The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs.
The efficacy of neem (1500 ppm azadirachtin (AI)), Delfin WG, a biological insecticide based on selected strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) subspecies kurstaki, and Cry1Ac protein, either individually or in combination, were examined against first to fourth instar Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae. Using an oral administration method, various growth inhibitory concentrations (EC) and lethal concentrations (LC) were determined for each bioagent. Combinations of sublethal concentrations of Bt spray formulation with azadirachtin at EC50 or EC95 levels not only enhanced the toxicity, but also reduced the duration of action when used in a mixture. The LC20 and LC50 values for Cry1Ac toxin were 0.06 and 0.22 microg ml-1, respectively. Bt-azadirachtin combinations of LC50+EC20 and LC50+EC50 result in 100% mortality. The mortality also was significant in LC20+EC20 and LC20+EC50 mixtures. These studies imply that the combined action is not synergistic but complimentary, with azadirachtin particularly facilitating the action of Bt. The Bt spray-azadirachtin combination is more economical than combinations that involve isolating the toxic protein, as the Bt spray formulations can be combined in a spray mixture with neem. These combinations may be useful for controlling bollworm populations that have acquired resistance to Bt as they may not survive the effect of mixture. Azadirachtin may be useful as a means of reducing the endotoxin concentrations in a mixture, to promote increased economic savings and further reduce the probability of resistance development to either insect control agent.
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Fifteen consecutive patients with a mean age of 76.87 ± 10.3 years (59-90 years) were analyzed. The mean wound size was 10.9 ± 6.84 cm(2) (0.4-22.6 cm(2)) with 4.8 ± 5.9 cm(2) (0.3-20.7 cm(2)) of exposed bone. The time of complete healing by secondary intention was 8.1 (4-20) weeks. Rapid formation of granulation tissue was observed which after 4 weeks covered the entire exposed bone surface in 11 of 15 cases (73%). Dressing change was simple with no pain reported; no infections or other complications occurred. Using ONE for a mean healing time of 56.7 days resulted in mean costs of EUR 423.73, which is substantially lower than those published for fascia lata, negative pressure therapy, or collagen matrix followed by skin grafting (EUR 1,612.82, EUR 4,411.80 and EUR 1,503.72, respectively).
Polymeric bio-adhesives emulsion which is biodegradable and non-toxic containing antimicrobial agents can play an important role in preventing infection in wound covering and coating for surgical implants. Therefore a bioadhesive polymer was synthesized by semi-Interpenetrating Network process using blend of shellac, casein and polyvinyl alcohol and Maleic anhydride (MA) as reactive compatibilizer. The synthesized polymer was mixed with neem and turmeric extract and homogenized using an emulsifier. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to measure the molecular miscibility of biopolymer components and emulsion constituents. Stability of emulsion (coating) was measured by keeping property and accelerated stability test. Antimicrobial properties were evaluated for human pathogenic organisms namely E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium using well diffusion assay. The results indicate that stability, miscibility and antimicrobial properties of bioadhesive was satisfactory, however further in vivo studies are required to ascertain suitability of emulsion (coating) for biomedical use.
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The combination of the three herbal ingredients resulted in the potentiation of the spermicidal action by 8-folds. The post coital tests confirmed the spermicidal properties of the Praneem polyherbal pessary (PPP) in women with high cervical mucous score around mid estrus. It also prevented in most women the migration of sperm into the cervical mucous. In 15 rabbits studied pregnancy was prevented by the intravaginal administration of PPP, whereas 13 of the 15 animals in the control group became pregnant.
