachtin at EC50 or EC95 levels not only enhanced the toxicity, but also reduced the duration of action when used in a mixture. The LC20 and LC50 values for Cry1Ac toxin were 0.06 and 0.22 microg ml-1, respectively. Bt-azadirachtin combinations of LC50+EC20 and LC50+EC50 result in 100% mortality. The mortality also was significant in LC20+EC20 and LC20+EC50 mixtures. These studies imply that the combined action is not synergistic but complimentary, with azadirachtin particularly facilitating the action of Bt. The Bt spray-azadirachtin combination is more economical than combinations that involve isolating the toxic protein, as the Bt spray formulations can be combined in a spray mixture with neem. These combinations may be useful for controlling bollworm populations that have acquired resistance to Bt as they may not survive the effect of mixture. Azadirachtin may be useful as a means of reducing the endotoxin concentrations in a mixture, to promote increased economic savings and further reduce the probability of resistance development to either insect control agent.

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Fifteen consecutive patients with a mean age of 76.87 ± 10.3 years (59-90 years) were analyzed. The mean wound size was 10.9 ± 6.84 cm(2) (0.4-22.6 cm(2)) with 4.8 ± 5.9 cm(2) (0.3-20.7 cm(2)) of exposed bone. The time of complete healing by secondary intention was 8.1 (4-20) weeks. Rapid formation of granulation tissue was observed which after 4 weeks covered the entire exposed bone surface in 11 of 15 cases (73%). Dressing change was simple with no pain reported; no infections or other complications occurred. Using ONE for a mean healing time of 56.7 days resulted in mean costs of EUR 423.73, which is substantially lower than those published for fascia lata, negative pressure therapy, or collagen matrix followed by skin grafting (EUR 1,612.82, EUR 4,411.80 and EUR 1,503.72, respectively).

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Polymeric bio-adhesives emulsion which is biodegradable and non-toxic containing antimicrobial agents can play an important role in preventing infection in wound covering and coating for surgical implants. Therefore a bioadhesive polymer was synthesized by semi-Interpenetrating Network process using blend of shellac, casein and polyvinyl alcohol and Maleic anhydride (MA) as reactive compatibilizer. The synthesized polymer was mixed with neem and turmeric extract and homogenized using an emulsifier. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to measure the molecular miscibility of biopolymer components and emulsion constituents. Stability of emulsion (coating) was measured by keeping property and accelerated stability test. Antimicrobial properties were evaluated for human pathogenic organisms namely E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium using well diffusion assay. The results indicate that stability, miscibility and antimicrobial properties of bioadhesive was satisfactory, however further in vivo studies are required to ascertain suitability of emulsion (coating) for biomedical use.

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The combination of the three herbal ingredients resulted in the potentiation of the spermicidal action by 8-folds. The post coital tests confirmed the spermicidal properties of the Praneem polyherbal pessary (PPP) in women with high cervical mucous score around mid estrus. It also prevented in most women the migration of sperm into the cervical mucous. In 15 rabbits studied pregnancy was prevented by the intravaginal administration of PPP, whereas 13 of the 15 animals in the control group became pregnant.

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Some 9% of deaths in Ghana are attributed to malaria, which also accounts for 30% of outpatient visits and 9% of hospital admissions. A survey conducted in four areas of Ghana revealed that the factors perceived as causing malaria included malnutrition, mosquitos, excessive heat, excessive drinking, flies, fatigue, dirty surroundings, unsafe water, bad air, and poor personal hygiene. Most adolescents had no idea how the disease was spread from person to person. The symptoms most frequently considered to be linked to malaria were yellowing of the eyeballs, chills and shivering, headache, a bitter taste, body weakness, and yellowish urine. Malaria was considered to be the most important disease in the communities of Kojo Ashong, Barekese, Barekuma and Oyereko. There was a widespread understanding that malaria adversely impacted the ability of adults to work and of children to attend school. Herbal preparations for self-medication included liquids for drinking, liquids for use as enemas, and potions for hot fomentation. Most people used the leaves of the neem tree (Adzadi rachta indica) to make such preparations. Most interviewees were aware of chloroquine used in the treatment of malaria. A few people sprayed their rooms with insecticide before going to bed in order to kill mosquitos, while others used repellent coils. Bednets were rarely used. There was little knowledge of how the transmission cycle of the parasite could be broken. One social implication of the disease is that if the breadwinner dies, the children may have to cease attending school. For Africa as a whole the annual economic burden of malaria was $ 0.8 billion in 1987; by 1995 it is expected to be $ 1.7 billion. The first step in any control program should be to educate the people about the cause and treatment of the disease. District assemblies should enact bylaws on the cleanliness of households, which inspectors should enforce.

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A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to assess the knowledge and usage custom of traditional insect/mosquitoes repellent plants among the inhabitants in Addis Zemen Town, Ethiopia.

