noroxin 400 dosage
Alternate mutations in the grlA and gyrA genes were observed through the first- to fourth-step mutants which were obtained from four Staphylococcus aureus strains by sequential selection with several fluoroquinolones. The increases in the MICs of gatifloxacin accompanying those mutational steps suggest that primary targets of gatifloxacin in the wild type and the first-, second-, and third-step mutants are wild-type topoisomerase IV (topo IV), wild-type DNA gyrase, singly mutated topo IV, and singly mutated DNA gyrase, respectively. Gatifloxacin had activity equal to that of tosufloxacin and activity more potent than those of norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and sparfloxacin against the second-step mutants (grlA gyrA; gatifloxacin MIC range, 1.56 to 3.13 microg/ml) and had the most potent activity against the third-step mutants (grlA gyrA grlA; gatifloxacin MIC range, 1.56 to 6.25 microg/ml), suggesting that gatifloxacin possesses the most potent inhibitory activity against singly mutated topo IV and singly mutated DNA gyrase among the quinolones tested. Moreover, gatifloxacin selected resistant mutants from wild-type and the second-step mutants at a low frequency. Gatifloxacin possessed potent activity (MIC, 0.39 microg/ml) against the NorA-overproducing strain S. aureus NY12, the norA transformant, which was slightly lower than that against the parent strain SA113. The increases in the MICs of the quinolones tested against NY12 were negatively correlated with the hydrophobicity of the quinolones (correlation coefficient, -0.93; P < 0.01). Therefore, this slight decrease in the activity of gatifloxacin is attributable to its high hydrophobicity. Those properties of gatifloxacin likely explain its good activity against quinolone-resistant clinical isolates of S. aureus harboring the grlA, gyrA, and/or norA mutations.
noroxin norfloxacin generic
Two hundred and eighty-four patients with acute conjunctivitis were enrolled in a double-masked study comparing norfloxacin ophthalmic solution with placebo. The proportion of patients who were clinically improved after 5 days treatment was 88.1% in the norfloxacin group and 71.6% in the placebo group (p less than 0.01). The proportion of patients who had all organisms eradicated, including the coagulase-negative staphylococci, after two to three days treatment was 52.7% for norfloxacin and 23.9% for placebo (p less than 0.01) and 64.7% and 26.3% (p less than 0.01) respectively when the coagulase-negative staphylococci were not included. Adverse experiences occurred in 4.2% of the patients receiving norfloxacin compared to 7.1% of the placebo patients. None of the adverse experiences was serious.
noroxin 200 mg
The training troop's diarrhea incidence rate was significantly higher than that of garrison. The diarrhea incidence rate of officers was significantly lower than that of soldiers. A lapactic pathogen was identified in 63.1% (65/103) of the troops with diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (35.0%) and plesiomona shigelloides (16.5%) were the most common bacterial pathogens. All bacterial isolates were sensitive to norfloxacin and ceftazidine. However, almost all of them were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, furazolidone, ampicillin and cloromycetin to a different degree. Risk factors associated with diarrhea included drinking raw water, eating outside, contacting diarrhea patients, lacking sanitation, depression, lacking sleep, which were established by multiple-factor logistic regression analysis. In addition, the unit incidence rate was associated with the density of flies and the average daily boiled water available by regression and discriminate analysis.
noroxin medication guide
Norfloxacin (NFX), a fluoroquinolone, was encapsulated in multilamellar liposomes (MLV) of soy-bean phosphatidylcholine at pH 7.0. The observed affinity of this class of drugs for hydrophobic environments, such as phospholipid bilayers, could lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of uptake in bacteria. The fluorescent properties of NFX were examined both free in solution and in MLV, using anisotropy and fluorescence quenching measurements. The latter data was treated with a chemometric method to deconvolute the overlapped spectra of zwitterionic and neutral species of NFX in equilibrium at this pH. The results show that NFX incorporates into the lipidic bilayers with two different distributions of species: the zwitterionic form in the lipid/aqueous interface, and the neutral one, more towards the center of the bilayer.