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Some 9% of deaths in Ghana are attributed to malaria, which also accounts for 30% of outpatient visits and 9% of hospital admissions. A survey conducted in four areas of Ghana revealed that the factors perceived as causing malaria included malnutrition, mosquitos, excessive heat, excessive drinking, flies, fatigue, dirty surroundings, unsafe water, bad air, and poor personal hygiene. Most adolescents had no idea how the disease was spread from person to person. The symptoms most frequently considered to be linked to malaria were yellowing of the eyeballs, chills and shivering, headache, a bitter taste, body weakness, and yellowish urine. Malaria was considered to be the most important disease in the communities of Kojo Ashong, Barekese, Barekuma and Oyereko. There was a widespread understanding that malaria adversely impacted the ability of adults to work and of children to attend school. Herbal preparations for self-medication included liquids for drinking, liquids for use as enemas, and potions for hot fomentation. Most people used the leaves of the neem tree (Adzadi rachta indica) to make such preparations. Most interviewees were aware of chloroquine used in the treatment of malaria. A few people sprayed their rooms with insecticide before going to bed in order to kill mosquitos, while others used repellent coils. Bednets were rarely used. There was little knowledge of how the transmission cycle of the parasite could be broken. One social implication of the disease is that if the breadwinner dies, the children may have to cease attending school. For Africa as a whole the annual economic burden of malaria was $ 0.8 billion in 1987; by 1995 it is expected to be $ 1.7 billion. The first step in any control program should be to educate the people about the cause and treatment of the disease. District assemblies should enact bylaws on the cleanliness of households, which inspectors should enforce.
A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to assess the knowledge and usage custom of traditional insect/mosquitoes repellent plants among the inhabitants in Addis Zemen Town, Ethiopia.
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The effect of concurrent administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract with DOCA-salt was investigated in the development of hypertension.Over 5-6 week old, inbred male Wistar rats with a starting weight of 190 g were given either: (1) twice weekly subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of vehicle (soyabean oil, 0.25 mL per animal) for the first 2 weeks, plus normal drinking water (controls); (2) twice weekly (s.c.) injections (weeks 1 and 2 only) of 15 mg/kg DOCA dissolved in vehicle, plus drinking water containing 1.0% NaCl and 0.03% KCl (DOCA-salt group); or (3) 20 mg/kg of aqueous neem extract daily, in addition to the DOCA-salt treatment (DOCA-salt-neem group). All groups (8-12 animals) received normal rat pellets ad libitum and their BP was measured weekly. Terminally, the animals were anaesthetized and ECGs recorded using s.c. pins in a lead II configuration. The mean arterial pressure was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the control (97 +/- 3.7 mmHg) and DOCA-salt-neem (87 +/- 3.4 mm Hg) groups than in the DOCA-salt group (115 +/- 7.1 mm Hg). PR and RR intervals and the duration of the QRS complex were shorter (p < 0.05) in the DOCA-salt group than in the control and DOCA-salt-neem groups. Amplitude of the QRS complex was increased (p < 0.05) in the DOCA-salt group compared with both the DOCA-salt-neem and the control groups.Daily administration of 20 mg/kg neem-leaf extract concurrently with DOCA-salt for 5 weeks, prevents the development of hypertension and the accompanying alterations in the ECG patterns seen in DOCA-salt treated rats.
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A novel approach for immunocontraception by intervention of local cell mediated immunity in the reproductive system by using single intrauterine application of neem oil has been described earlier. The reversible block in fertility was reported to last for 107-180 days in female Wistar rats (Upadhyay et al., 1990. Antifertility effects of neem oil by single intrauterine administration: A novel method of contraception. Proceedings Of The Royal Society Of London B 242, 175-180) and 7-11 months in monkeys (Upadhyay et al., 1994. Long term contraceptive effects of intrauterine neem treatment (IUNT) in bonnet monkeys: An alternative to intrauterine contraceptive devices. Contraception 49, 161-167). The present study, describes the identification and characterization of the biologically active fraction from neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Family Meliaceae), responsible for the above activity in adult female Wistar rats. Initial studies with the mechanically extracted oil and solvent extracts of neem seeds have revealed that the antifertility activity was present in constituents of low to intermediate polarity. A hexane extract of neem seeds was reported to be biologically active (Garg et al., 1994. Comparison of extraction procedures on the immunocontraceptive activity of neem seed extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 22, 87-92). Subsequently, hexane extract was sequentially fractionated through the last active fraction using various separation techniques and tested for antifertility activity at each step. Preparative HPLC was used for isolating individual components of the active fraction in quantities, sufficient for characterization. An analytical HPLC method was developed for standardization of the fraction. The active fraction was identified to be a mixture of six components, which comprises of saturated, mono and di-unsaturated free fatty acids and their methyl esters. Dose response study was performed with the last active fractions. The antifertility activity with the active fraction was reversible in nature and it was completely active until 5% concentration. There was no systemic toxic effect following the administration of the active fraction. This study, for the first time, proposes an active fraction from neem seeds, responsible for long term and reversible blocking of fertility after a single intrauterine administration with high efficacy.