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The effect of concurrent administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract with DOCA-salt was investigated in the development of hypertension.Over 5-6 week old, inbred male Wistar rats with a starting weight of 190 g were given either: (1) twice weekly subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of vehicle (soyabean oil, 0.25 mL per animal) for the first 2 weeks, plus normal drinking water (controls); (2) twice weekly (s.c.) injections (weeks 1 and 2 only) of 15 mg/kg DOCA dissolved in vehicle, plus drinking water containing 1.0% NaCl and 0.03% KCl (DOCA-salt group); or (3) 20 mg/kg of aqueous neem extract daily, in addition to the DOCA-salt treatment (DOCA-salt-neem group). All groups (8-12 animals) received normal rat pellets ad libitum and their BP was measured weekly. Terminally, the animals were anaesthetized and ECGs recorded using s.c. pins in a lead II configuration. The mean arterial pressure was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the control (97 +/- 3.7 mmHg) and DOCA-salt-neem (87 +/- 3.4 mm Hg) groups than in the DOCA-salt group (115 +/- 7.1 mm Hg). PR and RR intervals and the duration of the QRS complex were shorter (p < 0.05) in the DOCA-salt group than in the control and DOCA-salt-neem groups. Amplitude of the QRS complex was increased (p < 0.05) in the DOCA-salt group compared with both the DOCA-salt-neem and the control groups.Daily administration of 20 mg/kg neem-leaf extract concurrently with DOCA-salt for 5 weeks, prevents the development of hypertension and the accompanying alterations in the ECG patterns seen in DOCA-salt treated rats.

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A novel approach for immunocontraception by intervention of local cell mediated immunity in the reproductive system by using single intrauterine application of neem oil has been described earlier. The reversible block in fertility was reported to last for 107-180 days in female Wistar rats (Upadhyay et al., 1990. Antifertility effects of neem oil by single intrauterine administration: A novel method of contraception. Proceedings Of The Royal Society Of London B 242, 175-180) and 7-11 months in monkeys (Upadhyay et al., 1994. Long term contraceptive effects of intrauterine neem treatment (IUNT) in bonnet monkeys: An alternative to intrauterine contraceptive devices. Contraception 49, 161-167). The present study, describes the identification and characterization of the biologically active fraction from neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Family Meliaceae), responsible for the above activity in adult female Wistar rats. Initial studies with the mechanically extracted oil and solvent extracts of neem seeds have revealed that the antifertility activity was present in constituents of low to intermediate polarity. A hexane extract of neem seeds was reported to be biologically active (Garg et al., 1994. Comparison of extraction procedures on the immunocontraceptive activity of neem seed extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 22, 87-92). Subsequently, hexane extract was sequentially fractionated through the last active fraction using various separation techniques and tested for antifertility activity at each step. Preparative HPLC was used for isolating individual components of the active fraction in quantities, sufficient for characterization. An analytical HPLC method was developed for standardization of the fraction. The active fraction was identified to be a mixture of six components, which comprises of saturated, mono and di-unsaturated free fatty acids and their methyl esters. Dose response study was performed with the last active fractions. The antifertility activity with the active fraction was reversible in nature and it was completely active until 5% concentration. There was no systemic toxic effect following the administration of the active fraction. This study, for the first time, proposes an active fraction from neem seeds, responsible for long term and reversible blocking of fertility after a single intrauterine administration with high efficacy.

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Out of various spices and leafy vegetables screened for their influence on the carcinogen-detoxifying enzyme, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in Swiss mice, cumin seeds, poppy seeds, asafoetida, turmeric, kandathipili, neem flowers, manathakkali leaves, drumstick leaves, basil leaves and ponnakanni leaves increased GST activity by more than 78% in the stomach, liver and oesophagus, - high enough to be considered as protective agents against carcinogenesis. Glutathione levels were also significantly elevated in the three tissues by these plant products. All of them except neem flowers, significantly suppressed (in vivo) the chromosome aberrations (CA) caused by benzo(a)pyrene in mouse bone marrow cells. Multiple CA and exchanges reflecting the severity of damage within a cell were significantly suppressed by these nine plant products. The results suggest that these nine plant products are likely to suppress carcinogenesis and can act as protective agents against cancer.

neem with alcohol

A simple and economical method has been developed to estimate the azadirachtin content and fatty acid composition of neem kernels. Neem kernels are crushed and soaked overnight in ethanol. The extract obtained is analysed by HPLC after filtering through a 0.22 micro m membrane. The peaks are separated using acetonitrile-water (40:60) 1 mL min(-1) as the mobile phase on an RP-18 column and monitored at 214 nm. For the determination of fatty acid composition, the fatty acids are directly transmethylated in the kernel powder by heating with methanol-acetyl chloride-benzene (20:1:4, v/v) for 1 h in a water bath. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained are extracted in hexane and analysed using GLC. The separation of the FAMEs is achieved using an RH-Wax column using temperature programming, 170-200 degrees C at 2 degrees min(-1). The peaks are detected using an FID. Both the methods do not require any clean up or defatting of seeds. This results in faster, easier and more economical sample preparation.

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Cancer is the most dreaded disease in human and also major health problem worldwide. Despite its high occurrence, the exact molecular mechanisms of the development and progression are not fully understood. The existing cancer therapy based on allopathic medicine is expensive, exhibits side effects; and may also alter the normal functioning of genes. Thus, a non-toxic and effective mode of treatment is needed to control cancer development and progression. Some medicinal plants offer a safe, effective and affordable remedy to control the cancer progression. Nimbolide, a limnoid derived from the neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and flowers of neem, is widely used in traditional medical practices for treating various human diseases. Nimbolide exhibits several pharmacological effects among which its anticancer activity is the most promising. The previous studies carried out over the decades have shown that nimbolide inhibits cell proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. This review highlights the current knowledge on the molecular targets that contribute to the observed anticancer activity of nimbolide related to induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest; and inhibition of signaling pathways related to cancer progression.

