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An incubation buffer containing microsomes, NADPH-generating system, and Ami, after termination of enzyme reaction and desipramine (Des) as internal standard (IS), was extracted with diethy ether and separated on a reversed-phase ODS column. Detection was achieved at 242 nm by ultraviolet detector.
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This double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-month follow-up treatment study investigated the efficacy of bromocriptine and nortriptyline in attenuating drinking behavior and psychiatric symptoms in 216 male alcoholic patients subtyped by comorbid psychiatric disorder(s). Three well-defined subtypes were examined: alcoholism only, alcoholism + affective/anxiety disorder, and alcoholism + antisocial personality disorder. It was hypothesized that both medications would relieve negative affective symptoms associated with alcohol use and would be particularly effective for the affective/anxiety subgroup. Contrary to our predictions, the only significant effects found were with the antisocial personality disorder patients who were receiving nortriptyline. One interpretation of the results was that nortriptyline may have reduced impulsive drinking in the antisocial personality disorder subgroup by actions on serotonergic neurotransmission.
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Of the 175 patients, 101 (58%) had a good outcome (achieved recovery and remained well), 54 (31%) had a fluctuating outcome (achieved recovery or remission but suffered a relapse or recurrence), and 20 (11%) had a poor outcome (remained depressed for the 6 months). Factors predicting good outcome included early response and a low level of schizoid personality disorder symptoms, and variables predicting poor outcome included a high score for harm avoidance and the absence of an early response.
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The study suggests a relatively low rate of resistance to treatment among depressed geriatric patients referred to a university tertiary care setting.
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To retrospectively determine whether race differentially influences treatment adherence and clinical outcomes among 68 African Americans and 92 whites treated for major depression in four urban, primary care settings.
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Higher and lower size effect groups were compared by independent Student's t-tests. At baseline, the 2400‐ to 0600‐h interval differed from all other intervals presenting a significantly higher aMT6s urine concentration. A significant difference in aMT6s urine concentrations was found 1 day after treatment in all four intervals. Higher size effect group had lower levels of depressive symptoms 2 weeks after the treatment. A positive correlation between depressive symptoms and the delta of aMT6s in the 2400-0600 h interval was observed.
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Varenicline (Chantix, Champix) is an orally administered alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist that is indicated as an aid to smoking cessation. Well designed clinical trials indicate that varenicline is an effective aid to smoking cessation. During the last 4 weeks of treatment, carbon monoxide-confirmed continuous abstinence rates were generally significantly higher with varenicline than with placebo, bupropion sustained release (SR) or nicotine replacement therapy. Varenicline also reduced cravings, the reinforcing effects of smoking and some withdrawal symptoms. Another well designed trial demonstrated that extending varenicline therapy by an additional 12 weeks helped maintain abstinence in individuals who had quit smoking. Varenicline was generally well tolerated in clinical trials; nausea, the most commonly occurring adverse event, diminished over time. More data are needed regarding the potential for neuropsychiatric events in varenicline recipients. Some of these events may be associated with nicotine withdrawal, rather than varenicline, although neuropsychiatric events have been observed in individuals who continued to smoke whilst receiving varenicline. In modelled cost-effectiveness analyses based on data from clinical trials in participants receiving smoking cessation therapy, 12 weeks' treatment with varenicline was predicted to be cost effective from a healthcare payer perspective in numerous countries. With regard to the incremental costs per QALY or life-year gained, 12 weeks' treatment with varenicline consistently dominated bupropion SR and nicotine replacement therapy and was dominant over or considered cost effective relative to unaided cessation, regular brief counselling or nortriptyline in analyses based on Markov models. In additional modelled analyses from a healthcare payer perspective, administering varenicline for an additional 12 weeks in participants who had successfully quit smoking was estimated to have acceptable incremental costs per QALY gained relative to varenicline for 12 weeks and to dominate other smoking cessation options. Moreover, in Swedish analyses that also included societal costs for production and consumption, the incremental cost per QALY gained for varenicline versus bupropion SR, and for an additional 12 weeks of varenicline therapy versus varenicline for 12 weeks only, was below commonly accepted thresholds of cost effectiveness. A US decision-analytic model from the perspective of various US health insurance plans demonstrated that, after 2 years, varenicline was predicted to dominate bupropion SR, in terms of the incremental cost per additional smoking cessation. Varenicline was also dominant or cost effective versus nicotine replacement therapy, and cost effective versus unaided cessation. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the results of cost-effectiveness studies were generally robust to plausible variations in key parameters. In conclusion, varenicline is an effective aid to smoking cessation. Varenicline was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, although more data are needed regarding the potential for neuropsychiatric events. The costs associated with varenicline are offset by direct savings associated with the reduction in smoking-related diseases. Despite their limitations, available pharmacoeconomic analyses from numerous countries support the use of varenicline for 12 or 24 weeks as a cost-effective treatment relative to other smoking cessation therapies in smokers who wish to quit smoking.
