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Precose

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Glucophage, Actos, Avandia, Amaryl, Glucovance, Micronase, Glycomet

 

Also known as:  Acarbose.

Description

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Generic Precose is a glucosidase inhibitor. It works by slowing down the enzyme that turns carbohydrates into glucose; it decreases blood sugar levels following a meal.

Precose is also known as Acarbose, Glucobay, Glucor, Rebose.

Generic name of Generic Precose is Acarbose.

Brand name of Generic Precose is Precose.

Dosage

Take Generic Precose by mouth with food.

If you also take charcoal or digestive enzyme preparations, do not take them within 2 to 4 hours before after taking Generic Precose.

Temporary insulin therapy may be necessary during stressful periods (such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery).

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Precose and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Precose are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Precose if you are allergic to Generic Precose components.

Be careful with Generic Precose if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have blockage of the stomach or intestine or are at risk for these problems.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have long-term (chronic) bowel inflammation, colon ulcers, or stomach or intestine problems that interfere with digestion or nutrient absorption.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have cirrhosis of the liver or unexplained abnormal liver function tests.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have diabetic ketoacidosis (high ketone levels) or severe kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have stomach or intestinal problems, liver problems, or kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) because the risk of their side effects, including bleeding, may be increased by Generic Precose; calcium channel blockers (eg, verapamil), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), diuretics (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogen, isoniazid, nicotinic acid, oral contraceptives (birth control pills), phenothiazines (eg, chlorpromazine), phenytoin, sympathomimetics (eg, pseudoephedrine), or thyroid hormone because they may increase or decrease Precose 's effectiveness; insulin or sulfonylureas (eg, glyburide) because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Generic Precose; digoxin because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Precose.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

precose user reviews

The overall median follow-up duration was 2.5 years (interquartile range, 3.6 years). Totally, 367 and 124 cancers developed in the sulfonylurea and metformin groups, respectively, representing an adjusted HR of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.67; P<0.005). No significant differences were observed between other groups. Increased adjusted HRs were observed for colorectal cancer (adjusted HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.15-3.27; P<0.05) and lung cancer (adjusted HR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.00-3.07; P<0.05).

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By identifying quantitative differences between antidiabetic agents on carbohydrate exposure (CE), hepatic glucose uptake (HGU), hepatic gluconeogenesis (GNG), insulin resistance (IR), peripheral glucose uptake (PGU), and peripheral insulin exposure (PIE), we created a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to characterize the effect of the agents on the glucose supply and insulin demand dynamic. Glucose supply was defined as the cumulative percentage decrease in CE, increase in HGU, decrease in GNG, and decrease in IR, while insulin demand was defined as the cumulative percentage increase in PIE and PGU. With the glucose supply and insulin demand effects of each antidiabetic agent summated, the glucose supply (numerator) was divided by the insulin demand (denominator) to create a value representative of the glucose supply and insulin demand dynamic (SD ratio).

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A series of new malonamide derivatives were synthesized by Michael addition reaction of N(1),N(3)-di(pyridin-2-yl)malonamide into α,β-unsaturated ketones mediated by DBU in DCM at ambient temperature. The inhibitory potential of these compounds in vitro, against α-glucosidase enzyme was evaluated. Result showed that most of malonamide derivatives were identified as a potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase enzyme. Among all the compounds, 4K (IC50=11.7 ± 0.5 μM) was found out as the most active one compared to standard drug acarbose (IC50=840 ± 1.73 μM). Further cytotoxicity of 4a-4m were also evaluated against a number of cancer and normal cell lines and interesting results were obtained.

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A series of thiazole derivatives 1-21 were prepared, characterized by EI-MS and (1)H NMR and evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. All twenty one derivatives showed good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 value ranging between 18.23±0.03 and 424.41±0.94μM when compared with the standard acarbose (IC50, 38.25±0.12μM). Compound (8) (IC50, 18.23±0.03μM) and compound (7) (IC50=36.75±0.05μM) exhibited outstanding inhibitory potential much better than the standard acarbose (IC50, 38.25±0.12μM). All other analogs also showed good to moderate enzyme inhibition. Molecular docking studies were carried out in order to find the binding affinity of thiazole derivatives with enzyme. Studies showed these thiazole analogs as a new class of α-glucosidase inhibitors.