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This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

neem 475 mg

A significant increase in the proportion of restorations to the number of tooth extractions was reported after the introduction of ART in an academic mobile dental service in South Africa. The changes were ascribed to its less threatening procedure. Based on these findings, ART was subsequently introduced into the public oral health service of Ekurhuleni district in the South African province of Gauteng. This article reports on the 5-year restorative treatment pattern of operators in the Ekurhuleni district, who adopted the ART approach into their daily dental practice.

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The results show that radical scepticism may epistemologically be refuted on the basis of logical and empirical coherence. For success, several systematic reviews covering interconnected beliefs are needed. In praxis, these systematic reviews would also need to be of high quality and its conclusions based on reviewed high quality trials.

neem leaf capsules

Present study was aimed to determine whether aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE) induces generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway in rat oocytes.

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In this study, attention was paid to investigate the effect of organophosphate insecticides, profenofos 40% EC, methyl parathion (metacid) 50% EC, and neem-based product nimbecidine 0.03% EC (from Azadirachta indica) on somatic chromosomal behavior, level of leaf protein, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in Lathyrus sativus L., the leguminous herb. The experiments on somatic chromosomes of root tip cells of L. sativus L. revealed that most common type of abnormalities were anaphase bridge, chromosome fragment, breaks, giant interphase, etc. Also, the mitotic index reduced and abnormality index enhanced, which were directly proportional to the rise in concentration as well as time period of exposure of chemicals. The profenofos and metacid induced drastic changes in mitotic index when compared with nimbecidine. The electrophoretic studies of leaf protein of L. sativus L. showed alteration of some major and minor protein bands subjected to spraying of organophosphate insecticides and induced to synthesize additional high molecular mass protein compared to untreated control. Analysis of SOD, EST, and POD activity by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed different patterns of the isoforms. Complete inhibition of EST was observed in profenofos-treated plants, while with metacid- and nimbecidine-treated plants EST was suppressed. Induction and/or increased activities of SOD and POD were generally enhanced. Our present study not only provides the important information for better understanding of the toxic and tolerance mechanisms, but as well can be used as a bio-indicator for contamination by pesticides, which could cause genetic instabilities of natural plant populations and in crop varieties.

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The effects of A. indica (AI, Neem) were evaluated on tests of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses after 3 weeks of oral AI (leaf extract) treatment in ovalbumin immunized mice. At the dose levels tested, AI (10, 30 or 100 mg/kg), had no appreciable influence on different organ (liver, spleen, thymus)/body weight indices, when compared to controls. In tests for humoral immune responses, AI (100 mg/kg) treated mice had higher (1) IgM and IgG levels, and (b) anti-ovalbumin antibody titres, when compared to the vehicle treated group. In tests for cell-mediated immune responses, there was an enhancement (%) of (a) macrophage migration inhibition, and (b) footpad thickness after AI (100 mg/kg) treatment. These results are discussed in light of the possible immunopotentiating effects of AI.

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Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) are used in the developing world for many purposes including management of agricultural insect pests. The effects of different neem extracts (aqueous (NSKEaq), ethanol (NSKEeth) and hexane (NSKEhex)) on mortality, survival and weight of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (BPH) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) third and fourth nymphal instars were investigated. When fed rice plants treated with neem derivatives in bioassays, the survival of BPH nymphs is affected. Comparisons were made with the pure neem limonoid, azadirachtin (AZA) to ascertain its role as a compound responsible for these effects. AZA was most potent in all experiments and produced almost 100% nymphal mortality at 0.5 ppm and higher concentrations. When higher concentrations were applied, the effects appeared shortly after treatment and mortality was higher. Many insects died after remaining inactive for several days or during prolonged moulting. At lower concentrations, if moulting was achieved, disturbed growth and abnormalities were then likely to occur in the moulting process. Nymphs that were chronically exposed to neem extract showed a reduction in weight (45-60%). The results clearly indicate the simple NSKE (aqueous, ethanolic or both), containing low concentrations of AZA, can be used effectively to inhibit the growth and survival of BPH.

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The findings attained through this study on the molecular interaction mode of three neem triterpenoids and DENV NS2B-NS3 pro can be considered for further in vitro and in vivo validation for designing new potential drugs for DENV infection.

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There are various plants, which are used as chewing sticks in different parts of the world. Several studies have been reported on the antimicrobial effects of chewing sticks on oral bacteria. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of traditionally used neem and babool chewing sticks (datun) extracts on Streptococcus mutans.

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Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations.