In the first experiment the influences of a single oral administration of a new antidepressant, Y-8894 50 mg, nortriptyline 50 mg, and placebo on physiological and psychological parameters were evaluated by a double-blind, crossover method in 10 healthy male volunteers. As the second experiment eight elderly healthy men were also recruited to examine the clinical pharmacology of Y-8894. Y-8894 50 mg showed no significant anticholinergic, sedative, or cardiovascular effect on any of the measures used in young subjects. In the elderly Y-8894 50 mg increased pulse rate (P less than 0.05-0.01), lowered systolic blood pressure (P less than 0.05-0.005), and decreased salivary flow (P less than 0.05) compared with those of pre-drug baseline. C.f.f. was improved after Y-8894 50 mg, but not significantly. Neither psychomotor performance nor immediate memory was influenced after either treatment in young subjects. Furthermore, in the elderly Y-8894 50 mg did not affect these parameters. In the elderly both k21 and ke were smaller, t1/2,z was longer, and AUC was larger compared with young subjects (P less than 0.01). In conclusion, Y-8894 50 mg seemed to lack the anticholinergic, sedative and cardiovascular effects which were observed after nortriptyline 50 mg in young subjects. In the elderly some affects were recognized, in part, due to pharmacokinetic alteration.
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This study describes the correlations between several measures of functional disability and Hamilton depression scores in two groups of patients with major depression and depressive symptoms (D-NOS) who were patients enrolled in a 12-week placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of nortriptyline. These patients had chronic severe tinnitus which was associated in most patients with high frequency hearing loss. The effect of whether affective symptoms improved and the patient's initial depression status (major depression versus depressive symptoms) are examined in order to increase understanding about the correlations between depressive symptoms and functional disability.
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Tobacco smoking is associated with an increased risk for the development of coronary and pulmonary vascular diseases and smoking cessation will greatly reduce this risk. Nicotine replacement and nonnicotine modalities have been used alone and in combination to help in smoking cessation. These treatment modalities appear to be safe in patients with known stable coronary artery disease.
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A method of microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection has been developed and optimized for the extraction of six tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, doxepin, nordoxepin) from human serum. The optimal parameters of MEPS extraction (type of sorbent, volume of sample, composition, and volume of washing and elution solutions) for these drugs in spiked samples were defined. The developed MEPS procedure was validated and then successfully applied to the analysis of serum reference material. The limit of detection (0.02-0.05 μg/mL), intraday (2.7-8.8%) and interday (4.4-11.6%) precision (RSD), and the accuracy of the assay (94.5-108.8%) at three concentration levels-0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 μg/mL-were estimated. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by the analysis of certified reference material. Moreover, the validated procedure was compared with the solid-phase extraction technique. Finally, microextraction by packed sorbent was assessed as a suitable tool in forensic and clinical methods for serum sample preparations.
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To assess the efficacy of TCAs in the reduction of ADHD symptoms within the broad categories of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattentiveness in young people aged 6 to 18 years with established diagnoses of ADHD.
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Prior studies have found that antidepressant medications are associated with an increased risk of falling in elderly persons. However, little is known about the prevention of falls during treatment for depression in elderly persons. This study evaluated the time course and potential risk factors for falls in a treatment protocol for late-life depression to identify specific at-risk periods and risk factors for falls in this population.
