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Ponstel

Ponstel is in a group of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Ponstel is used for treating menstrual pain. It may be used for short-term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain. Ponstel blocks the effect of certain substances in the body that are associated with pain and inflammation.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Mefenamic Acid.

Description

Ponstel is used for treating menstrual pain. It may be used for short term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain.

Ponstel blocks certain substances in the body that are linked to inflammation. NSAIDs treat the symptoms of pain and inflammation.

Ponstel is also known as Mefenamic acid, Ponstan.

Generic name of Ponstel is Mefenamic Acid.

Brand name of Ponstel is Ponstel.

Dosage

Take Ponstel orally.

Take Ponstel with or without food.

Take Ponstel with a full glass of water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Ponstel suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Ponstel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Ponstel are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Ponstel if you are allergic to Ponstel components or to aspirin.

Do not take Ponstel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not take Ponstel if you have had a severe allergic reaction (e.g., severe rash, hives, trouble breathing, growths in the nose, dizziness) to aspirin or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (e.g., ibuprofen, celecoxib).

Do not take Ponstel if you have had recent or will be having bypass heart surgery.

Do not take Ponstel if you have kidney problems.

Do not take Ponstel if you have ulcers or inflammation of the stomach or bowel.

Do not use Ponstel with aspirin.

Be careful with Ponstel when it is used by children younger than 14 years old and by elderly people.

Avoid machine driving.

Avoid drinking alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Ponstel taking suddenly.

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Cellular uptake of T3 was examined using rat H4 hepatoma cells. Uptake of [125I]T3 (10(-11) M) from serum-free medium was measured as the cell-associated counts retained by washed cells (2 X 10(6) per well). Displaceable uptake was 84% of total uptake at 2 min (2.9% of total counts). T4, tetraiodothyroacetic acid, triiodothyroacetic acid, rT3, and D-T3 were 2-5% as effective as T3 in displacing uptake. Nonequilibrium kinetics indicated a half-maximal uptake at 680 nM T3 with approximately 7 million sites per cell. Displaceable uptake was time and temperature dependent and was 73% inhibited by 2 mM KCN and 52% by 10 mM bacitracin but not by 2 mM ouabain or 10 microM cytochalasin B. Phloretin, 100 microM, inhibited uptake by 66%. T3 uptake was directly related to the free T3 concentration over the range of albumin concentrations, 0-10 g/liter. The nonbile acid cholephil compounds, bromosulfophthalein, iopanoic acid, and indocyanine green (all 100 microM) inhibited T3 uptake to 62%, 17%, and 5% of control, respectively. Taurocholate, methylaminoisobutyric acid, and oleic acid were noninhibitory. The half-inhibitory concentrations of reactive nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs were: meclofenamic acid (25 microM), mefenamic acid (45 microM), fenclofenac (69 microM), flufenamic acid (100 microM), and diclofenac (230 microM). Aspirin, ibuprofen, oxyphenbutazone, and phenylbutazone (all 100 microM) were noninhibitory. Diphenylhydantoin inhibited uptake to 50% at 75 microM. These findings suggest that T3 uptake by cultured rat hepatocytes is by an energy-dependent, saturable, stereo-selective mechanism that is dependent on cell membrane proteins. This mechanism appears to be shared by a number of other ligands, including nonbile acid cholephils and several nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs of the anthranilic and phenylacetic acid classes, as well as diphenylhydantoin. The bile acid taurocholate, oleic acid, and a probe for type A amino acid uptake were inactive. The extent to which these effects may modify expression of thyroid hormone action remains to be established.

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The effect of diphenylamine derivatives such as diclofenac sodium, mefenamic acid and lobenzarit disodium on arachidonic acid metabolism in rat peritoneal macrophages was examined. Lobenzarit disodium has no effect on prostaglandin E2 production as measured by radioimmunoassay although two other diphenylamine derivatives have a potent inhibitory activity. Three diphenylamine derivatives have no effect on Ca2+ ionophore-stimulated release of radioactivity from (3H)arachidonic acid-labeled macrophages. HPLC analysis revealed that lobenzarit disodium had no effect on the synthesis of lipoxygenase products as observed in diclofenac sodium and mefenamic acid. It is concluded that lobenzarit disodium, although its fundamental chemical structure resembles diclofenac sodium and mefenamic acid, has no inhibitory activity on arachidonic acid metabolism, suggesting that immunomodulatory activities of lobenzarit disodium are manifested without interfering with arachidonic acid metabolism.

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A statistically significant correlation can be shown to exist between the concentrations in which established non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents inhibit prostaglandin synthesis in vitro and the doses in which they exert anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects in animals. With regard to their antinociceptive activity, this relation is less distinct. Derivatives of clinically effective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents can interfere with prostaglandin synthesis in vitro without displaying any activity in vivo. Moreover, the capacity to inhibit this enzyme system is not a property exclusive to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents; tricyclic psychotropic drugs exert a similar action. The fact that a substance affects prostaglandin synthetase in vitro is consequently not a reliable indication that it possesses anti-inflammatory properties. On the other hand, the demonstration of effects of this type is important in elucidating the mechanism of action of a drug.

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A patient with acute interstitial nephritis secondary to ingestion of a Chinese herbal medicine adulterated with mefenamic acid is presented. Following hemodialysis and cessation of the medication the patient's renal function returned to normal.

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The effect of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition on the postprandial intestinal hyperemia was examined in the jejunum of anesthetized dogs. Both intravenous and intra-arterial infusion of the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and mefenamic acid reduced resting jejunal blood flow and markedly enhanced the food-induced jejunal hyperemia. The jejunal vascular response to food did not change after either intravenous or intra-arterial infusion of the carrier solutions or intra-arterial infusion of angiotensin II. The enhancement of the jejunal hyperemia was associated with an increase in the food-induced increase in jejunal oxygen consumption. Infusion of the cyclooxygenase inhibitors increased the mean amplitude of the monophasic intestinal contractions; however, this did not appear to play a role in the enhancement of the food-induced hyperemia. The study indicates that inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis has a marked effect on the postprandial intestinal hyperemia and that this may be due to its enhancement of the jejunal metabolic response to food. The prostaglandins involved and their mechanism of action are unknown.