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In the northeastern United States, control of Lepidopteran pests of sweet corn, particularly corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)], is difficult using organic methods. The direct application of corn oil and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to corn silk has been shown to reduce ear damage from corn earworm in past studies; these studies sought to optimize this method by evaluating additional carrier and biopesticide mixtures that comply with the United States Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and National Organic Standards. Carriers, which are liquids used to dissolve the biopesticide and deliver it into the tip of the ear, may have phytotoxic or insecticidal properties. Experiments conducted from 2001 to 2005 evaluated caterpillar damage and ear development effects from carriers (vegetable and paraffinic oils and carrageenan), biopesticides (Bt, spinsosad, and neem), and three emulsifiers in various combinations when applied directly to the tips of the ears 5-7 d after silk initiation. There were no effects of emulsifiers on ear quality, except for slight reduction in caterpillar damage in one of the two years. There were no differences among corn, soy, canola, and safflower oils in corn earworm control or tip development. The carrageenan carrier had the least effect upon ear development as measured by the length of nonpollinated kernels at the tip, compared to corn oil or paraffinic oil (JMS Stylet Oil), which caused the greatest tip damage as well as an oily discoloration. The carrier-pesticide combinations with the best ear quality overall were spinosad in carrageenan or corn oil, and Bt in carrageenan.

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All five geranium oils were toxic to S. pyrioides, and four of these five were more potent than malathion and neem. Trans-nerolidol (LD50 = 13.4 ppm) was the most toxic compound against one-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae, followed by geraniol (49.3 ppm), citronellol (49.9 ppm) and geranyl formate (58.5 ppm). Essential oil of cultivar 'Egypt' at 100 μg cm(-2) [biting deterrent index (BDI) = 0.8] showed the highest biting deterrent activity, followed by cultivars 'Frensham' (BDI = 0.76), 'China' (BDI = 0.72), 'Rober's Lemon Rose' (BDI = 0.63) and 'Bourbon' (BDI = 0.45) essential oils. Among the pure compounds, the biting deterrent activity of geranic acid (BDI = 0.99) was not significantly different from that of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET).

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A polyherbal pessary was formulated with purified ingredients from neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves, Sapindus mukerossi (pericarp of fruit) and Mentha citrata oil. Spermicidal action on human sperm was tested by Sander-Cramer slide test in vitro and by post coital tests in vivo. Contraceptive action was tested in rabbits.

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No conclusive statement about the superiority of either type of material can yet be made. Further high-quality randomized control trials are needed.

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Though a number of barrier methods and potent spermicides are available, most of these have nonoxynol-9 (N-9) as the active ingredient which is observed to cause inflammation and genital ulceration on repeated use. The present study was undertaken to develop a safe spermicide with conjoint microbicidal properties.

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The effects of natal experience on the oviposition behaviour of adult female mosquitoes were investigated in the laboratory using Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). 'Treatment' mosquitoes were exposed to a dilute repellent (inducing stimulus) in their breeding water (aquatic stages) and/or in the air (adults) during various combinations of life stages [larval only (L regime); larval and pupal (LP regime); larval, pupal and emergent adult (LPE regime); larval, pupal, emergent adult and adult (LPEA regime); pupal, emergent adult and adult (PEA regime); adult only (A regime)]. 'Control' mosquitoes were raised in an identical manner, but were not exposed to the inducing stimulus. The oviposition behaviour of treatment and control females was assessed in an oviposition assay that presented a choice of water with or without the inducing stimulus. Of the 435 mosquitoes tested in the experiment, 176 were non-distributors (i.e. laid all of their eggs in only one of the choices). Treatment females (distributors plus non-distributors) reared in the presence of the inducing stimulus throughout their lives (LPEA regime) showed a significant preference for the oviposition option containing the inducing stimulus (24/36 females) compared with corresponding controls (5/39 females). Distributors reared under the LPEA and PEA regimes also showed this preference (6/6 treatment vs. 2/29 control females, and 13/18 treatment vs. 7/23 control females, respectively). Females that had been exposed to the inducing stimulus as either immatures or adults only showed no preference for, and some showed an aversion to, the treatment oviposition option. This is interpreted as evidence for a natal habitat preference induction (NHPI) in this species, albeit one that requires extensive reinforcement in the adult stage. This adult experience-reinforced NHPI (AER-NHPI) is discussed in terms of its adaptive significance for container breeders, the possible timing mechanism and sensory basis of induction and potential practical consequences.

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Fifteen kinds of commonly consumed Thai vegetables were sequentially extracted with hexane, chloroform and methanol, and then tested for antimutagenic activities against direct-acting (AF-2 and NaN3) and indirect-acting (AFB1 and B(a)P) mutagens using Ames' Salmonella mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimurium TA100 as tester strain. It was found that only the methanol extract of neem leaves contain weak antimutagen inhibiting the mutagenicities of both direct-acting mutagens. Interestingly, all vegetables studied were found to contain chemical compounds, mainly nonpolar ones, capable of inhibiting the mutagenicity of AFB1, while only some vegetables contain chemical compounds capable of inhibiting the mutagenicity of B(a)P, which is also an indirect-acting mutagen. Studies on anticarcinogenic potentials demonstrated that Thai bitter gourd fruits, but not sweet basil leaves, at the concentration of 6.25% and 12.5% in the diet, partially inhibited DMBA-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats when fed to the animals 2 weeks prior to DMBA. Results in the present study therefore demonstrated that most Thai vegetables contain antimutagens inhibiting the mutagenicity of some indirect-acting mutagen, particularly AFB1. The mechanism of their antimutagenicity may probably be the inhibition of the activity of metabolic-activating enzymes in rat liver homogenates. Very interestingly, our results clearly reveal that Thai bitter gourd fruits, which possess Phase II enzymes inducing property, as well as the ability to reduce Phase I enzyme activities in rat liver, contain some anticarcinogens or chemopreventive agents. However, sweet basil leaves that possess both Phase I and Phase II enzyme-inducing properties may not contain any anticarcinogen, at least against DMBA-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis.