Overdosing of several drugs, such as tricyclic antidepressants, salicylates, and opiates, is known to induce effects like those seen in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. By exposing isolated perfused and ventilated rat lungs via the perfusate to six different tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, mianserine, and maprotiline), we investigated possible effects on ventilation (conductance and dynamic compliance), lung perfusion flow, and edema formation. The effects of these substances were pronounced and appeared within 15 min after exposure. Amitriptyline was studied in greater detail and caused a dose-related (0.01-1.0 mM) reduction in ventilation and perfusion flow. At the highest drug concentration pronounced lung edema was observed. Morphological studies were conducted with a transmission electron microscope. The microscopic preparations showed dose-related edema (amitriptyline 0.1 and 1.0 mM). The effects noted in our experimental studies are similar to those described in patients who have taken an overdose of tricyclic antidepressants. This emphasizes the possibility of a noncardiogenic edema component in these patients.
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The inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channel Kir4.1 is responsible for astroglial K(+) buffering. We examined the effects of nortriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), on Kir4.1 channel currents heterologously expressed in HEK293T cells, using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Nortriptyline (3-300 microM) reversibly inhibited Kir4.1 currents in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas it marginally affected neuronal Kir2.1 currents. The inhibition of Kir4.1 channels by nortriptyline depended on the voltage difference from the K(+) equilibrium potential (E(K)), with greater potency at more positive potentials. Blocking kinetics of the drug could be described by first-order kinetics, where dissociation of the drug slowed down and association accelerated as the membrane was depolarized. The dissociation constant (K(d)) of nortriptyline for Kir4.1 inhibition was 28.1 microM at E(K). Other TCAs, such as amitriptyline, desipramine, and imipramine, also inhibited Kir4.1 currents in a similar voltage-dependent fashion. This study shows for the first time that nortriptyline and related TCAs cause a concentration-, voltage-, and time-dependent inhibition of astroglial K(+)-buffering Kir4.1 channels, which might be involved in therapeutic and/or adverse actions of the drugs.
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Data obtained from human studies in vivo show that the dispositions of the tricyclic antidepressant drugs desmethylimipramine (DMI) and nortriptyline are related to the debrisoquine hydroxylation phenotype. To obtain insight into the enzymic mechanisms behind this, the metabolism of debrisoquine and antidepressant drugs by human liver preparations have been studied. The 2-hydroxylation of DMI in vitro correlates with the 4-hydroxylation of debrisoquine among various livers (rs = 0.90). Debrisoquine inhibits DMI hydroxylation competitively, and DMI inhibits debrisoquine hydroxylation, suggesting that DMI hydroxylation is catalysed by the debrisoquine hydroxylase in human liver. By monitoring the hydroxylation of DMI in various fractions during separation and purification of cytochrome P-450 from human liver microsomes we have purified a cytochrome P-450 which efficiently hydroxylates this drug. The apparently electrophoretically homogeneous enzyme had a molecular weight of 51,500 and hydroxylated DMI and debrisoquine at rates of up to 0.95 and 0.45 nmol/min . nmol P-450, respectively. This is probably the major debrisoquine hydroxylating cytochrome P-450 in man. Nortriptyline 10-hydroxylation correlates strongly (r = 0.96) with debrisoquine hydroxylation in human liver microsomes. Nortriptyline inhibits DMI-hydroxylation competitively, and the drug also inhibits the 4-hydroxylation of debrisoquine. Thus it is probable that nortriptyline is hydroxylated by debrisoquine hydroxylase. Imipramine N-demethylation did not correlate significantly (P greater than 0.1) with debrisoquine hydroxylation among microsomes from nine livers. However, if a liver from a subject, which was a poor metabolizer of debrisoquine in vivo, was included, a correlation was obtained (r = 0.79, P less than 0.01, N = 10). Imipramine demethylation also correlated with DMI-hydroxylation only if the 'poor metabolizer' liver was included (r = 0.75, P less than 0.05, N = 10). Debrisoquine inhibited imipramine demethylation competitively. The data indicate that imipramine can interact with debrisoquine- and DMI-hydroxylase, but it is uncertain if this enzyme plays an important quantitative role in its demethylation. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation correlated with DMI hydroxylation (r = 0.80) in human liver preparations, and DMI inhibited the former reaction in what is probably a mixed competitive-non-competitive inhibition. Liver preparations from a subject who was a poor oxidizer of debrisoquine both in vivo and in vitro had unusually low capacity to metabolize ethoxyresorufin. Thus ethoxyresorufin, at least partly, seems to interact with an enzyme that can metabolize DMI in human liver.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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In the base case analysis, costs for genotyping were assumed €200 per test with a corresponding ICER at €1 333 000 per QALY. To reach a €50 000 per QALY cut-off, genotyping costs should be decreased towards €40 per test. At genotyping test costs < €35 per test, genotyping was dominant. At test costs of €17 per test there was a 95% probability that genotyping was cost-effective at €50 000 per QALY.