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Plasma insulin, plasma C-peptide, insulin secretion rate (derived by deconvolution), and plasma glucagon were the main outcome measures.

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Several drugs are associated with weight change of varying magnitude. Data are provided to guide the choice of drug when several options exist and institute preemptive weight loss strategies when obesogenic drugs are prescribed.

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The extracellular amylolytic system of Filobasidium capsuligenum consisted of an alpha-amylase (1,4-alpha-d-glucan glucanhydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1) and two forms of glucoamylase (1,4-alpha-d-glucan glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.3). The enzymes were purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, repeated ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex A-50), and gel filtration (Sephadex G-25, Sephadex G-100 sf). alpha-Amylase had an optimum pH of 5.6 and an optimum temperature of 50 degrees C but was rapidly inactivated at higher temperature. The molecular weight was estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be 64,000. An acarbose concentration of 20 mug/ml was required for 50% inhibition of the alpha-amylase. Both glucoamylases are glycoproteins of identical molecular weight (60,000) and produce only glucose by exohydrolysis. The debranching activity of the glucoamylases was evidenced with substrates containing alpha-1,6 linkages. The pH optima were 5.0 to 5.6 for glucoamylase I and 4.8 to 5.3 for glucoamylase II. Glucoamylase I had a higher optimum temperature (55 degrees C) than glucoamylase II (50 degrees C) and was also more resistant to thermal inactivation. Only low acarbose concentrations (<0.1 mug/ml) were required to reduce the activity of the glucoamylases by 50%.

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A novel series of N-arylbenzo[d]oxazol-2-amines (4a-4m) were synthesized and evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Compounds 4f-4i, 4k and 4m displayed potent inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with IC50 values in the range of 32.49±0.17-120.24±0.51μM as compared to the standard drug acarbose. Among all tested compounds, compound 4g having 4-phenoxy substitution at the phenyl ring was found to be the most active inhibitor of α-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 32.49±0.17μM. Analysis of the kinetics of enzyme inhibition indicated that compound 4g is a noncompetitive inhibitor of α-glucosidase with a Ki value of 31.33μM. Binding interaction of compound 4g with α-glucosidase was explored by molecular docking simulation.

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A total of 15,034 patients were valid for the efficacy analysis and 15,661 for the safety analysis (mean age was 57.6 years and 92.6 % of patients were Asian). Mean (SD) 2-h PPG decreased by -71.9 (62.3) mg/dL, to 170.2 (46.5) mg/dL at final visit (after 12.8 [4.1] weeks). Mean HbA1c decreased by -1.1 % (1.3) to 7.2 % (1.1) and mean FBG decreased by -33.0 (43.3) mg/dL to 124.8 (30.5) mg/dL. Acarbose was effective regardless of the presence of cardiovascular co-morbidities or diabetic complications. The efficacy of acarbose was rated 'very good' or 'good' in 85.5 % of patients, and tolerability as 'very good' or 'good' in 84.9 % of patients. Drug-related adverse events, mainly gastrointestinal, were reported in 490/15,661 patients (3.13 %).

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Acarbose, 300 mg/day, was administered over one month in a cross-over trial to 18 hyperglycemic patients aged 41-66 years with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). All showed "normal" or exaggerated insulin release after a glucose challenge and remained in poor control (random glucose levels greater than or equal to 13 mmol/l) despite involvement in a diabetes intervention programme and prior use of oral hypoglycemic agents. During the one month treatment with Acarbose, fasting glucose and % HbAl concentrations were not different from those observed during placebo therapy. Furthermore, glucose tolerance was unchanged by Acarbose treatment. Glucose concentrations after a 1.6 MJ test meal were reduced by Acarbose from peak values of 17.3 +/- 1.0 to 15.0 +/- 1.1 mmol/l and were associated with lower post-prandial C-peptide (CPR) and insulin responses. Nevertheless, daily insulin production, as assessed by CPR excretion rates and plasma CPR and insulin concentrations, was not reduced by Acarbose. In fact, fasting plasma insulin and CPR levels were significantly higher during Acarbose then placebo therapy. Acarbose (100-400 mg/day) was continued for six months in 12 of these patients. During treatment, post-prandial glucose levels remained lower but monthly MBG values, determined by self-measurement of blood glucose, were unchanged except for small reductions in the 4th and 5th treatment months. % HbAl levels did not change. These data show that Acarbose treatment of a defined group of patients with poorly controlled NIDDM: resulted in small but sustained reductions of post-prandial glucose levels but without improving glucose tolerance, and reduced the circulating concentrations of insulin and CPR postprandially, but overall did not reduce daily production.