noroxin drug interactions
Tissue penetration and distribution of antibiotics are important issues when establishing antibiotic therapies. Free concentrations of antibiotics at the infection site are responsible for bacteria killing effect. The knowledge of the correlation between blood levels and tissue concentrations can be helpful for adequate dosing of these drugs. It was the aim of this study to investigate norfloxacin pharmacokinetics in rats to predict free interstitial levels of the drug, determined by microdialysis, using pharmacokinetic parameters derived from total plasma data. Norfloxacin free tissue and total plasma levels were determined in Wistar rats after administering 5 and 10 mg/kg i.v. bolus doses. Plasma and microdialysis samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Norfloxacin plasma pharmacokinetics was consistent with a two compartments model. A simultaneous fitting of plasma and tissue concentrations was performed using a proportionality factor because norfloxacin free tissue levels determined by microdialysis were lower than those predicted using plasma data. A similar proportionality (f(T)) factor was calculated by the computer program Scientist((R)) for both doses (0.25 +/- 0.08). It can be concluded that it is possible to predict concentration time profiles of norfloxacin in the peripheral compartment based on plasma data using the adequate tissue penetration factor.
We analyzed the in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin and 10 additional fluoroquinolones against 816 Salmonella strains collected from Finnish patients between 1995 and 2003. Special attention was focused on the efficacy of newer fluoroquinolones against the Salmonella strains with reduced ciprofloxacin susceptibility.
The in vitro antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin, a new quinoline carboxylic acid, was tested against 1671 recently clinically isolated bacterial strains, by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Comparisons were made with other quinolones: nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, and other drugs: piperacillin, cefoxitin, cefotetan, ceftazidime, tobramycin, rifampin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol. Ciprofloxacin was very active against the tested species and was the most active drug against all the bacterial strains, with a geometric mean, a MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.27, 0.12 and 2 micrograms/ml, respectively.
A 7H9 broth microdilution method against CI-960, sparfloxacin, WIN57273, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, isepamicin, amikacin, kanamycin, ethambutol, isoniazid, and rifampin was used to test 35 Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAI) and five M. chelonae-fortuitum strains. The majority of MAI isolates were inhibited by all tested compounds, with sparfloxacin (MIC90, 0.5 micrograms/ml) being the most active among the fluoroquinolones; isepamicin (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml), the most potent aminoglycoside; and isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol also demonstrating some degree of activity. Mycobacterium chelonae strains were resistant to all drugs except ciprofloxacin (MIC50, 1 microgram/ml). Mycobacterium fortuitum isolates were generally susceptible, especially to the newer fluoroquinolones.
The Ames assay was used to assess the mutagenic properties of affinin (12.5, 25 and 50 µg/plate) that was added to several mutagens with or without S9 metabolic activation in Salmonella typhimurium (TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains).
buy noroxin online
Five types of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) substances were selected as pollutants in this study. The effects of the removal of these pollutants and the microbial succession process in a granular sludge membrane bioreactor (GMBR) were investigated. Results showed that wastewater containing PPCPs influenced the performance of granular sludge. The removal of the five PPCPs from the GMBR had different effects. The removal rates of prednisolone, norfloxacin and naproxen reached 98.5, 87.8 and 84 %, respectively. The degradation effect in the GMBR system was relatively lower for sulphamethoxazole and ibuprofen, with removal efficiency rates of 79.8 and 63.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, the microbial community structure and diversity variation of the GMBR were analysed via high-throughput sequencing technology. The results indicated the structural and functional succession of the microbial community based on the GMBR process. The results indicate the key features of bacteria with an important role in drug degradation.