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Contraceptive researchers in India and the United States used a modified version of the Sander-Cramer test to measure the minimum concentration of purified neem seeds extract, reetha saponins (pericarp of Sapindus fruits), and quinine hydrochloride to kill all sperm within 20 seconds. They wanted to determine the individual and combined action of these potential spermicidal agents on sperm motility and survival. The concentrations needed to effect the death of 100% of human sperm within 20 seconds were 25% for neem oil, 0.05% for reetha saponins, and 0.346% for quinine hydrochloride. A mixture of 25% neem extract, 1% reetha saponins, and 0.75% quinine hydrochloride was spermicidal up to a dilution of 72 times. This dilution was much higher (p = .0004) than the highest spermicidal dilution attained by reetha saponins, the most potent component of the mixture. The positive synergistic effect in the spermicidal activity of these components indicates reduced concentrations of each to achieve effective spermicidal activity (0.39% neem oil, 0.015% reetha saponins, and 0.0012% quinine hydrochloride). Reetha saponins contains considerable oleanolic acid or hederagenin, which have a mild detergent effect, inactivating sperm. Quinine chloride strengthens spermicidal activity and antimicrobial activity. Neem extract induces local cell-mediated immunity. Contraceptive developers can formulate the combination of these 3 components either as a cream or pessary.

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Toxicity of three biopesticides, i.e., two neem products and spinosad, was determined on foliage-dwelling life stages of Ceratothripoides claratris (Shumsher) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a major thrips pest on tomatoes, Lycopersicon spp., in central Thailand. Direct and residual contact toxicities of NeemAzal-TS (1% azadirachtin) and systemic activity of NeemAzal-MD 5 (5% azadirachtin) affected the survival of first larval stage (L1) in a concentration-dependent manner. However, neither second larval stage (L2) nor adult survival was influenced by both neem products. On the contrary, spinosad caused 100% mortality in both larval stages and adults of C. claratris regardless of the concentrations tested. No strong ovicidal effects were detected in three different age groups of eggs (i.e., 1, 2, and 3 d old) topically treated with both NeemAzal-TS and spinosad. Residual toxicity was highest with fresh residues of NeemAzal-TS compared with 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-d-old residues and in general was higher under laboratory than greenhouse conditions. Irrespective of the age of the spray residues, spinosad always caused 100% mortality in larvae and adults. Strongest systemic effects were observed in L1 larvae 1 d after soil drenching with NeemAzal-MD 5 at the highest concentration tested. Foliar and soil applications of NeemAzal-TS and NeemAzal-MD 5, respectively, did not cause any oviposition deterrent effects.

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neem gel 2015-07-30

The study showed that all dentifrices selected for the study were effective buy neem online against the entire test organism but to varying degree. Neem active tooth paste gave a reading of 25.4 mm as the zone of inhibition which was highest amongst all of the test dentifrices. Colgate Herbal and Meswak dentifrices recorded a larger maximum zone of inhibition, measuring 23 and 22.6 mm respectively, compared to other toothpastes. All other dentifrices showed the zone of inhibition to be between 17 and 19 mm respectively.

dabur neem tablets 2017-11-19

The precision and validity of evidence from laboratory trials, uncontrolled clinical trials and non-ART controlled clinical trials are buy neem online insufficient for clinical guidance. Clinical evidence for HVGIC restorations placed using ART, comprises of 38 controlled clinical trials including over 10 000 tooth restorations. Systematic review results of these trials indicate no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in the failure rates between HVGIC and amalgam restorations in single- and multiple surface tooth cavities after up to six years. Although, many of these trials suffered from too low sample sizes, their results could be pooled in three meta-analyses. The bias risk in all trials was judged to be high.

neem leaf capsules 2017-09-28

Four fractions obtained from chloroform extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil by column chromatography were investigated for acaricidal activity against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. Octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester was isolated from an active fraction of the chloroform extract and its toxicity against S. scabiei larvae was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log model was used to analyse the toxicity data. Activity was found in the third fraction, with 100% corrected mortality after 4.5 h of exposure at a concentration of 200 mg ml(-1). This fraction was repeatedly re-crystallised in acetone to yield a white amorphous powder, identified as octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester, with a median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 0.1 mg ml(-1) at 24 buy neem online h post-treatment. The median lethal time (LT(50)) for this compound was 15.3 h at a concentration of 7.5 mg ml(-1).

neem pills 2015-06-20

Only the bioactivity of the leaf extract of S. sarrachoides (LC50 7.44 mg mL(-1)) and that of its most polar fraction (LC50 5.44 mg mL(-1)) paralleled that of the buy neem online positive control, neem oil (LC50 1.89 mg mL(-1)), across all doses tested. Liquid chromatography-quadruple time of flight-mass spectrometry identified a mixture of steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs), including α-solasonine, α-solamargine and derivatives of tomatine and demissine, which were neither detected in the crude extract nor in any of the fractions obtained from S. scabrum and S. villosum.