The specific aim of this study was to contrast effects of recruitment method (solicited, referred) on demographic, psychosocial, medical, and treatment outcome measures in an ongoing clinical trial of maintenance therapies in late-life depression. Data from 125 elderly patients (56 solicited via media campaign, 69 clinically referred) with recurrent, unipolar major depression were available for analysis. Several statistical contrast procedures, including group t tests, chi 2 tests, survival analysis, and logistic regression, were used to assess differences in patient profiles related to method of recruitment. Referred patients included a higher proportion of African Americans and had a lower level of education, fewer economic resources, and higher chronic medical burden. Solicited patients had been in the index episode longer than the referred patients at the time of protocol entry and were 3.4 times more likely to have experienced a "provoking agent" (severe life event or chronic difficulty) during the 6 months that preceded the onset of depressive symptoms. In contrast to these demographic and illness history differences, there were no differences in treatment response rates or time to response related to recruitment method. Solicited patients had an overall treatment response rate of 71% versus 62% in the referred group. Median time to response was 14.3 weeks in the solicited group and 13.6 weeks in the referred group. These results suggest that the inclusion of solicited patients in geriatric depression clinical trials does not bias short-term treatment outcome.
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Do antidepressants cause, promote, or inhibit cancers?
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All prospective English-language studies, including randomized, controlled trials (RCTs), open-label studies, and naturalistic treatment reports, were eligible for inclusion. We located 13 studies, including 7 RCTs, that reported rates of antidepressant-associated mood elevations in bipolar I disorder versus bipolar II disorder, and 5, including 4 RCTs, that reported rates in bipolar II disorder versus MDD.
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Steady-state plasma levels of nortriptyline and E- and Z-10-OH-nortriptyline were determined in 55 depressed patients during long-term treatment. Dose-corrected steady-state levels varied by a factor of 20 for nortriptyline, a factor of 7 for E-10-OH-nortriptyline (sum of enantiomers), and a factor of 12 for Z-10-OH-nortriptyline (sum of enantiomers). The E-10-OH-nortriptyline levels were higher than the corresponding nortriptyline levels in about 50% of the patients and the nortriptyline/E-10-OH-nortriptyline ratio ranged from 0.27 to 4.8. In contrast to E-10-OH-nortriptyline, the steady-state levels of Z-10-OH-nortriptyline correlated significantly with the nortriptyline levels (rs = 0.68, n = 55, p less than 0.001) and the nortriptyline/Z-10-OH-nortriptyline ranged from 1.7 to 10. Patients on concurrent treatment with perphenazine or benzodiazepines had higher nortriptyline and nortriptyline/E-10-OH-nortriptyline ratios than patients taking lithium or no other psychotropic drugs. A sparteine test was carried out in 22 patients and the sparteine metabolic ratio correlated significantly with the dose-corrected steady-state levels of nortriptyline (rs = 0.62, p less than 0.01) and E-10-OH-nortriptyline (rs = -0.52, p less than 0.02) and particularly well with the ratio nortriptyline/E-10-OH-nortriptyline (rs = 0.83). The genetic variability in the sparteine/debrisoquine P-450 isozyme appeared to be clearly more important for the interindividual variation in 10-hydroxylation of nortriptyline than the possible interactions with concurrent medication.
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This review summarizes recent progress in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of gastroparesis.
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The follow-up study included 6- to 12-year-olds with major depressive disorder (MDD) and matched normal controls. After 2 to 5 years of follow-up, bipolarity developed in 31.7% of the MDD subjects. Family history data for the first- and second-degree relatives and first cousins of the 76 nonadopted MDD subjects and the 31 controls were obtained from the subjects' mothers, using the Family History-Research Diagnostic Criteria.