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Assessment of methodological quality and extraction of data for included trials was undertaken independently by the authors. RevMan 4.1 was used for analysis of the data.

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Mefenamic acid (MA) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as analgesic and antipyretic drug. Available conventional pharmaceutical forms are capsules and film-coated tablets given three times a day (t.t.d.). Natural polymers such as sodium alginate, pectin, chitosan and carregeenan, used as barriers to effect the drug release, are those of the main interest of researchers. The aim of the present study was to formulate sustained release MA-beads based on kappa-carrageenan in order to reduce daily dose and to minimize gastrointestinal disturbances caused by the drug.

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This open-label randomized controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of acupuncture and combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill in treating moderate-to-severe primary dysmenorrhea. Fifty-two participants were randomly assigned to receive either acupuncture (n = 27) or COC (n = 25) for three menstrual cycles. Mefenamic acid was prescribed as a recue analgesic drug with both groups. The statistical approach used for efficacy and safety assessments was intention-to-treat analysis. By the end of the study, both treatments had resulted in significant improvement over baselines in all outcomes, that is, maximal dysmenorrhea pain scores, days suffering from dysmenorrhea, amount of rescue analgesic used, and quality of life assessed by SF-36 questionnaire. Over the three treatment cycles, COC caused greater reduction in maximal pain scores than acupuncture, while improvements in the remaining outcomes were comparable. Responders were defined as participants whose maximal dysmenorrhea pain scores decreased at least 33% below their baseline. Response rates following both interventions at the end of the study were not statistically different. Acupuncture commonly caused minimal local side effects but did not cause any hormone-related side effects as did COC. In conclusion, acupuncture is an alternative option for relieving dysmenorrhea, especially when COC is not a favorable choice.

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Prostaglandins (PG) are very potent mediators which can dilate or constrict the bronchi. In order to evaluate the role of PG in the homeostasis of bronchial tone, we studied the effects of mefenamic acid, a potent cyclooxygenase inhibitor, on the pulmonary function tests of 20 volunteers. The subjects were studied randomly in two sessions, one with a placebo and one with mefenamic acid. Tablets (drug or placebo) were taken for 2 days with the pulmonary function tests performed in the afternoon of the second day. Sessions were performed at least 2 days apart. Parameters measured, including forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, expiratory flows, functional residual capacity and specific airway conductance (SGaw), were similar in both sessions. The SGaw, which was previously reported to increase with cyclooxygenase inhibitors, was 0.23 +/- 0.06 s-1 X cm H2O-1 in the placebo session and 0.24 +/- 0.06 in the mefenamic acid session (mean +/- SD). This study shows that cyclooxygenase inhibitors have no effect on airway tone and strongly suggests that endogenous PG do not participate in the homeostasis of normal bronchial tone.

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This study of sparingly soluble model drugs assesses (a) how pH and the aqueous boundary layer factors may affect in vitro and in vivo absorption, (b) to what extent single excipients (sodium taurocholate, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, KCl, propylene glycol, methylpyrrolidone, and polyethylene glycol 400) can mitigate adverse absorption effects, and (c) how a novel rank-order visualization tool can be applied in high-throughput screening to identify promising single-excipient effects on the absorption potential of test compounds. The products of accurately measured solubility and artificial-membrane permeability (PAMPA) values at pH 5.0, 6.2, and 7.4, fully taking into account factors such as aqueous boundary layer resistance, membrane retention, and the formation of drug dimers and trimers, were used to define a flux function. A "self-organized" data visualization tool based on the flux function was mined for the promising excipient-drug combinations. In excipient-free solutions, most of the compounds studied formed aggregates. The presence of an excipient predominantly lowered permeability, but most often not by the same amount as solubility was elevated. The compounds with absorption potential most helped by excipients were: clotrimazole>griseofulvin>progesterone>dipyridamole>glibenclamide>mefenamic acid>butacaine>astemizole. The HP-beta-CD effect observed for albendazole and glibenclamide appeared to follow Cmax trends in published pharmacokinetics studies. A surprising outcome of the in vitro measurements was that the classical pH Partition Hypothesis can be "inverted" in its monotonicity by sparingly soluble compounds.

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Inhibitory potency and selectivity of NSAIDs for COX-1 and COX-2 activity in blood varied greatly. Some NSAIDs (eg, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen) were COX-1 selective, some (eg, ibuprofen, naproxen) were essentially nonselective, while others (eg, diclofenac, mefenamic acid) were COX-2 selective. Inhibitory effects of NSAIDs on gastric prostaglandin E2 synthesis correlated with COX-1 inhibitory potency in blood (P < 0.001) and with COX-1 selectivity (P < 0.01), but not with COX-2 inhibitory potency. Even COX-2 "selective" NSAIDs still had sufficient COX-1 activity to cause potent inhibitory effects on gastric prostaglandin E2 synthesis at concentrations achieved in vivo.

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Considering the significant antinoceciptive action of phenacyloxycoumarin derivatives, compound 2u prototype might be further used as model to obtain new more potent analgesic drugs.

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Dimaprit, a highly selective H2-agonist, caused a multiphasic contraction of guinea-pig ileal segments and ileal myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparations. The initial phase was characterized by a twitch which reached a maximum in 15 to 30 sec and was followed by a partial relaxation. The later phase was variable and consisted of a series of twitch responses or of a slowly developing contracture which sometimes was accompanied by oscillatory changes in tension. dose-response curves were generated for the initial response; for isolated ileal segments the EC50 was 5.1 +/- 1.8 micrometers (mean +/- S.D., N = 7) and the Hill coefficient was 1.1 +/- 0.2 and for longitudinal muscle strips the EC50 was 5.8 +/- 1.2 micrometer and the Hill coefficient was 1.2 +/- 0.1 (N = 7). Both the initial and secondary components of the contractile responses to dimaprit were prevented by 0.2 micron tetrodotoxin or 10 microns mefenamic acid and by the production of tachphylaxis to either substance P or serotonin. Scopolamine, 0.001 to 0.1 micron, insurmountably antagonized only the initial component of the response. Mepyramine (1.0 micrometer), hexamethonium (100 microns), bromolysergic acid (0.25 microns) and p-(imidazol-1-yl)phenyl (10 microns) were without effect on the response to dimaprit. The histamine H2-receptor antagonist, tiotidine, produced parallel dextral shifts in the dose-response curve for dimaprit. The apparent pA2 value for tiotidine was 7.65. The results suggest that dimaprit acts on H2-receptors located on myenteric plexus neurons to cause the release of contractile substances. The mediators of the contractile response are tentatively identified as acetylcholine, substance P, serotonin and a product(s) of the arachadonic acid cascade.