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In order to meet dominant growth of Salmonella spp. in a composed system of five pathogens for accurate detection, designing an appropriate selective enrichment broth was clearly needed. First, we built a high-throughput assay procedure based on SYBR Green Ι real-time PCR, which possessed the necessary specificity for Salmonella spp., a good linear standard curve with typical R (2) value (0.9984) and high amplification efficiency (99.0 %). Further, for the larger target biomass in the mixed microflora, acarbose, LiCl and bile salt were selected to optimize their concentrations using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design was employed to collect the data and fit the response. A quadratic polynomial model was derived by computer simulation. Statistical analysis was carried out to explore the action and interaction of the variables on the response. In the end, a novel broth (Sal-5) was formulated to allow the efficient enrichment of Salmonella spp. and inhibit the growth of other tested strains. A detection platform was developed, including selective enrichment in Sal-5, DNA extraction by the boiling lysis method and real-time PCR test based on SYBR Green Ι. This work could extend the application of RSM and real-time PCR in the design of other selective enrichment media for common pathogens.

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Articles were excluded if they had no comparison group or did not use a standard diagnosis of GDM (3-hour, 100-g oral glucose tolerance test or 2-hour, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test). Nine studies met our inclusion criteria, four randomized controlled trials (n=1,229 participants) and five observational studies (n=831 participants). Data were abstracted on study characteristics, gestational age at treatment, medication dosage, and length of follow-up. Outcomes included glycemic control, infant birth weight, neonatal hypoglycemia, and congenital anomalies.

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The hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima uses starch as a substrate, without releasing amylase activity into the culture medium. The enzyme is associated with the 'toga'. Its expression level is too low to allow the isolation of the pure enzyme. Using cycloheptaamylose and acarbose affinity chromatography and common chromatographic procedures, two enzyme fractions are obtained. They differ in specificity, pH-optimum, temperature dependence and stability. Substrate specificity and Ca2+ dependence indicate alpha-, beta- and gluco-amylase activity. Compared with alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (Tmax = 75 degrees C), the amylases from Thermotoga maritima show exceedingly high thermal stability with an upper temperature limit at 95 degrees C. Significant turnover occurs only between 70 and 100 degrees C, i.e. in the range of viability of the microorganism.