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Neuropathic orofacial pain can be difficult to diagnose because of the lack of clinical and radiographic abnormalities. Further difficulties arise if the patient exhibits significant distress and is a poor historian regarding previous diagnostic tests and treatments, such as somatosensory local anaesthetic blockade. Valuable information can be obtained by utilising the McGill Pain Questionnaire that allows the patient to choose words that describe the qualities of his/her pain in a number of important dimensions (sensory and effective). Basal pain intensity should be measured with the visual analogue scale, a simple instrument that can evaluate the efficacy of subsequent treatments. The dentist or endodontist can employ sequential analgesic blockade with topical anaesthetics and perineural administration of plain local anaesthetic to ascertain sites of neuropathology in the PNS. These can be performed in the dental chair and in a patient blinded manner. Other, more specific, tests necessitate referral to a specialist anaesthetist at a multidisciplinary pain clinic. These tests include placebo controlled lignocaine infusions for assessing neuropathic pain, and placebo controlled phentolamine infusions for sympathetically maintained pain. The treatment/management of neuropathic pain is multidisciplinary. Medication rationalisation utilises first-line antineuropathic drugs including tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline and nortriptyline, and possibly an anticonvulsant such as carbamazepine, sodium valproate, or gabapentin if there are sharp, shooting qualities to the pain. Mexiletine, an antiarrhythmic agent and lignocaine analogue, may be considered following a positive patient response to a lignocaine infusion. All drugs need to be titrated to achieve maximum therapeutic effect and minimum side effects. Topical applications of capsaicin to the gingivae and oral mucosa are a simple and effective treatment in two out of three patients suffering from neuropathic orofacial pain. Temporomandibular disorder is present in two thirds of patients and should be assessed and treated with physiotherapy and where appropriate, occlusal splint therapy. Attention to the patient's psychological status is crucial and requires the skill of a clinical psychologist and/or psychiatrist with pain clinic experience. Psychological variables include distress, depression, expectations of treatment, motivation to improve, and background environmental factors. Unnecessary dental treatment to "remove the pain" with dental extractions is contraindicated and aggravates neuropathic orofacial pain.
To compare the effects of chlorpromazine (CPZ), prochlorperazine (PCP), trifluoperazine (TFP), clozapine (CLO), haloperidol (HPD), quetiapine (QTP), pimozide (PMZ), and olanzapine (OLP) as well as the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline AMI, imipramine IMI, and nortriptyline NTP on thrombin-induced liberation of arachidonic acid AA in platelets.
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Thirty-one elderly depressed patients were treated for seven weeks with nortriptyline with plasma levels kept between 50-180 ng/ml. Electrocardiograms were taken at the third and seventh weeks of treatment. There were significant increases in the PR interval, QTc interval, and heart rate from before and after treatment. However, there were no consistent correlations between electrocardiographic changes during treatment and plasma levels of nortriptyline, 10-hydroxynortriptyline and either of its two isomers (E-10-hydroxynortriptyline, Z-10-hydroxynortriptyline). Increased QRS duration after seven weeks of treatment was correlated with daily dose of nortriptyline.
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Treatment with either paroxetine, 20 to 30 mg/d, or nortriptyline targeted to a therapeutic plasma level, 190 to 570 nmol/L (50-150 ng/mL), for 6 weeks.
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We studied the effect of 17 commonly used drugs, including prescription and over-the-counter medications, on the activity of serum pseudocholinesterase (PCE) in vitro. Normal pooled human serum was incubated for 120 minutes at 37 degrees C with therapeutic serum concentrations of prescription and over-the-counter drugs, and the postincubation PCE activity was measured. Morphine, quinidine, and thioridazine depressed PCE activity by more than 5% while no or negligible effect was noted following incubation with acetaminophen, chlordiazepoxide, chlorpromazine, desipramine, doxepin, imipramine, methamphetamine, nortriptyline, phenobarbital, phenytoin, procainamide, salicylic acid, theophylline, and valproic acid. Depression of PCE activity can prolong the half-life of coadministered agents with metabolism mediated by PCE.
Tricyclic antidepressants are being investigated as long-acting analgesics for topical application in wounds or IV for postoperative pain relief. However, it remains unclear if tricyclic antidepressants affect the host defense and if reported toxic effects on neutrophils are of relevance in this setting. We therefore investigated the effects of amitriptyline, nortriptyline, and fluoxetine on human neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and neutrophil toxicity in a human whole blood model.