neem dosage 2015-04-10

A randomized, two-group, parallel study as a 'de novo' plaque accumulation model was carried out on 50 subjects (23 males and 27 females). At baseline, all participants received a professional prophylaxis and were randomly assigned to the test (Herbal mouthrinse) and control (Chlorhexidine Gluconate) group. On the following three days, all subjects rinsed with 10 ml of the allocated mouthrinse twice daily for 1 min. They were asked to refrain from use of any other oral hygiene measures during the study. At the end of the experimental buy neem online period, plaque was assessed and a questionnaire was filled by all subjects.

neem tablets 2017-10-04

These natural plant products may successfully replace chemical fungicides and provide an alternative method to protect soybean and other agricultural commodities from aflatoxin B(1) buy neem online production by A. flavus.

neem with alcohol 2017-12-28

Triclosan-based dental formulation with combination of fluoride (1000ppm) exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against test organisms than the combination of lower fluoride-concentration or sodium monofluorophosphate. Among herbal dentifrices, formulation containing Neem, Pudina, Long, Babool, Turmeric and Vajradanti showed significant antimicrobial activity against all the four tested microorganisms (p<0.05). However, against Streptococcus mutans, all three herbal products showed significant antimicrobial activity. Homeo products showed least antimicrobial activity on the tested buy neem online strains. Formulation with kreosotum, Plantago major and calendula was significantly effective only against Streptococcus mutans.

neem juice buy 2017-03-30

A range of cultured cells of invertebrate and vertebrate origin was grown in the presence of a number of phytochemical pesticides to test the effect of the latter on cell proliferation. The main observation was that azadirachtin was a potent inhibitor of insect cell replication, with an EC50 of 1.5 x 10 buy neem online (10) M against Spodoptera cells and of 6.3 x 10(9) M against Aedes albopictus cells, whilst affecting mammalian cells only at high concentrations (> 10(-4) M). As expected, the other phytochemical pesticides, except for rotenone, had little effect on the growth of the cultured cells. Rotenone was highly effective in inhibiting the growth of insect cells (EC50:10(-8) M) but slightly less toxic towards mammalian cells (EC50:2 x 10(-7) M). Neem terpenoids other than azadirachtin and those very similar in structure significantly inhibited growth of the cell cultures, but to a lesser degree. The major neem seed terpenoids, nimbin and salannin, for example, inhibited insect cell growth by 23% and 15%, respectively.

dabur neem capsules 2015-05-23

Drylands occupy 6.15 billion hectares (Bha) or 47.2% of the world's land area. Of this, 3.5 to 4.0 Bha (57%-65%) are either desertified or prone to desertification. Despite the low soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration, total SOC pool of soils of the drylands is 241 Pg (1 Pg = petagram = 10(15)g = 1 billion metric ton) or 15.5% of the world's total of 1550 Pg to 1-meter depth. Desertification has caused historic C loss of 20 to 30 Pg. Assuming that two-thirds of the historic loss can be resequestered, the total potential of SOC sequestration is 12 to 20 Pg C over a 50-year period. Land use and management practices to buy neem online sequester SOC include afforestation with appropriate species, soil management on cropland, pasture management on grazing land, and restoration of degraded soils and ecosystems through afforestation and conversion to other restorative land uses. Tree species suitable for afforestation in dryland ecosystems include Mesquite, Acacia, Neem and others. Recommended soil management practices include application of biosolids (e.g., manure, sludge), which enhance activity of soil macrofauna (e.g., termites), use of vegetative mulches, water harvesting, and judicious irrigation systems. Recommended practices of managing grazing lands include controlled grazing at an optimal stocking rate, fire management, and growing improved species. The estimated potential of SOC sequestration is about 1 Pg C/y for the world and 50 Tg C/y for the U.S. This potential of dryland soils is relevant to both the Kyoto Protocol under UNFCCC and the U.S. Farm Bill 2002.

neem 950 mg 2015-10-12

Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard is an important pest of solanaceous plants, including tomatoes. This mite is characterized by a high reproductive rate, which leads to high population growth in a short period of time causing important economic damage. Control of T. evansi is mainly through synthetic acaricides. In searching for environmentally friendly control measures, we evaluated the efficiency of alternative products to control T. evansi on tomato plants under greenhouse conditions. The products tested were lime sulphur and neem based products. We first estimated the lethal concentration (LC) and instantaneous rate of increase (r i) buy neem online of T. evansi exposed to different product concentrations in laboratory conditions, and later tested the efficacy of LC95 and the concentrations that restrained mite population growth (r i = 0) in greenhouse conditions. The following treatments were repeated three times: NeemPro (81.0 and 71.6 mg a.i./l), Natuneem (31.1 and 20.4 mg ai/l), Organic Neem (39.1 and 30.4 mg a.i./l), lime sulphur (1.0 and 0.6%) and water (control). For all products, control provided by LC95 was higher than provided for lower concentrations (r i = 0) one day after spraying. However, after five days, for both concentrations, the percentage of T. evansi population reduction was superior to 95% and increased over time. Only plants sprayed with Natuneem (31.1 mg a.i./l) showed symptoms of phytotoxicity. Lime sulphur and neem based products, applied in appropriate concentrations and formulations, bear out as a viable alternative to control T. evansi on tomato plants.