Out of various spices and leafy vegetables screened for their influence on the carcinogen-detoxifying enzyme, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in Swiss mice, cumin seeds, poppy seeds, asafoetida, turmeric, kandathipili, neem flowers, manathakkali leaves, drumstick leaves, basil leaves and ponnakanni leaves increased GST activity by more than 78% in the stomach, liver and oesophagus, - high enough to be considered as protective agents against carcinogenesis. Glutathione levels were also significantly elevated in the three tissues by these plant products. All of them except neem flowers, significantly suppressed (in vivo) the chromosome aberrations (CA) caused by benzo(a)pyrene in mouse bone marrow cells. Multiple CA and exchanges reflecting the severity of damage within a cell were significantly suppressed by these nine plant products. The results suggest that these nine plant products are likely to suppress carcinogenesis and can act as protective agents against cancer.
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A simple and economical method has been developed to estimate the azadirachtin content and fatty acid composition of neem kernels. Neem kernels are crushed and soaked overnight in ethanol. The extract obtained is analysed by HPLC after filtering through a 0.22 micro m membrane. The peaks are separated using acetonitrile-water (40:60) 1 mL min(-1) as the mobile phase on an RP-18 column and monitored at 214 nm. For the determination of fatty acid composition, the fatty acids are directly transmethylated in the kernel powder by heating with methanol-acetyl chloride-benzene (20:1:4, v/v) for 1 h in a water bath. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained are extracted in hexane and analysed using GLC. The separation of the FAMEs is achieved using an RH-Wax column using temperature programming, 170-200 degrees C at 2 degrees min(-1). The peaks are detected using an FID. Both the methods do not require any clean up or defatting of seeds. This results in faster, easier and more economical sample preparation.
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Cancer is the most dreaded disease in human and also major health problem worldwide. Despite its high occurrence, the exact molecular mechanisms of the development and progression are not fully understood. The existing cancer therapy based on allopathic medicine is expensive, exhibits side effects; and may also alter the normal functioning of genes. Thus, a non-toxic and effective mode of treatment is needed to control cancer development and progression. Some medicinal plants offer a safe, effective and affordable remedy to control the cancer progression. Nimbolide, a limnoid derived from the neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and flowers of neem, is widely used in traditional medical practices for treating various human diseases. Nimbolide exhibits several pharmacological effects among which its anticancer activity is the most promising. The previous studies carried out over the decades have shown that nimbolide inhibits cell proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. This review highlights the current knowledge on the molecular targets that contribute to the observed anticancer activity of nimbolide related to induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest; and inhibition of signaling pathways related to cancer progression.
This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.
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A significant increase in the proportion of restorations to the number of tooth extractions was reported after the introduction of ART in an academic mobile dental service in South Africa. The changes were ascribed to its less threatening procedure. Based on these findings, ART was subsequently introduced into the public oral health service of Ekurhuleni district in the South African province of Gauteng. This article reports on the 5-year restorative treatment pattern of operators in the Ekurhuleni district, who adopted the ART approach into their daily dental practice.
The results show that radical scepticism may epistemologically be refuted on the basis of logical and empirical coherence. For success, several systematic reviews covering interconnected beliefs are needed. In praxis, these systematic reviews would also need to be of high quality and its conclusions based on reviewed high quality trials.
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Present study was aimed to determine whether aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE) induces generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway in rat oocytes.