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With mefenamic acid (MA) and sulfathiazole as model pharmaceutical compounds, two and four different polymorphs, respectively, were observed under identical conditions. Moreover, it is established that the polymorphic distribution is highly dependent on the solvent evaporation rate and the solution concentration. These results imply that multiple crystal forms competitively nucleate in solution, and the probability of each form nucleating is strongly dependent on the supersaturation of the solution. Additionally, solvent was observed to play a role in controlling the solid state outcome.

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The effects of an inhibitor of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (epostane) on uterine activity and cervical softening have been studied in eight sheep during late pregnancy. Treatment with epostane led to a rapid decline in the concentration of progesterone measured in utero-ovarian venous plasma, to less than 10% of the pretreatment value within 30 min of bolus injection. This was followed by a significant (P less than 0.02) increase in the concentrations of metabolites of prostaglandins E and F in utero-ovarian venous plasma and uterine activity similar to that seen in the final stages of normal labour. Measurements of cervical tissue extensibility made ex vivo showed the cervix to have softened considerably. These changes occurred without any significant change in the concentration of oestradiol-17 beta in utero-ovarian venous plasma. Infusion of mefenamic acid, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, prevented the changes in uterine activity and cervical softening that occurred after injection of epostane alone. Mefenamic acid also reduced the increase in concentrations of metabolites of prostaglandins E and F in plasma, although the concentration of progesterone in these animals showed the same abrupt fall which occurred in sheep after injection of epostane alone. These results suggest that progesterone withdrawal, in the absence of any subsequent rise in circulating oestrogen concentrations, is sufficient stimulus to induce cervical softening in the ewe. Cervical softening following progesterone withdrawal can be prevented by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis.

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To investigate the management of menorrhagia in primary care and its impact on referral and hysterectomy rates.

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Women in lidocaine group perceived a significant reduction in postoperative pain in the first hours after surgery. There was also significantly less opioid analgesic requirement in the lidocaine than control group 4 h after CS (19 vs 44 women, p = 0.001). No side effects were reported in either group.

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Drug-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) is rare, but as there are no systematic data on it, the true incidence is not known.

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Nonsalicylate, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be divided into 4 chemical classes: acetic acids, fenamic acids, oxicams and propionic acids. Most NSAID overdoses result in a benign outcome. Of 50,614 exposures reported to poison centres in the United States in a 2-year period, 131 (0.26%) had a major outcome, with 10 deaths. Despite the generally mild effects reported in large patient series, isolated case reports have documented serious toxicity, such as seizures, hypotension, apnoea, coma and renal failure. The majority of these consequences occur after ingestion of substantial quantities by adults attempting suicide. Rarely, with ibuprofen and piroxicam, children who ingest small amounts in accidental exposure develop serious toxicity. Typical signs and symptoms of NSAID overdose include nausea, vomiting, headache, drowsiness, blurred vision and dizziness. Seizures are rarely documented across all NSAID classes, with the exception of mefenamic acid (where seizures occur in over one-third of cases), or following massive ingestion of other agents. Drugs in the propionic acid group have produced metabolic acidosis, respiratory depression and coma in severe cases. Ibuprofen is the agent with the most published data on overdose, probably because it is available without a prescription in many countries. Symptoms are unlikely after ingestion of 100 mg/kg or less, and are usually not life-threatening unless more than 400 mg/kg is ingested. There is some relationship between plasma concentrations and the potential for development of symptoms, but plasma concentrations have no impact on treatment decisions. Treatment of NSAID overdose is entirely supportive. Recent trends in emergency department procedures regarding gastric decontamination are evolving towards the recommended administration of activated charcoal without gastric emptying in patients presenting more than 1 hour after ingestion, although gastric lavage, followed by administration of activated charcoal, may be advisable in patients who present earlier. Home administration of syrup of ipecac is still recommended if treatment is given shortly after ingestion, with a few exceptions: for example, ipecac is contraindicated after ingestion of mefenamic acid or ibuprofen in amounts greater than 400 mg/kg. Urine alkalinisation and diuresis have been recommended to enhance the elimination of NSAIDs, based on a pKa in the range of 3 to 5. However, because the drugs are universally highly protein bound, with little unchanged renal excretion, this technique is not likely to be beneficial. Haemodialysis is also unlikely to enhance elimination, but may be required if oliguric renal failure develops. Multiple dose activated charcoal may be useful in enhancing elimination of NSAIDs with long half-lives, such as piroxicam and sulindac.

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Television microscopy was used to observe the responses of in vivo arterioles and venules of the rat cremaster muscle to the topical application of angiotensin II (10(-8) and 10(-6) M). Neither the first- (A1) or second-order arterioles (A2) nor the first- (V1) or second-order venules (V2) constricted significantly to angiotensin II. However, after the inhibition of local prostaglandin synthesis with either mefenamic acid or indomethacin, both A1 and A2, but not the venules, gave a significant constrictor response to angiotensin II (10(-6) M). Arterioles and venules, which were preconstricted with norepinephrine, dilated to their initial baseline diameters after angiotensin II (10(-6) M), a response not observed when the microvessels were pretreated with either an angiotensin antagonist or a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor. These observations indicate that endogenous prostaglandins exert a significant dilator influence on the larger arterioles, that this dilator influence appears to oppose the constrictor effect of angiotensin II, and that angiotensin II acts on specific receptors to induce synthesis and/or release of dilator prostaglandins in large arterioles. However, prostaglandins cannot account for the absence of a venular constriction to angiotensin.