neem 475 mg 2017-08-26

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted in March, 2008 in El-Nouzha garden, Alexandria governorate. Pre-and post treatment inspections of the insects were examined and recorded before and after (2,4,8, and 12 weeks). Spraying was applied to evaluate the efficiency of the tested compounds, [Mineral oils (KZ oil and Star oil); IGRs (Chlorfluazuron, lufenuron and pyriproxyfen); Neem oil; emamectin benzoate and thiamethoxam]. Percentages of reduction were calculated. The ensign scale insects Insignorthezia insignis (Browne) were collected from treated Lantana camara shrubs to investigate the effect of the tested chemicals on Aspartate transferase (AST), Alanine buy neem online transferase (ALT) and Alkaline-phosphatase (ALPK) of the insect enzymes activities. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that the tested materials gave good results for controlling both adult and immature stages of the ensign scale insect Insignorthezia insignis (Browne) that infested Lantana camara shrubs, through affecting enzymes activities of the assigned insect pest.

neem tab 2015-06-07

Neem is a potent inducer of apoptosis in buy neem online biopsies of cervical cancer patients.

dabur neem tablet 2015-08-29

The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effects, also toxic effects are described. In this study we present a review of the toxicological data from human and animal studies with oral administration of different neem-based preparations. The non-aqueous extracts appear to be the most toxic neem-based products, with an estimated safe dose (ESD) of 0.002 and 12.5 microg/kg bw/day. Less toxic are the unprocessed materials seed oil and the aqueous extracts (ESD 0.26 and 0.3 mg/kg bw/day, 2 microl/kg bw/day respectively). Most of the pure compounds show a relatively low toxicity (ESD azadirachtin 15 mg/kg bw/day). For all preparations, reversible effect on reproduction of both male and female mammals seem to be the most important toxic effects upon sub-acute or chronic exposure. From the available data, safety assessments for the various neem-derived preparations were made and the outcomes are compared to the ingestion of residues on food treated with neem preparations as insecticides. This leads to the conclusion that, if applied with care, use of neem derived pesticides as Luvox Reviews an insecticide should not be discouraged.

neem capsules 2015-04-16

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), such as ibuprofen, are widely used over-the-counter drugs to treat arthritis, but they are often associated with side effects. Herbal medicines have been used to treat various diseases such as arthritis, but the scientific profiles are not well understood. In this study, we examined, in comparison with ibuprofen, the inhibitory effects Evista Tablet on various inflammatory markers of the most commonly used herbal medicines to treat arthritis, boswellia (Boswellia sapindales), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), guggul (Commiphora wightii), and neem (Azadirachta indica). To elicit inflammatory response, we exposed mouse myoblast C2C12 cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), which are cytokines activated during an inflammatory response, were determined. The optimal non-toxic concentration was determined by exposing different concentrations of drugs (from 0.01 to 10 mg/mL). Cell death measurement revealed that the drug concentrations lower than 0.05 mg/mL were non-toxic concentrations for each drug, and these doses were used for the main experiments. We found that neem and licorice showed robust anti-inflammatory responses compared with ibuprofen. However, boswellia and guggul did not demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory responses. We concluded that neem and licorice are more effective than ibuprofen in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation in C2C12 cells.

neem toothpaste review 2016-09-15

The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of Azadirachta indica (neem)-based herbal mouthrinse in improving plaque control and Requip 25 Mg gingival health.

neem capsule benefits 2015-09-17

Neem leaf dust and a commercial formulation of neem were tested on adult Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to determine their effects on the longevity, fecundity and ovarian development. Different combinations of neem leaf dust and a commercial formulation of a neem compound incorporated with sugar solution and adult rearing diets were tested. The Laboratory tests showed that ingestion of neem can significantly reduced the longevity and fertility of both the fly species. Significantly fewer pupae were collected from adults fed on laboratory rearing diet and nimbicidine as water source. Effect of neem treatment on the pupation and subsequent adult emergence of late-instar larvae was negligible. Microscopic observation indicated that the decreased fecundity was due to Noroxin Tablet the block of ovarian development. Experimental results confirmed that neem can be effectively used as a safe alternative insecticide for the control of Bactrocera species.

neem reviews 2015-03-22

In the present study, the inhibitory effect of neem leaf extract (NLE Imitrex Pill Dosage ) on lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production was examined both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro study revealed that NLE treatment (100 μg/ml) inhibits LPS (100 ng/ml)-induced NO production by 96% and TNF-α production by 32%. The reduction in NO production is probably conferred by the complete suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Interestingly, in vivo NLE significantly improved the survival rate of mice in an experimental sepsis model. Administration of NLE (100 mg/kg) 24 h before LPS treatment (20 mg/kg) improved the survival rate of mice by 60%. The inhibition of plasma NO and TNF-α production by NLE is likely to account for the improved survival of mice. Our results suggest that NLE may present a promising avenue in the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

neem gel 2017-06-23

not all Glucovance Brand Name entered subjects accounted for at the end of the trial; subjects of both groups not followed up in the same way; trial on animal tissue.