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Intestinal adaptation has been studied in rats with pancreatic atrophy induced by feeding a copper-deficient diet and penicillamine and in rats with carbohydrate maldigestion induced by feeding of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose). Pancreatic atrophy led to a significant increase of weight, protein, and DNA content as well as specific activities and total amounts of the enzymes sucrase and maltase in the distal but not in the proximal part of the small intestine. Plasma levels of CCK and GIP were significantly higher in rats with pancreatic atrophy, whereas plasma levels of gastrin and insulin were lower. Tissue concentrations of gastrin in the antrum and GIP in duodenum and jejunum were unchanged. Duodenal CCK and jejunal substance P, somatostatin, and VIP and ileal substance P and somatostatin were significantly decreased in rats with acinar atrophy. Glucosidase inhibition by acarbose feeding led to weight increase of the small intestine and cecum. This was more marked when acarbose was fed together with a fiber-free diet. Under these conditions the protein and DNA content also increased significantly in both gut segments and maltase and sucrase content predominantly in the distal part. Insulin plasma concentration decreased significantly in the acarbose-fed groups, whereas GIP, gastrin, and CCK plasma concentrations remained unchanged. After fiber-rich diet tissue concentrations of gastrin in the antrum and insulin in the pancreas were significantly higher and GIP concentrations in the duodenum and jejunum significantly lower than after fiber-free diet. Acarbose increased the pancreatic insulin concentration only in the fiber-free group and did not influence gastrin and GIP concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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This review, primarily for general readers, briefly presents experimental approaches to therapeutics of cancer, HIV/AIDS and various other diseases based on advances in glycobiology and glycochemistry. Experimental cancer and HIV/AIDS vaccines are being developed in attempts to overcome weak immunological responses to carbohydrate-rich surface antigens using carriers, adjuvants and novel carbohydrate antigen constructs. Current carbohydrate-based vaccines are used for typhus, pneumonia, meningitis; vaccines for anthrax, malaria and leishmaniasis are under development. The link between O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine glycosylation and protein phosphorylation in diseases including diabetes and Alzheimer's disease is also explored. Carbohydrate-associated drugs that are in current use or under development, such as heparan sulfate binders, lectins, acarbose, aminoglycosides, tamiflu and heparin, and technologies using carbohydrate and lectin microarrays that offer improved diagnostic and drug development possibilities, are described. Advances in carbohydrate synthesis, analysis and manipulation through the emerging fields of glycochemistry and glycobiology are providing new approaches to disease therapeutics.

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Patients were randomized to receive acarbose (Arm A; n = 7) or metformin (Arm B; n = 6) or pioglitazone (Arm C; n = 5) in addition to peginterferon alfa-2b (1.5 μg/kg/week) plus ribavirin (1000-1200 mg/day) or just PR (Arm D; n = 5). The primary end point was SVR, and secondary end points were viral clearance at Weeks 17, 29, and 53. There were no differences among all arms at baseline.

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The 90% CIs of GMRs for the pharmacodynamic parameters chosen for bioequivalence evaluation of two formulations of acarbose did not meet the commonly accepted regulatory criteria for bioequivalence (0·80-1·25).

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Type-I and type-II diabetics receiving antidiabetic therapy, comprising of diet, or diet plus sulphonylureas or insulin, were additionally treated with acarbose for a period of 12 months in an open, multi-centre study carried out under general practice conditions. This was followed by an observation period without acarbose. After 3 months on acarbose, the mean fasting and post-prandial blood glucose concentrations were 30 and 40 mg/dl, respectively, lower, thereafter remaining virtually unchanged up to the end of treatment. After withdrawal of acarbose the mean blood glucose values rose to their pretreatment levels, except in patients with proven poor acarbose compliance. All three treatment subgroups mentioned above showed the same pattern of glucose reduction. The mean blood glucose values of patients previously treated by dietary measures alone fell under acarbose therapy below the upper limit of normal. The percentage of glycosuric patients in the above subgroups was halved under acarbose and rose after discontinuation of acarbose approximately to the initial numbers. The number of patients with blood-glucose control classified as "good" rose fourfold during the acarbose treatment. In the course of the trial acarbose had to be discontinued due to intestinal side effects in only 5% of the patients. Frequency and intensity of the intestinal symptoms related to increased bacterial carbohydrate cleavage (flatulence, meteorism, occasionally diarrhoea), decreased during treatment. Other subjective complaints or side effects were neither reported nor could be detected objectively.

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GENERAL PRINCIPLES: The general progression throughout the world in type 2 diabetes has lead medical Authorities to develop mass screening but also prevention measures, notably for "high-risk" subjects such as those exhibiting a metabolic syndrome. Studies on the topic have shown that preventing type 2 diabetes was possible via lifestyle changes, possibly in association with pharmacological therapy (metformine, acarbose, thiazolidinediones, orlistat). The other therapeutic stakes in the context of the metabolic syndrome also concern the management of all identified cardiovascular risk factors. REGARDING HYPERTENSION: there are currently no specific recommendations available in the framework of metabolic syndrome, with regard to lowering blood pressure and how to obtain it. However there is evidence that patients may benefit from the strict control of blood pressure (< or =130/85 mm Hg). REGARDING DYSLIPIDEMIA: LDL cholesterol remains the main target, with a goal depending on individual cardiovascular risk (<1 or 1.30 g/l in the case of metabolic syndrome). Statins are of major interest in this context. However, it is also established that normalisation of triglycerides and HDL cholesterol contributes to the improvement of cardiovascular Issues. The respective indications for fibrates or fibrate/statin associations still need to be defined in primary as in secondary prevention.