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We synthesized mefenamic acid (MA) derived gold nanoparticles (MA-AuNps) in aqueous solution (MA-Au sol). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) of the sol at 1, 5, 15 and 60 min showed changes in size and shape of formed AuNps. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy revealed the interaction between AuNps and MA. Each Au sol exhibited exceptional catalytic activity for the reduction of Methylene Blue (MB), Rose Bengal (RB) and Eosin B (EB) dye individually as well as collectively. However, complete reduction of dye(s) was accomplished by Au sol of 5 min in just 15s. The catalytic performance of Ma-Au sol was far superior to that adsorbed on glass. AuNps were recovered with the help of water insoluble room temperature ionic liquid and reused with enhanced catalytic potential. This finding is a novel, rapid and highly economical alternative for environmental safety against pollution by dyes and extendable for control of other reducible contaminants as well.

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All studies which might describe randomised controlled trials of antifibrinolytic therapy for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding were obtained by electronic searches of the MEDLINE 1966-1997, EMBASE 1980-1997 and the Cochrane Library. Companies producing antifibrinolytics and experts within the field were contacted for reference lists and information on unpublished trials.

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A simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate extractive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of seven nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)--namely diclofenac sodium, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, ketorolac tromethamine, mefenamic acid, and naproxen-in pure forms as well as their pharmaceutical dosage forms (tablets, capsules, effervescent granules, syrups, oral drops, ampules, eye drops, gels, and suppositories). The method depends on the formation of an intensely colored ion-pair complex between the acidic drug and methylene blue in alkaline medium. The complex is stable and extractable into methylene chloride. All parameters were optimized. Beer-Lambert's law was obeyed in concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 9 microg/mL. Statistical analysis of the calibration data was carried out, and correlation coefficients were in the range from 0.9996 to 0.9998. The developed method was fully validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines, and complied with U.S. Pharmacopeia guidelines. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of the investigated drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations, and good recoveries were obtained. The results obtained were compared with those of reported and official methods, and no significant differences were found with t- and F-tests. Interference effects of some compounds usually present in combination with NSAIDs were studied, and the tolerance limits of these compounds were determined.

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A theoretical conformational analysis of fenamates, which are N-arylated derivatives of anthranilic acid or 2-aminonicotinic acid with different substituents on the aryl (phenyl) group, is reported. The analysis of these analgesics, which are believed to act through the inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, was carried out using semi-empirical potential functions. The results and available crystallographic observations have been critically examined in terms of their relevance to drug action. Crystallographic studies of these drugs and their complexes have revealed that the fenamate molecules share a striking invariant feature, namely, the six-membered ring bearing the carboxyl group is coplanar with the carboxyl group and the bridging imino group, the coplanarity being stabilized by resonance interactions and an internal hydrogen bond between the imino and carboxyl groups. The results of the theoretical analysis provide a conformational rationale for the observed invariant coplanarity. The second six-membered ring, which provides hydrophobicity in a substantial part of the molecule, has limited conformational flexibility in meclofenamic, mefenamic and flufenamic acids. Comparison of the conformational energy maps of these acids shows that they could all assume the same conformation when bound to the relevant enzyme. The present study provides a structural explanation for the difference in the activity of niflumic acid, which can assume a conformation in which the whole molecule is nearly planar. The main role of the carboxyl group appears to be to provide a site for intermolecular interactions in addition to helping in stabilizing the invariant coplanar feature and providing hydrophilicity at one end of the molecule. The fenamates thus provide a good example of conformation-dependent molecular asymmetry.

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The ester was stable at a wide pH range from 1-10. However, it was hydrolyzed by enzymes from porcine liver esterase and Caco-2 homogenate. With the PMSF exposure on the apical (AP) side and in the presence of 4% BSA on the basolateral (BL) side, the transported amount of the ester from AP-to-BL direction was 14.63% after 3 hr with a lag time of 23 min. The Papp for the ester was 4.72 x 10(-6) cm s(-1).

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Inhibitors of prostaglandin and thromboxane production such as mefenamic acid, hydrocortisone, and dexamethasone prevented a large proportion of the parenchymal cells of rat liver, proliferatively activated by a two-thirds partial hepatectomy, from entering mitosis without preventing them from initiating or completing DNA synthesis. This specific mitosis-inhibiting action was maximum when the drugs were present during the first few hours after partial hepatectomy. In contrast, indomethacin, another inhibitor of prostaglandin and thromboxane production, maximally inhibited both DNA synthetic and mitotic activities when present during the same early period of prereplicative development, which showed that it had an action not shared by the other inhibitors. Arachidonic acid completely reversed the hydrocortisone- or dexamethasone-induced inhibition of mitotic activity, but it did so only when it was injected between 2 and 3 hours after partial hepatectomy and glucocorticoid injection. Arachidonate's reversal of the hydrocortisone-induced inhibition did not occur in the presence of mefenamic acid. These observations indicate that there is an early, prostaglandin- or thromboxane-mediated, prereplicative process in proliferatively activated hepatocytes which determines their later entry into mitosis and which is separate from the early events leading to DNA synthesis.

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Mefenamic acid is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is widely used for the treatment of mild-to-moderate pain. Mefenamic acid belongs to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II drug which has lower water solubility but high permeability. There are two different compendial methods available for dissolution tests of mefenamic acid solid dosage forms, i.e. methods of United States Pharmacopeia 37 (USP) and Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2010 (PPRC). Indonesian Pharmacopeia V ed. (FI) adopted the USP method. On the other hand, many researches focused on the use of a 'biorelevant' medium to develop the dissolution test method. The aim of this research was to study the dissolution profile of mefenamic acid from its solid dosage forms (caplet and capsule) available in the Indonesian market with three different dissolution medium: USP, PPRC, and biorelevant fasted simulated small intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) media. The tested products consisted of the innovator's product (available only in caplet dosage form, FN caplet) and generic products (available as caplet and capsule). The dissolution test of the drug products in all dissolution media was performed in 900 mL of medium using apparatus II (paddle) at a temperature of 37°C and rotation speed of 75 rpm, except for the capsule product and for USP medium, both of which tests were done using apparatus I (basket) with rotation speed of 100 rpm. The solubility test of mefenamic acid was carried out in all media at temperature of 37°C. The result obtained from the solubility test showed that the the highest solubility of mefenamic acid was obtained in USP medium (approximately 2 mg/mL), followed by PPRC medium (about 0.5 mg/mL), and FaSSIF medium (approximately 0.06 mg/ml). In the dissolution test, percentage of drug dissolved in in the USP and PPRC media after 45 min for all products reached more than 75%, except for the PN caplet in USP medium which reached only about 44%. Meanwhile, in the biorelevant medium, the percentage of drug dissolved for all products did not exceed 16%. In all dissolution media, the capsule dosage form achieved the highest dissolution rate.