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There is considerable controversy about the clinical value of monitoring tricyclic antidepressant plasma levels. To investigate this issue the authors pooled data from 17 published plasma level studies of imipramine, amitriptyline, or nortriptyline, involving over 400 patients. The findings suggest that tricyclic antidepressant plasma level monitoring is important primarily for patients who are severely depressed or who have endogenous features. Monitoring is especially important for such patients who are treated with amitriptyline or nortriptyline, since failure to respond may be associated with very low or very high plasma levels. These data have implications for tricyclic antidepressant plasma level monitoring and future research.
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Depression is common in COPD patients. Around 40% are affected by severe depressive symptoms or clinical depression. It is not easy to diagnose depression in COPD patients because of overlapping symptoms between COPD and depression. However, the six-item Hamilton Depression Subscale appears to be a useful screening tool. Quality of life is strongly impaired in COPD patients and patients' quality of life emerges to be more correlated with the presence of depressive symptoms than with the severity of COPD. Nortriptyline and imipramine are effective in the treatment of depression, but little is known about the usefulness of newer antidepressants. In patients with milder depression, pulmonary rehabilitation as well as cognitive-behavioral therapy are effective. Little is known about the long-term outcome in COPD patients with co-morbid depression. Preliminary data suggest that co-morbid depression may be an independent protector for mortality.
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A semiautomatic extraction-fluorimetric method for the determination of tricyclic antidepressant drugs (TCAs) based in the formation of ion pairs with 9,10-dimethoxyanthracene-2-sulphonate (DMAS) has been developed. The aqueous solutions of the TCAs (imipramine, desipramine, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, clomipramine or doxepine) are injected into a carrier composed by DMAS in an acid medium and the ion pair formed is extracted into dichloromethane where the fluorescence is measured. An experimental design (Central Composite Design) together with the Response Surface Methodology has been used to find the optimal instrumental FIA and chemical variables. We have considered as the response function the product of the peak height by the sampling frequency. The calibration curves were linear over the working range (0.25-3.00mgL(-1)). The limits of detection were lower than 0.30mgL(-1). The method has been satisfactorily applied to the determination of imipramine, amitriptyline, clomipramine and doxepin in pharmaceutical preparations.
To examine the association between exposure to antidepressants and emergency department or inpatient admission for sudden cardiac death and ventricular arrhythmia (SD/VA), and to examine the impact of dose and cytochrome P-450 inhibition.
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The stability of nortriptyline in aqueous solutions containing various concentrations of formaldehyde was investigated. Amitriptyline, as a reaction product, was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in these experiments. Factors that may contribute to this phenomenon, including pH, formaldehyde concentration, and incubation time were evaluated. At 40% (v/v) formaldehyde concentration and pH 4, there was a 68% decrease in nortriptyline concentration along with a concomitant formation of amitriptyline after 24 h. The N-methylated product was responsible for 48% of the total tricyclic drug present. The data also clearly indicate that the formation of amitriptyline is favored at elevated pH.
Antidepressant drugs are widely used for the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders and as a result they are involved in numerous clinical and forensic cases. The aim of this study was the development, optimization and validation of a simple, specific and sensitive GC/MS method for the simultaneous determination of 11 antidepressant drugs and 4 of their metabolites (amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, maprotiline, desmethyl-maprotiline, mirtazapine, desmethyl-mirtazapine, nortriptyline, paroxetine, sertraline, desmethyl-sertraline, venlafaxine and desmethyl-venlafaxine) in whole blood. The combination of solid-phase extraction with derivatization using heptafluorobutyric anhydride efficiently reduced matrix effect and improved sensitivity of the method. In this assay, protriptyline was used as internal standard. Absolute recovery values for all analytes were ranged from 79.2 to 102.6%. LODs and LOQs were found to be between 0.30-1.50 μg/L and 1.00-5.00 μg/L, respectively. The calibration curves were linear (R(2)≥0.990) within the range of 5.00-1000 μg/L for all analytes. Accuracy expressed as the % E(r) was found to be between -12.3 and 12.2%. Precision expressed as the % RSD was found to be less than 11.7% for all antidepressants. The developed method proved to be suitable for routine work and it was used to successfully analyze more than 2500 clinical and forensic blood samples.