Little information exists on the occurrence and the ultimate fate of pharmaceuticals in the water bodies in India despite being one of the world leaders in pharmaceutical production and consumption. This paper has reviewed 19 published reports of pharmaceutical occurrence in the aquatic environment in India [conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WTPs), hospital WTPs, rivers, and groundwater]. Carbamazepine (antipsychoactive), atenolol (antihypertensive), triclocarban and triclosan (antimicrobials), trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (antibacterials), ibuprofen and acetaminophen (analgesics), and caffeine (stimulant) are the most commonly detected at higher concentrations in Indian WTPs that treat predominantly the domestic sewage. The concentration of ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin in Indian WTPs were up to 40 times higher than that in other countries in Europe, Australia, Asia, and North America. A very few studies in Indian rivers reported the presence of ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, ketoprofen, erythromycin, naproxen, ibuprofen, diclofenac and enrofloxacin. Similar compounds were reported in rivers in China, indicating a similar usage pattern in both of these developing countries. In a study reported from an open well in southern India, the groundwater showed the presence of cetirizine, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, citalopram and terbinafine, which was close to a WTP receiving effluents from pharmaceutical production.
dosage of noroxin
Antibiotics have been in use for a long period and more often the misuse of antimicrobial drugs has today led to a general rise in the emergence of resistant bacteria.
noroxin 400 mg
Salmonella typhimurium has accounted for 29.43% of total Salmonella according to the surveillance in Fujian province since 1975. Seven common phagetypes of S. typhimurium were found. The principal phagetype was 7774, which accounted for 46.6% of all phagetypes. S. typhimurium was significantly more resistant to antibiotics in early 1990's than in the 1980's. 57%-72% of the S. typhimurium strains were resistant to aminoglycosides (except amikacin), about 70% were strains resistant to first generation penicillins and tetracyclins while a high proportion of S. typhimurium strains have rapidly become resistant to new broad-spectrum penicillins. The strains of S. typhimurium which are resistant to the first and the second generation of cephalothins become sensitive only to the third generation of cephalo thins. There has been 20% of S. typhimurium strains resistant to some types of quinolones. All S. typhimurium were sensitive to norfloxacin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. In the early 1980's resistant strains to 2-3 kinds of antibiotics accounted for 97%, and nostrains was resistant to more then 6 kinds of antibiotics. In the early 1990's, the strain resistant to 2-3 kinds of antibiotics were less than 20%; while strains resistant to more than 10 kinds of antibiotics were 66%. The increasing rate of resistant strains to antibiotics with widening of drug resistant pattern and the extensive appearance of multiresistant strains have become serious problems to be solved.
noroxin tablets 800
Epidemiologic factors were observed. Host immune status with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology and CD4/CD8 analysis was performed when consent was obtained. Visual acuity (VA) and slit-lamp examination throughout the course of keratitis was recorded. Treatment used included topical fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin 0.3%, moxifloxacin 0.5%, gatifloxacin 0.5%, levofloxacin 0.5%, or norfloxacin 0.3%) as monotherapy or in combination with topical fumagillin and/or systemic albendazole. Where corneal edema developed, ultrasound corneal pachymetry was recorded.
noroxin brand name
To evaluate the in vitro activity of eight fluoroquinolones against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on siliconized latex urinary catheters.
noroxin with alcohol
In a randomized clinical trial, norfloxacin was compared with nalidixic acid in the treatment of acute invasive diarrhea, with particular reference to shigellosis in adults. Of 104 patients studied, 40 were positive for Shigella in stool cultures, of which 22 received norfloxacin and 18 received nalidixic acid. The patients in these two groups were comparable on admission. In the treatment of culture-positive shigellosis cases, the responses to therapy with both drugs were similar, except that the duration of fever, anorexia, and abdominal pain were less in those who received norfloxacin. Norfloxacin appeared to be superior to nalidixic acid in the treatment of shigellosis cases caused by Shigella strains resistant to nalidixic acid.
This survey shows that FQ are prescribed in children although their use is not approved in this age group and that numerous side effects have been recorded. The absence of exhaustive information (due to the retrospective nature of the survey) and the difficulties in interpreting the side effects for which validity and causal assessment have not been worked out according to a standardized method and in the absence of a control group stress the need for a prospective study.