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ponstel suspension 2017-08-17

Challenge tests with some analgesics in common use were performed in five aspirin-sensitive asthmatics. Marked falls in FEV(1) were observed after ingestion of paracetamol, indomethacin, mefenamic acid, and dextropropoxyphene in some subjects. The mechanisms of analgesic-induced asthma are discussed: it is believed to be a non-immunological process of great practical importance when prescribing analgesics to buy ponstel online asthmatics.

ponstel user reviews 2016-09-17

A triple-concentric time-controlled release mefenamic acid (MA) tablet was developed using Carbopol and Ethocel polymers. The burst dose was programed to release immediately after an ingestion of tablet to be followed by a lag period of 2-4 h, and thereafter an 8 h controlled release of MA from core tablet. Core tablets were prepared using Carbopols 971P, 974P, 71G or 907 at various concentrations. The core tablet provided a controlled release of MA and the release rate decreased with increasing polymer concentration. Highly cross-linked Carbopol 974P released MA at a faster rate compared to release from Carbopol 971P with medium degree of cross-linking. Carbopols 71G and 971P exhibited essentially similar release rates. Carbopol buy ponstel online 907, a linear polymer, showed fastest release of MA. The extent of uptake of dissolution medium by core tablets was inversely related to the rate of release of MA from the tablets. Compression coating of core tablet with Ethocel provided the lag period to delay release of MA from core tablet. Increase in lateral coating thickness decreased MA release and increased lag period. Compression forces applied during compression coating with Ethocel for lag period, and immediate-release MA coating for burst release did not affect the integrity of core tablet.

ponstel dosage instructions 2015-07-11

Mefenamic acid, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID), directly and dose-dependently exhibits neuroprotective activity. In our study, we investigated the effects of mefenamic acid against d-serine on oxidative stress in the hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum of rats. Furthermore, the potential inflammatory and apoptotic effects of d-serine and potential protective effect of mefenamic acid were determined at mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, Bcl-2 and Bax. We buy ponstel online found that d-serine significantly increased oxidative stress, levels of inflammation- and apoptosis-related molecules in a region specific manner. Mefenamic acid treatment provided significant protection against the elevation of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and Bax. As a conclusion, we suggest that d-serine, as a potential neurodegenerative agent, may have a pivotal role in the regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis; and NSAIDs, such as mefenamic acid, may assist other therapeutics in treating disorders where d-serine-induced neurotoxic mechanisms are involved in.

ponstel dosing 2016-03-08

We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders & Subfertility Group trials register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL buy ponstel online in July 2012 and reference lists of articles. We also contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field.

ponstel generic name 2015-04-01

The vapor pressures of solid drugs were determined by the steam distillation method. Experiments using a series of benzoic acid derivatives indicated that this method offered consistent and satisfactory values for vapor pressure at about 100 degrees C. The vapor pressures of two nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, flufenamic acid (FFA) and mefenamic acid (MFA), were found to be 3.8 x 10(-3) and 1.8 x 10(-4) mmHg, respectively. These values explain the difference in the rate of change to the amorphous state between mixtures of each with magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) when they were stored under reduced pressure. It was concluded that the vapor pressures of solid drugs at about 100 degrees C, as determined by steam distillation, may be suitable indices for predicting whether or not these drugs have an inherent propensity to become buy ponstel online amorphous readily in mixtures with an adsorbent.

ponstel syrup 2017-09-11

Cytosolic sulfotransferases, which mediate activation and detoxification of both endogenous and exogenous compounds, consist of at least five different gene families (ST1 to ST5) in mammals. Several cDNAs corresponding to ST1A forms have been reported, but their functional properties are not well characterized. In addition, only a single form of ST1A sulfotransferase has been reported in each experimental animal species despite the expressions of plural forms in humans. Therefore, enzymatic properties of human ST1A3, ST1A5, rat ST1A1, mouse St1a4, and newly isolated rabbit ST1A8 have been characterized and compared by use of their recombinant proteins to clarify the functional difference between human and experimental animal ST1A forms. From the results using more than 25 phenolic chemicals, all the experimental animal ST1A forms showed substrate specificities similar to human ST1A3 rather than ST1A5. They showed high affinities toward p-nitrophenol and 6-hydroxymelatonin as found in human ST1A3. These forms also showed high activities toward umbelliferone and naringenin, but very low activities toward catecholamines, representative substrates of human buy ponstel online ST1A5. Hepatic contents of experimental animal ST1A forms varied (66-250 pmol/mg of cytosolic protein) but showed the same order as observed with human ST1A3 (120 pmol/mg). Hepatic content of human ST1A5 was about 19-fold less than that of ST1A3. Therefore, ST1A forms identified in experimental animal species correspond to human ST1A3 functionally. For chemicals such as troglitazone and 2-amino-4'-hydroxy-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, clear species differences were detected among the ST1A forms examined.

ponstel 250 mg 2017-06-09

This review summarizes all randomized controlled trials studying use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for treatment of bleeding or pain associated with IUD use. Trials of prophylactic use of these drugs around the buy ponstel online time of IUD insertion were also included.

ponstel 250mg capsules 2015-12-11

5'-Hydroxylation appears to be the only cytochrome buy ponstel online P-450 catalysed metabolic reaction of lornoxicam by human liver microsomes and this major in vivo biotransformation pathway is catalysed virtually exclusively by CYP2C9.

ponstel generic 2017-10-08

A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) complicates the clinical course of preterm infants, increasing their risks of developing chronic lung buy ponstel online disease (CLD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Indomethacin is used as standard therapy to close a PDA, but is associated with reduced blood flow to the brain, kidneys and gut. Ibuprofen, another cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, may be as effective with fewer side effects.