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In this study, attention was paid to investigate the effect of organophosphate insecticides, profenofos 40% EC, methyl parathion (metacid) 50% EC, and neem-based product nimbecidine 0.03% EC (from Azadirachta indica) on somatic chromosomal behavior, level of leaf protein, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in Lathyrus sativus L., the leguminous herb. The experiments on somatic chromosomes of root tip cells of L. sativus L. revealed that most common type of abnormalities were anaphase bridge, chromosome fragment, breaks, giant interphase, etc. Also, the mitotic index reduced and abnormality index enhanced, which were directly proportional to the rise in concentration as well as time period of exposure of chemicals. The profenofos and metacid induced drastic changes in mitotic index when compared with nimbecidine. The electrophoretic studies of leaf protein of L. sativus L. showed alteration of some major and minor protein bands subjected to spraying of organophosphate insecticides and induced to synthesize additional high molecular mass protein compared to untreated control. Analysis of SOD, EST, and POD activity by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed different patterns of the isoforms. Complete inhibition of EST was observed in profenofos-treated plants, while with metacid- and nimbecidine-treated plants EST was suppressed. Induction and/or increased activities of SOD and POD were generally enhanced. Our present study not only provides the important information for better understanding of the toxic and tolerance mechanisms, but as well can be used as a bio-indicator for contamination by pesticides, which could cause genetic instabilities of natural plant populations and in crop varieties.
The effects of A. indica (AI, Neem) were evaluated on tests of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses after 3 weeks of oral AI (leaf extract) treatment in ovalbumin immunized mice. At the dose levels tested, AI (10, 30 or 100 mg/kg), had no appreciable influence on different organ (liver, spleen, thymus)/body weight indices, when compared to controls. In tests for humoral immune responses, AI (100 mg/kg) treated mice had higher (1) IgM and IgG levels, and (b) anti-ovalbumin antibody titres, when compared to the vehicle treated group. In tests for cell-mediated immune responses, there was an enhancement (%) of (a) macrophage migration inhibition, and (b) footpad thickness after AI (100 mg/kg) treatment. These results are discussed in light of the possible immunopotentiating effects of AI.
Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) are used in the developing world for many purposes including management of agricultural insect pests. The effects of different neem extracts (aqueous (NSKEaq), ethanol (NSKEeth) and hexane (NSKEhex)) on mortality, survival and weight of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (BPH) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) third and fourth nymphal instars were investigated. When fed rice plants treated with neem derivatives in bioassays, the survival of BPH nymphs is affected. Comparisons were made with the pure neem limonoid, azadirachtin (AZA) to ascertain its role as a compound responsible for these effects. AZA was most potent in all experiments and produced almost 100% nymphal mortality at 0.5 ppm and higher concentrations. When higher concentrations were applied, the effects appeared shortly after treatment and mortality was higher. Many insects died after remaining inactive for several days or during prolonged moulting. At lower concentrations, if moulting was achieved, disturbed growth and abnormalities were then likely to occur in the moulting process. Nymphs that were chronically exposed to neem extract showed a reduction in weight (45-60%). The results clearly indicate the simple NSKE (aqueous, ethanolic or both), containing low concentrations of AZA, can be used effectively to inhibit the growth and survival of BPH.
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The findings attained through this study on the molecular interaction mode of three neem triterpenoids and DENV NS2B-NS3 pro can be considered for further in vitro and in vivo validation for designing new potential drugs for DENV infection.
There are various plants, which are used as chewing sticks in different parts of the world. Several studies have been reported on the antimicrobial effects of chewing sticks on oral bacteria. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of traditionally used neem and babool chewing sticks (datun) extracts on Streptococcus mutans.
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Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations.