dabur neem tablets 2016-07-19

To develop a self-administered, orally delivered method for abrogation of early pregnancy. Zocor 40mg Medication

neem leaf capsules 2015-12-10

The main aim of this study is to investigate the combined effect of different operating parameters like adsorbent dose, initial Cr(6+) concentration and pH on the removal of Cr(6+) from aqueous solution using neem bark powder (NBP). A series of batch experiments were performed to find out the adsorption isotherms and kinetic behaviour of Cr( Cut Arcoxia Tablets 6+) in the aqueous solution. The adsorption process was examined with three independent variables viz. NBP dosage, initial Cr(6+) concentrations and pH. Seventeen batch experiments designed by Box-Behnken using response surface methodology were carried out, and the adsorption efficiency was modelled using polynomial equation as the function of the independent variables. Based on the uptake capacity and economic use of adsorbent, the independent variables were optimized by two procedures. The desirability of first and second optimization procedures were found to be 1.00 and 0.84, respectively, which shows that the estimated function may well represent the experimental model. The kinetic study indicated that the rate of adsorption confirms to the pseudo-second-order rate equation. Thermodynamics study indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The surface texture changes in NBP were obtained from FT-IR analysis. The optimized result obtained from RAMP plots revealed that the NBP was supposed to be an effective and economically feasible adsorbent for the removal of Cr(6+) from an aqueous system.

neem pills 2017-08-03

The present study provides ultrastructural information about the acaricidal effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the ovaries of R. sanguineus engorged females. In general, the main damage caused in the oocytes was alteration in the shape of the cell and of the germinal vesicle, ring-shaped nucleolus, cytoplasmic vacuolation, and disorganization of the organelles and of the cell membranes (including the chorion), all of which indicate that Norvasc Dosage Elderly these cells could be in the process of death. The results showed that azadirachtin would be an efficient acaricide agent for inhibiting and/or neutralizing the reproduction process of R. sanguineus females, impairing the reproductive ability of this species.

neem dosage 2016-04-12

Nineteen of 34 community groups (56%) registered at social services reported intended malaria vector control activities such as treating ditches, making and selling insecticide-treated mosquito nets, draining stagnant water, organizing clean-ups, making and selling neem soap, and the organization of campaigns such as the "Malaria Mosquito Day". Major challenges Voltaren 10 Mg facing these groups include volunteerism, lack of technical expertise, supervision, and maintaining control activities in the absence of funds. Most groups reported limited knowledge about malaria vectors, and thus targeted all water bodies for control activities.

neem tablets 2016-10-18

In the present investigation three species of Pleurotus i.e. P. sajor—caju (P1), P. florida (P2) and P. flabellatus (P3) along with two lignocellulosic substrates namely paddy straw and wheat straw were selected for evaluation of production of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes. During the cultivation of three species of Pleurotus under in vivo condition, the two lignocellulosic substrates were treated with plants extracts (aqueous extracts of ashoka leaves (A) and neem oil (B)), hot water (H) and chemicals (C).Among all treatments, neem oil treated substrates supported better enzyme production followed by aqueous extract of ashoka leaves, hot water and chemical treatment. Between the two substrates paddy straw supported better enzyme production than wheat straw. P. flabellatus showed maximum activity of exoglucanase, endoglucanase and β—glucosidase followed by P. florida and P. sajor—caju.

neem with alcohol 2016-10-01

In wetland ecosystem, nitrogen along with other elements and its management is most imperative for the production of so many aquatic food, non-food and beneficial medicinal plants and for the improvement of soil and water characteristics. With great significant importance of INM (integrated nutrient management) as sources, emphasizing on management on nitrogen as a key element and its divergence, a case study was undertaken on such aquatic food crops (starch and protein-rich, most popular and remunerative) in the farmers' field of low-lying 'Tal' situation of New Alluvial Zone of Indian subtropics. The study was designed in factorial randomized block design, where, three important aquatic food crops (water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa Roxb.), makhana (Euryale ferox Salisb.) and water lily (Nymphaea spp.) as major factor and eleven combinations of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients as sub-factor was considered in the experiment. It revealed from the results that the production of fresh kernels or nuts of water chestnut (8.57 t ha(-1)), matured nut yield of makhana (3.06 t ha(-1)) and flower stalks of water-lily as vegetables (6.38 t ha(-1)) including its nutritional quality (starch, protein, sugar and minerals) was remarkably influenced with the application of both organic (neem oilcake @ 0.2 t ha(-1)) and inorganic sources (NPK @ 30:20:20 kg ha(-1) along with spraying of NPK @ 0.5% each over crop canopy at 20 days interval after transplanting) than the other INM combinations applied to the crops. Among the crops, highest WCYE (water chestnut yield equivalence) exhibited in makhana due to its high price of popped-form in the country, which is being exported to other countries at now. Sole application of both (organic and inorganic sources) with lower range did not produce any significant outcome from the study and exhibited lower value for all the crops. Besides production of food crops, INM also greatly influenced the soil and water characterization and it was favourably reflected in this study. The physico-chemical characteristics of soil (textural class, pH, organic carbon, organic matter, ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) are most important and contributed a significant improvement due to cultivation of these aquatic crops. Analysis of such wet bodies represented the water characteristics (pH, BOD, COD, CO3-, HCO3-, NO3-N, SO4-S and Cl-) were most responsive, adaptable and quite favourable for the cultivation of these crops in this vast waste unused wetlands for the mankind without any environmental degradation.