ponstel generic price 2015-12-19

Recently, it has been reported that inflammatory processes are associated with the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and that treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduce the risk for Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we examined nitric oxide radical quenching activity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroidal drugs using our established direct in vitro nitric oxide radical detecting system by electron spin resonance spectrometry. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, mefenamic acid, indomethacin and ketoprofen directly and dose-dependently scavenged generated nitric oxide radicals. In experiments of nitric oxide radical donor, NOC18-induced neuronal damage, these four non-steroidal drugs significantly prevented the NOC18-induced reduction of cell viability and apoptotic nuclear changes in neuronal cells without affecting the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase-like immunoreactivity. However, ibuprofen, naproxen or steroidal drugs, which had less or no scavenging effects in vitro, showed almost no protective effects against NOC18-induced cell toxicity. These results suggest that the protective effects of the former four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs against apoptosis might be mainly due to their direct nitric oxide radical scavenging activities in neuronal cells. These direct NO. quenching activities represent novel effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Our findings identified novel pharmacological mechanisms of these drugs to exert not only their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic buy ponstel online activities but also neuroprotective activities against neurodegeneration.

ponstel and alcohol 2015-04-01

Bismuth(III) complexes of NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs) and substituted benzoic acids (o-methoxybenzoic acid, m-methoxybenzoic acid, o-nitrobenzoic acid, 3,5-diacetamidobenzoic acid, and 5-[(R/S)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl carbamoyl]-2-pyridine carboxylic acid) have been synthesised and fully characterised. Two new bis-carboxylato bismuth complexes have been characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction, namely [PhBi(o-MeOC(6)H(4)CO(2))(2)(bipy)]·0.5EtOH (bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) and [PhBi(C(9)H(11)N(2)O(3)CO(2))(2)(H(2)O)]·6H(2)O. All compounds were tested against the parasite Leishmania major promastigotes for their anti-Leishmanial activity and were further assessed for their toxicity to mammalian cells. The NSAID free acids and their bismuth derivatives show negligible anti-Leishmanial activity at concentrations 1.95 to buy ponstel online 250 μg/mL against the promastigotes of L. major whereas in the case of mammalian cells only bismuth complexes of naproxen and mefenamic acid have significant effect at concentration≥250 μg/mL. The bismuth(III) complexes of substituted benzoic acids show significant anti-Leishmanial activity against the promastigotes of L. major V121 at very low concentrations while their respective free carboxylic acids show no effective activity. However, the bismuth compounds inhibit the growth of the mammalian cells at all concentrations studied (1.95 to 500 μg/mL) following 48 h incubation. The comparatively low toxicity of BiCl(3) and Bi(NO(3))(3), suggests that overall toxicity of bismuth complexes towards the parasite is both ligand and metal dependent.

ponstel drug interactions 2016-01-27

Thirty patients suffering from strains, sprains or direct soft tissue injuries were entered into a double-blind trial comparing mefenamic acid and piroxicam. Mefenamic acid was given at a dosage of 500 mg 3-times daily and piroxicam as a single daily dose of 20 mg, for a maximum of 10 days. Both drugs were effective in treating the symptoms associated with acute soft tissue injuries. There were statistically significant improvements in all parameters monitored (pain, functional capacity, sleep buy ponstel online disturbance, local swelling and tenderness) by Day 2, except for local swelling in the mefenamic acid group and sleep disturbance in the piroxicam group. By Day 5 all parameters showed improvement. Almost all (90%) of the patients had recovered from their injury in less than 1 week. Both drugs were well tolerated, only 5 patients reporting adverse events (3 on mefenamic acid and 2 on piroxicam).

ponstel dose 2016-11-22

Neither pre- nor postischemic administration buy ponstel online of a dose previously shown effective in preventing epileptic neuronal necrosis was found to reduce necrosis in cortex, nor in any subcortical structures.

ponstel medication cost 2016-04-12

There has been growing awareness that alleviation of wound pain and buy ponstel online associated symptoms after obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) surgeries may improve the quality of care. We performed a hospital-based study to compare the effectiveness and safety of two different regimens in the treatment of postoperative pain.

ponstel s syrup 2017-01-20

The European Union has regulated the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in animal production and requires its member states to detect their residues in different matrices. In this work, a detailed MS and MS/MS study by ion-trap mass spectrometry of fourteen NSAIDs is described. Two multi-residue reversed-phase LC/ESI-MS/MS methods were developed, one for the determination of Astelin Pediatric Dosage salicylic acid, naproxen, carprofen, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, niflumic acid and meclofenamic acid in the negative ion mode, and the other for the determination of ketoprofen, suxibutazone, diclofenac, mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, phenylbutazone and its metabolite oxyphenbutazone in the positive ion mode. It was thus possible to confirm up to 14 different NSAID residues in serum and plasma samples of farmed animals, after chromatographic separation by a linear gradient. These substances were chosen as representative of different chemical subclasses of NSAIDs. The two methods were also validated in-house at three contamination levels, evaluating specificity and calculating mean recoveries, repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility. The MS/MS product ion spectra were successfully used for the qualitative identification of all the drugs tested. All the NSAIDs, apart from salicylic acid, were recovered in high amounts, ranging between 71.6% and 100.9%.

ponstel medication 2017-12-06

Pharmaceutical substances have been detected in sewage effluents as well as receiving waters in many parts of the world. In this study, the occurrence and removal of a number of drug compounds were studied within a large sewage treatment plant in the south of England. Samples were processed using solid phase extraction and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results demonstrate that ibuprofen, paracetamol, salbutamol and mefenamic acid were present in both the influent and effluent of the works while propranolol-HCl was not found above the limit of quantification in any sample. Elimination rates were circa 90% for each compound but several hundred nanograms per litre were still present Neurontin Reviews in the final effluent.

ponstel drug 2015-10-15

We studied the interaction of S 5 Viagra Pills -methylisothiourea (a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) with rofecoxib (selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) and mefenamic acid (non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor) in Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in mice by isobolographic analysis. Each drug was effective in reducing pyrexia when used alone. Log-dose-response curves of all the three drugs did not show any significant departure from parallelism indicating thereby, a common mode of antipyretic action. However, rofecoxib exhibited significantly higher potency than S-methylisothiourea. Isobolographic analysis of combination of S-methylisothiourea with rofecoxib and mefenamic acid revealed additive interaction. Experimental ED(50) of the combinations was not significantly different from theoretical additive ED(50) of the corresponding drug combination, that substantiated the additive nature of interaction between inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase in Brewer's yeast-induced fever in mice. Results suggest involvement of a mediator that is subservient to both inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme activities. For further investigation, peroxynitrite ion may be considered to be the putative mediator.