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In the northeastern United States, control of Lepidopteran pests of sweet corn, particularly corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)], is difficult using organic methods. The direct application of corn oil and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to corn silk has been shown to reduce ear damage from corn earworm in past studies; these studies sought to optimize this method by evaluating additional carrier and biopesticide mixtures that comply with the United States Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and National Organic Standards. Carriers, which are liquids used to dissolve the biopesticide and deliver it into the tip of the ear, may have phytotoxic or insecticidal properties. Experiments conducted from 2001 to 2005 evaluated caterpillar damage and ear development effects from carriers (vegetable and paraffinic oils and carrageenan), biopesticides (Bt, spinsosad, and neem), and three emulsifiers in various combinations when applied directly to the tips of the ears 5-7 d after silk initiation. There were no effects of emulsifiers on ear quality, except for slight reduction in caterpillar damage in one of the two years. There were no differences among corn, soy, canola, and safflower oils in corn earworm control or tip development. The carrageenan carrier had the least effect upon ear development as measured by the length of nonpollinated kernels at the tip, compared to corn oil or paraffinic oil (JMS Stylet Oil), which caused the greatest tip damage as well as an oily discoloration. The carrier-pesticide combinations with the best ear quality overall were spinosad in carrageenan or corn oil, and Bt in carrageenan.
All five geranium oils were toxic to S. pyrioides, and four of these five were more potent than malathion and neem. Trans-nerolidol (LD50 = 13.4 ppm) was the most toxic compound against one-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae, followed by geraniol (49.3 ppm), citronellol (49.9 ppm) and geranyl formate (58.5 ppm). Essential oil of cultivar 'Egypt' at 100 μg cm(-2) [biting deterrent index (BDI) = 0.8] showed the highest biting deterrent activity, followed by cultivars 'Frensham' (BDI = 0.76), 'China' (BDI = 0.72), 'Rober's Lemon Rose' (BDI = 0.63) and 'Bourbon' (BDI = 0.45) essential oils. Among the pure compounds, the biting deterrent activity of geranic acid (BDI = 0.99) was not significantly different from that of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET).
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A polyherbal pessary was formulated with purified ingredients from neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves, Sapindus mukerossi (pericarp of fruit) and Mentha citrata oil. Spermicidal action on human sperm was tested by Sander-Cramer slide test in vitro and by post coital tests in vivo. Contraceptive action was tested in rabbits.
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No conclusive statement about the superiority of either type of material can yet be made. Further high-quality randomized control trials are needed.
Though a number of barrier methods and potent spermicides are available, most of these have nonoxynol-9 (N-9) as the active ingredient which is observed to cause inflammation and genital ulceration on repeated use. The present study was undertaken to develop a safe spermicide with conjoint microbicidal properties.
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The effects of natal experience on the oviposition behaviour of adult female mosquitoes were investigated in the laboratory using Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). 'Treatment' mosquitoes were exposed to a dilute repellent (inducing stimulus) in their breeding water (aquatic stages) and/or in the air (adults) during various combinations of life stages [larval only (L regime); larval and pupal (LP regime); larval, pupal and emergent adult (LPE regime); larval, pupal, emergent adult and adult (LPEA regime); pupal, emergent adult and adult (PEA regime); adult only (A regime)]. 'Control' mosquitoes were raised in an identical manner, but were not exposed to the inducing stimulus. The oviposition behaviour of treatment and control females was assessed in an oviposition assay that presented a choice of water with or without the inducing stimulus. Of the 435 mosquitoes tested in the experiment, 176 were non-distributors (i.e. laid all of their eggs in only one of the choices). Treatment females (distributors plus non-distributors) reared in the presence of the inducing stimulus throughout their lives (LPEA regime) showed a significant preference for the oviposition option containing the inducing stimulus (24/36 females) compared with corresponding controls (5/39 females). Distributors reared under the LPEA and PEA regimes also showed this preference (6/6 treatment vs. 2/29 control females, and 13/18 treatment vs. 7/23 control females, respectively). Females that had been exposed to the inducing stimulus as either immatures or adults only showed no preference for, and some showed an aversion to, the treatment oviposition option. This is interpreted as evidence for a natal habitat preference induction (NHPI) in this species, albeit one that requires extensive reinforcement in the adult stage. This adult experience-reinforced NHPI (AER-NHPI) is discussed in terms of its adaptive significance for container breeders, the possible timing mechanism and sensory basis of induction and potential practical consequences.