Helicobacter pylori eradication using the three antibiotic regimen of amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole often fails, making it imperative to find substitutes. The following study made use of 72 H. pylori isolates derived from pyloric antrum mucosa biopsies of gastritis and chronic dyspepsia patients treated at the Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital and three private hospitals in Jakarta. Testing for H. pylori sensitivity to various antimicrobials was conducted using the disk diffusion method (Kirby Bauer) and procedures determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Intitute (CLSI)/NCCLS. The resistance rates of the isolates were 100% for metronodazole, 27.8% for clarithromycin, 19.4% for amoxicillin, 6.9% for ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin, 2.8% for sparfloxacin and gatifloxacin, and 1.4% for levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. Fluoroquinolons have the lowest resistance compared to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole.
noroxin renal dosing
Solid dispersions were prepared using hydrophilic carriers like polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) k30 and carbopol 974pNF (CP) in various ratios using solvent evaporation technique. These formulations were evaluated using solubility studies, dissolution studies; Fourier transmitted infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). The influence of polymer type and drug to polymer ratio on the solubility and dissolution rate of norfloxacin was also evaluated.
noroxin 400mg dosage
Of 490 enrolled patients, 89 (18.1%) had diabetes mellitus. The mean age of diabetics and nondiabetics was respectively 64.9 +/- 13.2 (SD) and 54.4 +/- 23.3 years. Most diabetics had asymptomatic bacteriuria and had undergone bladder catheterization more frequently than the nondiabetics. The most frequent causative agents of UTI in diabetics and nondiabetics were: E. coli (respectively, 56.1 vs. 56.8%), Proteus sp. (7.9% vs. 7.2%), Pseudomonas sp. (6.7 vs. 8.2%), Enterococcus sp. (6.7 vs. 7.2%). More than 50% of the isolated Pseudomonas sp. strains in both groups were resistant to gentamicin, piperacillin and norfloxacin. Both diabetics (52.8%) and nondiabetics (42.2%) had recurrent UTI during the follow-up period; the difference in the incidences did not reach statistical significance.
noroxin 400mg tablet
We describe a 4 year old girl with acute Aeromonas hydrophila gastro-enteritis who presented with a combination of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal impairment. Serum parathyroid hormone was not elevated. Both milk-alkali syndrome and intoxication of vitamins A and D were ruled out. The hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal impairment were improved by fluid infusion and intravenous administration of furosemide. Gastro-enteritis also improved with oral administration of the antibiotic norfloxacin. The association of A. hydrophila gastro-enteritis with hypercalcemia has not been described previously.
noroxin 500 mg
Quinolone activity against Escherichia coli was examined during aerobic growth, aerobic treatment with chloramphenicol, and anaerobic growth. Nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and PD161144 were lethal for cultures growing aerobically, and the bacteriostatic activity of each quinolone was unaffected by anaerobic growth. However, lethal activity was distinct for each quinolone with cells treated aerobically with chloramphenicol or grown anaerobically. Nalidixic acid failed to kill cells under both conditions; norfloxacin killed cells when they were grown anaerobically but not when they were treated with chloramphenicol; ciprofloxacin killed cells under both conditions but required higher concentrations than those required with cells grown aerobically; and PD161144, a C-8-methoxy fluoroquinolone, was equally lethal under all conditions. Following pretreatment with nalidixic acid, a shift to anaerobic conditions or the addition of chloramphenicol rapidly blocked further cell death. Formation of quinolone-gyrase-DNA complexes, observed as a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-dependent drop in cell lysate viscosity, occurred during aerobic and anaerobic growth and in the presence and in the absence of chloramphenicol. However, lethal chromosome fragmentation, detected as a drop in viscosity in the absence of SDS, occurred with nalidixic acid treatment only under aerobic conditions in the absence of chloramphenicol. With PD161144, chromosome fragmentation was detected when the cells were grown aerobically and anaerobically and in the presence and in the absence of chloramphenicol. Thus, all quinolones tested appear to form reversible bacteriostatic complexes containing broken DNA during aerobic growth, during anaerobic growth, and when protein synthesis is blocked; however, the ability to fragment chromosomes and to rapidly kill cells under these conditions depends on quinolone structure.