ponstel dosage 2015-01-21

The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A2 is crucial for the metabolism of many drugs, for example, tizanidine. As the effects of several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and female sex steroids on CYP1A2 activity in vitro are unknown, their effects on phenacetin O-deethylation were studied and compared with the effects of model inhibitors in human liver microsomes, followed by prediction of their interaction Cialis 8 Tablet potential with tizanidine in vivo. In vitro, fluvoxamine, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid and rofecoxib potently inhibited CYP1A2 [the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) < 10 microM]. Ethinyloestradiol, celecoxib, desogestrel and zolmitriptan were moderate (IC(50) 20-200 microM), and etodolac, ciprofloxacin, etoricoxib and gestodene weak inhibitors of CYP1A2 (IC(50) > 200 microM). At 100 microM, the other tested NSAIDs and steroids inhibited CYP1A2 less than 35%. Pre-incubation increased the inhibitory effects of rofecoxib, progesterone and desogestrel. Using the free portal plasma inhibitor concentration and the competitive inhibition model, the effect of fluvoxamine and the lack of effects of tolfenamic acid and celecoxib on tizanidine pharmacokinetics in human beings were well predicted. However, the effects of ciprofloxacin, rofecoxib and oral contraceptives were greatly underestimated even when the predictions were based on their total portal plasma concentration. Besides rofecoxib, and possibly mefenamic acid, other NSAIDs were predicted not to significantly inhibit CYP1A2 in human beings. The type of enzyme inhibition, particularly metabolism-dependent inhibition, free inhibitor concentration and accumulation of the inhibitor into the hepatocytes should be considered in extrapolations of in vitro results to human beings.

ponstel 250 capsule 2017-12-03

The aim of this investigation was to study the inhibition of 11 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the human liver Diovan Usual Dosage phenol sulfotransferases (HL-PST) and catechol sulfotransferase (HL-CST).

ponstel dosage dysmenorrhea 2017-06-19

Further research Vasotec Usual Dosage is needed in order to devise new guidelines for safer use of NSAIDs.

ponstel buy 2017-04-05

An environmental assessment is presented for the 25 most used pharmaceuticals in the National Health Service (NHS) in England in 2000. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) for the aquatic environment were calculated using conservative assumptions and all PECs exceeded 1 ng 1 (-1). The calculation of predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) based on aquatic toxicity data from the literature was possible for eleven of the pharmaceuticals. PNECs were predicted with ECOSAR for 12 of the remaining 14 but no data was available for two of the compounds. The PEC/ PNEC ratio exceeded one for Paracetamol, Amoxycillin, Oxytetracycline and Mefenamic acid. Comparisons of the predicted concentrations of the compounds in sewage sludge based on either calculated sludge-water coefficients (Kd), octanol water coefficients (K(ow)), acid base constants (pKa) or environmental modelling revealed large variations. No toxicity data was available for the Trandate Dosage terrestrial environment and no assessment was made.

ponstel generic cost 2017-02-25

The effects of ethamsylate and mefenamic acid on menstrual blood loss were compared in a double-blind trial in 34 women with menorrhagia. Both drugs produced statistically significant reductions in blood loss during the 3 months of treatment; the overall reduction was 20% in the ethamsylate group and 24% in the mefenamic acid group. Compared with pretreatment values, blood loss was significantly less in each of the 3 treatment months in the mefenamic acid group, but only in the second and third months of treatment in the ethamsylate group. However, more women had a clinically useful reduction in blood loss (greater than 40%) in the ethamsylate group. The onset of effect of mefenamic acid was rapid but ethamsylate showed a comparatively greater effect as the trial progressed. Cessation of Rulide Dose treatment was followed by an increase in blood loss, more pronounced in mefenamic acid group who reverted to pre-treatment levels. A greater number of side-effects were reported with mefenamic acid.

ponstel capsule 2015-10-22

Fifteen eligible trials were assessed by three reviewers and eight of these did not meet with the inclusion criteria. Of the seven remaining trials, four of these could be included within the meta-analysis. The remaining three trials had a crossover design and despite contacting the authors and appropriate companies, we were unable to extract the results in a format suitable to include these within the meta-analysis. However the results are included within the text of the review for discussion.

buy ponstel online 2017-04-05

Change from baseline in menstrual blood loss (MBL), total menstrual fluid loss (TMFL) and pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC) score at the third and sixth cycle of treatment.

ponstel tablets 2016-03-09

The author reports the first ever documented publication in the world concerning the use of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection for status migrainosus. A 58-year old man had been suffering from migraine without aura for 20 years. This last attack (a very severe throbbing headache) started over the left side of his head and he had tried several medications (paracetamol, aspirin, ergotamine, mefenamic acid, and diazepam) during the attack to no vail. Physical examination revealed an acutely ill patient with an agonizing pain condition. General and neurological examinations were normal. BTX-A solution was then injected into the Fung Chou point (classical Chinese acupuncture point for migraine) in the total amount of 25 international unit. Dramatic response was observed within 1 hour of injection and status migrainosus was abort within 10 hours. He was headache-free and had no further attack of migraine for another 2 months.

ponstel medication dosage 2016-10-14

Marked depression of locomotor activity was observed in writhing mice given acetic acid i.p. This depression of the activity was evidenced by a squatting posture in reaction to pain. The hypoactivity was reversed dose-dependently by nonnarcotic analgesics such as acetyl-salicylic acid, aminopyrine and mefenamic acid in smaller dosages than those obtained by the conventional writhing syndrome test, and was also reversed dose-dependently by narcotic analgesics such as morphine, pethidine and codeine. Consequently, this hypoactivity test proved to be useful for analgesics screening.

ponstel capsules 2017-04-17

Mesenteric arteries, intrapulmonary arteries and thoracic aortae were isolated from adult rats. K(v)7.1 channel expression was established by fluorescence immunocytochemistry. Wire myography determined functionality of these channels in response to selective blockers and activators. Xenopus oocytes expressing K(v)7.1 channels were used to assess the effectiveness of selective K(v)7.1 channel blockers.