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Fifteen kinds of commonly consumed Thai vegetables were sequentially extracted with hexane, chloroform and methanol, and then tested for antimutagenic activities against direct-acting (AF-2 and NaN3) and indirect-acting (AFB1 and B(a)P) mutagens using Ames' Salmonella mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimurium TA100 as tester strain. It was found that only the methanol extract of neem leaves contain weak antimutagen inhibiting the mutagenicities of both direct-acting mutagens. Interestingly, all vegetables studied were found to contain chemical compounds, mainly nonpolar ones, capable of inhibiting the mutagenicity of AFB1, while only some vegetables contain chemical compounds capable of inhibiting the mutagenicity of B(a)P, which is also an indirect-acting mutagen. Studies on anticarcinogenic potentials demonstrated that Thai bitter gourd fruits, but not sweet basil leaves, at the concentration of 6.25% and 12.5% in the diet, partially inhibited DMBA-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats when fed to the animals 2 weeks prior to DMBA. Results in the present study therefore demonstrated that most Thai vegetables contain antimutagens inhibiting the mutagenicity of some indirect-acting mutagen, particularly AFB1. The mechanism of their antimutagenicity may probably be the inhibition of the activity of metabolic-activating enzymes in rat liver homogenates. Very interestingly, our results clearly reveal that Thai bitter gourd fruits, which possess Phase II enzymes inducing property, as well as the ability to reduce Phase I enzyme activities in rat liver, contain some anticarcinogens or chemopreventive agents. However, sweet basil leaves that possess both Phase I and Phase II enzyme-inducing properties may not contain any anticarcinogen, at least against DMBA-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis.
Contraceptive researchers in India and the United States used a modified version of the Sander-Cramer test to measure the minimum concentration of purified neem seeds extract, reetha saponins (pericarp of Sapindus fruits), and quinine hydrochloride to kill all sperm within 20 seconds. They wanted to determine the individual and combined action of these potential spermicidal agents on sperm motility and survival. The concentrations needed to effect the death of 100% of human sperm within 20 seconds were 25% for neem oil, 0.05% for reetha saponins, and 0.346% for quinine hydrochloride. A mixture of 25% neem extract, 1% reetha saponins, and 0.75% quinine hydrochloride was spermicidal up to a dilution of 72 times. This dilution was much higher (p = .0004) than the highest spermicidal dilution attained by reetha saponins, the most potent component of the mixture. The positive synergistic effect in the spermicidal activity of these components indicates reduced concentrations of each to achieve effective spermicidal activity (0.39% neem oil, 0.015% reetha saponins, and 0.0012% quinine hydrochloride). Reetha saponins contains considerable oleanolic acid or hederagenin, which have a mild detergent effect, inactivating sperm. Quinine chloride strengthens spermicidal activity and antimicrobial activity. Neem extract induces local cell-mediated immunity. Contraceptive developers can formulate the combination of these 3 components either as a cream or pessary.
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Toxicity of three biopesticides, i.e., two neem products and spinosad, was determined on foliage-dwelling life stages of Ceratothripoides claratris (Shumsher) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a major thrips pest on tomatoes, Lycopersicon spp., in central Thailand. Direct and residual contact toxicities of NeemAzal-TS (1% azadirachtin) and systemic activity of NeemAzal-MD 5 (5% azadirachtin) affected the survival of first larval stage (L1) in a concentration-dependent manner. However, neither second larval stage (L2) nor adult survival was influenced by both neem products. On the contrary, spinosad caused 100% mortality in both larval stages and adults of C. claratris regardless of the concentrations tested. No strong ovicidal effects were detected in three different age groups of eggs (i.e., 1, 2, and 3 d old) topically treated with both NeemAzal-TS and spinosad. Residual toxicity was highest with fresh residues of NeemAzal-TS compared with 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-d-old residues and in general was higher under laboratory than greenhouse conditions. Irrespective of the age of the spray residues, spinosad always caused 100% mortality in larvae and adults. Strongest systemic effects were observed in L1 larvae 1 d after soil drenching with NeemAzal-MD 5 at the highest concentration tested. Foliar and soil applications of NeemAzal-TS and NeemAzal-MD 5, respectively, did not cause any oviposition deterrent effects.