Fluoroquinolone resistance is mediated by target changes (DNA gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV) and/or decreased intracellular accumulation. The genes (gyrA/gyrB/parC/parE) and proteins of DNA topoisomerase IV show great similarity, both at the nucleotide and amino acid sequence level to those of DNA gyrase. It has been shown that there are hotspots, called the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR), for mutations within gyrA and parC. Based on the Escherichia coli co-ordinates, the hotspots most favoured for giving rise to decreased susceptibility and/or full resistance to quinolones are at serine 83 and aspartate 87 of gyrA, and at serine 79 and aspartate 83 for parC. Few mutations in gyrB or parE/grlB of any bacteria have been described. Efflux of fluoroquinolones is the major cause of decreased accumulation of these agents; for Staphylococcus aureus, the efflux pump involved in norfloxacin resistance is NorA, and for Streptococcus pneumoniae, PmrA. By analysis of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data derived in the presence and absence of the efflux inhibitor reserpine, it has been shown that up to 50% of ciprofloxacin-resistant clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae may possess enhanced efflux. This suggests that efflux may be an important mechanism of clinical resistance in this species. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, several efflux operons have been demonstrated genetically and biochemically. These operons are encoded by mex (Multiple EffluX) genes: mexAmexB-oprM, mexCD-OprJ system and mexEF-oprN system. The E. coli efflux pump is the acrAB-tolC system. Both the mar operon and the sox operon can give rise to multiple antibiotic resistance. It has been shown that mutations giving rise to increased expression of the transcriptional activators marA and soxS affect the expression of a variety of different genes, including ompF and acrAB. The net result is that expression of OmpF is reduced and much less drug is able to enter the cell; expression of acrAB is increased, enhancing efflux from the cell.
Although it is well known that microbial populations can respond adaptively to challenges from antibiotics, empirical difficulties in distinguishing the roles of de novo mutation and natural selection have left several issues unresolved. Here, we explore the mutational properties of Escherichia coli exposed to long-term sublethal levels of the antibiotic norfloxacin, using a mutation accumulation design combined with whole-genome sequencing of replicate lines. The genome-wide mutation rate significantly increases with norfloxacin concentration. This response is associated with enhanced expression of error-prone DNA polymerases and may also involve indirect effects of norfloxacin on DNA mismatch and oxidative-damage repair. Moreover, we find that acquisition of antibiotic resistance can be enhanced solely by accelerated mutagenesis, i.e., without direct involvement of selection. Our results suggest that antibiotics may generally enhance the mutation rates of target cells, thereby accelerating the rate of adaptation not only to the antibiotic itself but to additional challenges faced by invasive pathogens.
Antibiotics are heavily used in Chinese mariculture, but only a small portion of the added antibiotics are absorbed by living creatures. Biofilm processes are universally used in mariculture wastewater treatment. In this study, removal of antibiotics (norfloxacin, rifampicin, and oxytetracycline) from wastewater by moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) and the influence of antibiotics on reactor biofilm were investigated. The results demonstrated that there was no significant effect of sub-μg/L-sub-mg/L concentrations of antibiotics on TOC removal. Moreover, the relative abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) in MBBR biofilm increased because of selective pressure of antibiotics. In addition, antibiotics decreased the diversity of the biofilm bacterial community and altered bacterial community structure. These findings provide an empirical basis for the development of appropriate practices for mariculture, and suggest that disinfection and advanced oxidation should be applied to eliminate antibiotics, ARGs, and ARB from mariculture wastewater.