ponstel medicine 2015-01-18

Alpha-adrenergic agents contract vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and stimulate endothelial release of secondary factors which modulate VSM contraction. Our study examined constrictor prostanoid (cPN) and nitric oxide (NO) as secondary factors which could alter alpha-1 adrenoceptor-mediated contraction during sepsis.

ponstel s dosage 2016-02-09

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzes the oxygenation of arachidonic acid (AA) and endocannabinoid substrates, placing the enzyme at a unique junction between the eicosanoid and endocannabinoid signaling pathways. COX-2 is a sequence homodimer, but the enzyme displays half-of-site reactivity, such that only one monomer of the dimer is active at a given time. Certain rapid reversible, competitive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to inhibit COX-2 in a substrate-selective manner, with the binding of inhibitor to a single monomer sufficient to inhibit the oxygenation of endocannabinoids but not arachidonic acid. The underlying mechanism responsible for substrate-selective inhibition has remained elusive. We utilized structural and biophysical methods to evaluate flufenamic acid, meclofenamic acid, mefenamic acid, and tolfenamic acid for their ability to act as substrate-selective inhibitors. Crystal structures of each drug in complex with human COX-2 revealed that the inhibitor binds within the cyclooxygenase channel in an inverted orientation, with the carboxylate group interacting with Tyr-385 and Ser-530 at the top of the channel. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching, continuous-wave electron spin resonance, and UV-visible spectroscopy demonstrate that flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid, and tolfenamic acid are substrate-selective inhibitors that bind rapidly to COX-2, quench tyrosyl radicals, and reduce higher oxidation states of the heme moiety. Substrate-selective inhibition was attenuated by the addition of the lipid peroxide 15-hydroperoxyeicosatertaenoic acid. Collectively, these studies implicate peroxide tone as an important mechanistic component of substrate-selective inhibition by flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid, and tolfenamic acid.

ponstel pill 2015-02-09

Pain monitoring is often inadequate in the ambulant field to assure therapy results. Today NSAID take the centre in acute pain and inflammation control in dental interventions. Compared to conventional non-selective NSAID modern selective Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (COX-2) provide the potential for improved compatibility and simplified medication with heightened effectiveness in acute postoperative toothaches. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of selective COX-2 inhibitors with NSAID after operative wisdom tooth extraction in 30 ambulant patients. The pain curve under mefenamine acid showed a significant increase during the first 48 hours after extraction. With rofecoxib a continuous pain decrease with the lowest stand 48 hours after intervention was registered. One week after extraction the patient's satisfaction was in favour of rofecoxib, which showed a clearly prolonged analgetic effect over 24 hours. Additionally rofecoxib as a COX-2 selective inhibitor doesn't bear the risk for severe non-anticipatable gastrointestinal side effects or prolonged bleeding after surgical intervention.

ponstel cost 2016-03-05

A 52-year-old man was found dead in his bed. He had financial and psychosocial problems like separation from his wife and children or unemployment due to alcoholism. Under treatment of disulfiram he was presently abstinent from alcohol. As he had suffered from epileptic seizures and dizziness, he received valproic acid and the vasodilator naftidrofuryl, respectively. Autopsy showed no morphologic cause of death. Chemical analysis of blood revealed concentrations for valproic acid and disulfiram in the therapeutic and above the therapeutic range but far below the lethal level, respectively. No ethanol was found. However, the very high concentration of 7500 microg/L naftidrofuryl in whole blood was considered as cause of death, and the most probable manner of death seemed to be suicide. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a fatal poisoning with naftidrofuryl.

ponstel reviews 2017-02-08

To compare the effect of surgical ligation of PDA vs. medical treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors (using indomethacin, ibuprofen, or mefenamic acid), each used as the initial treatment, on neonatal mortality in preterm infants with a symptomatic PDA.

ponstel s medicine 2015-12-17

Using improved techniques in a study of faecal blood loss no significant change over control level occurred during administration of mefenamic acid 500 mg t.i.d. for six days. This lack of gastro-intestinal bleeding is at variance with earlier findings for this compound. Studies of two mefenamic acid formulations (250 mg capsule and 500 mg filmseal tablet) showed no significant difference in area under blood level curves or in urinary output data, indicating equivalent total absorption. The 500 mg film-coated tablet gave significantly higher serum levels at 0.5 hours, whereas the 250 mg capsule gave significantly higher serum levels at 6 and 8 hours.

ponstel drug interaction 2016-11-08

A micro method for determination of indomethacin in plasma was developed. Following deproteinization of plasma with acetonitrile containing internal standard (mefenamic acid), the separation of indomethacin and internal standard was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography using a 7 microm LiChrosorb-RP18 column (250x4 mm I.D.) at 50 degrees C. The mobile phase was 6 mM phosphoric acid-acetonitrile (50:50). The flow-rate was kept at 2.0 ml/min and the column effluent was monitored at 205 nm. The coefficients of variation of the method estimated at 0.2 and 1.0 microg/ml were 4.2 and 2.3%, and the detection limit of the drug was about 0.05 microg/ml (S/N=5). The method requires minimum pretreatment of the plasma with a small sample volume (25 microl), and is very suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring of indomethacin in premature infants with symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus.

ponstel medication information 2016-10-29

Ninety-six women undergoing interval laparoscopic sterilization using Silastic bands (Yoon rings) randomly allocated by computer-generated random numbers into 3 groups.

ponstel syrup children 2015-05-26

The assessment of pain control and inflammation using NSAIDs postoperatively after surgical removal of impacted lower third molar was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed with CRP levels. The blood sample of the patient was assessed immediate postoperatively and after 72 h. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used for assessment of pain and its correlation with CRP levels.

ponstel 250 reviews 2015-09-13

Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding) is a benign yet debilitating social and health condition. Treatments prescribed in order to reduce excessive menstrual blood loss include prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, antifibrinolytics, the oral contraceptive pill and other hormones. The combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) is claimed to have a variety of beneficial, inducing a regular shedding of a thinner endometrium and inhibiting ovulation thus having the effect of treating menorrhagia and providing contraception.