Pefloxacin was used as monotherapy in 15 cases of peritonitis occurring in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Antibiotic administration was made intravenously on day 1 (800 mg) and from day 2 to day 4 (400 mg/day), then orally during 10 days (400 mg/day). The dosage of 400 mg gave a mean serum concentration peak (11.2 mg/l) and valley (5.4 mg/l) on the second day and a mean dialysate level of 5 mg/l. The last mean serum concentration (J14) were 5.5 mg/l (peak) and 2.5 mg/l (valley) and the mean dialysate level was 2.6 mg/l. Ten of these patients were cured. We explained pefloxacin therapy failure in two cases by resistant strains (S. sanguis and S. bovis), in one case by an acquired resistance during treatment (S. epidermidis), in an other case by catheter contamination; and in the last case, clinical failure occur despite good sensitivity with in vitro-test (Acinetobacter).
noroxin 400mg tablets
All isolates were ST772-MRSA-V-t657 and resistant to erythromycin, gentamicin and norfloxacin, and 88% were PVL positive. PFGE could not discriminate between the isolates (≥85% similarity). MLVF resolved five types [Simpson's index of diversity (SID)=0.56], MLVA resolved six types (SID=0.66), and both methods separated the hospital isolates into two defined outbreaks.
noroxin and alcohol
We have synthesized and characterized a novel copper(II) complex of the fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug N-propyl-norfloxacin (Hpr-norf) in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) and studied its biological properties as antitumor antibiotic and antimicrobial agent. Human acute myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60, MTT assay, and Trypan blue assay were used to test the antileukemic, the cell viability, and the structural integrity of the cell membrane and cell proliferation properties of (chloro)(Phen)( N-propyl-norfloxacinato)copper(II) (complex 1), respectively. We found that the proliferation rate and viability of HL-60 cells decreased after treatment with complex 1, leading to cell death through apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. The antimicrobial activity of complex 1 has been tested, revealing an increased potency in comparison to the free Hpr-norf. Complex 1 proved to be capable of acting as an independent nuclease by inducing nicking of supercoiled pUC19 plasmid. Our results suggest that 1 may provide a valuable tool in cancer chemotherapy.
Despite the fact that patients with diabetes more often received longer and more potent initial treatment than patients without diabetes, pre- and postmenopausal women with diabetes more often had recurrences of their UTIs.
noroxin tablets 400mg
The response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibacterial drugs is remarkably stable and is characterized by multiresistance. This organism is uniformly resistant to ampicillins, first and second generation cephalosporins and kanamycin and most often resistant to streptomycin, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, sulphonamides, co-trimoxazole and nitrofurans. Very few of the conventional antibiotics are active against Pseudomonas spp.: polymyxin is virtually always active in vitro but gives disappointing therapeutic results; little change has been observed over years in the incidence of strains resistant to carbenicillin and to some aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin. Recently developed antibacterial agents of the beta-lactam and quinolone groups offer hopes of better therapeutic effectiveness. Among beta-lactam antibiotics, new penicillins, including azlocillin, are more active than carbenicillin and some third generation cephalosporins, notably cefoperazone, cefsulodin and ceftazidime, also show anti-Pseudomonas activity. The same applies to new beta-lactam antibiotics with a novel structure, such as thienamycins and monobactams. Several new quinolones are active in vitro against Ps. aeruginosa; these are rosoxacin, norfloxacin, enoxacin, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin.
The clinical and financial burden from bladder infections is significant. Daily antibiotic use is the recommended strategy for recurrent urinary tract infection prevention. Increasing antibiotic resistance rates, however, require immediate identification of innovative alternative prophylactic therapies. This systematic review aims to provide guidance on gaps in evidence to guide future research.
Fluoroquinolone are broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents extensively used by physicians. This widespread use has been associated with increased level ofquinolone resistance strains, particularly in Enterobacteriaceae. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) including Qnr determinants with the potential for horizontal transfer confer to quinolone resistance. Plasmid harboring qnr genes may also encode extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) such as CTX-M, SHV and TEM type. The prevalence ofplasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants like qnrA, qnrB and qnrS was investigated in a collection of 215 Enterobacteriaceae strains with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone.
noroxin generic name
The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance and the occurrence of virulence determinants among glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE) isolated in 2007-2009 from patients hospitalized in southwestern Poland.