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α-Glucosidase inhibitor has considerable potential as a diabetes mellitus type 2 drug because it prevents the digestion of carbohydrates. The search for the constituents reducing α-glucosidase activity led to the finding of active compounds in the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum. The CHCl(3) extract of the fruiting body of G. lucidum was found to show inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase in vitro. The neutral fraction, with an IC(50) of 88.7 μg/ml, had stronger inhibition than a positive control, acarbose, with an IC(50) of 336.7 μg/ml (521.5 μM). The neutral fraction was subjected to silica gel column chromatography and repeated p-HPLC to provide an active compound, (3β,24E)-lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3,26-diol (ganoderol B). It was found to have high α-glucosidase inhibition, with an IC(50) of 48.5 μg/ml (119.8 μM).

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Previous studies have revealed that rats consume substantial amounts of polysaccharide solutions, even if the solutions are made bitter with the addition of sucrose octa acetate (SOA). The present experiment used the gastric sham-feeding preparation to determine if it is the orosensory or postingestive properties of polysaccharides that motivate rats to consume polysaccharide (Polycose) solutions. In Experiment 1, food deprived rats sham fed less of a 0.05% SOA + 32% Polycose solution than they did of a 32% glucose solution, but their SOA-Polycose intake was still considerable (44 ml/hr). The same rats refused to sham feed SOA-gum and SOA-sugar solutions that were similar to the SOA-Polycose solution in bitter taste, viscosity and free sugar content. In Experiment 2, rats sham fed as much of a 32% Polycose solution as they did of a 32% sucrose solution. Despite the gastric fistula, some of the ingested Polycose was absorbed as evidenced by an increase in the rats' blood glucose levels. The addition of acarbose, a drug that inhibits polysaccharide digestion, to the Polycose solution blocked the increase in blood glucose, but did not reduce the rats' sham feeding of the solution. These findings indicate that it is the orosensory (presumably taste) properties of polysaccharide solutions, not their postingestive effects, that initially attract rats to the solutions. The results question the assumption that polysaccharides are "tasteless" to animals.

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It is concluded that the acute efficacy of acarbose is near maximal at 25 mg when the meal size does not exceed 483 kcal and contains only 61 gm of carbohydrates.

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A double-blinded, parallel group study was performed on 56 male subjects with hypertension, body mass index (BMI) 27-35 kg/m2, fasting blood glucose < or =6 mmol/l and a normal oral glucose tolerance test. Blood pressure, HbA1c, lipid profile and insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index] were determined initially and following 24 weeks of acarbose, 150 mg/day or placebo. The primary end point was the change in insulin resistance. Anti-hypertensive treatment and diet were kept constant during the study.

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To evaluate the diabetic alterations and the impact of short and long-term medical treatment on them.

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There is increasing evidence that pathogens do not only elicit direct defense responses, but also cause pronounced changes in primary carbohydrate metabolism. Cell-wall-bound invertases belong to the key regulators of carbohydrate partitioning and source-sink relations. Whereas studies have focused so far only on the transcriptional induction of invertase genes in response to pathogen infection, the role of post-translational regulation of invertase activity has been neglected and was the focus of the present study. Expression analyses revealed that the high mRNA level of one out of three proteinaceous invertase inhibitors in source leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana is strongly repressed upon infection by a virulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. This repression is paralleled by a decrease in invertase inhibitor activity. The physiological role of this regulatory mechanism is revealed by the finding that in situ invertase activity was detectable only upon infection by P. syringae. In contrast, a high invertase activity could be measured in vitro in crude and cell wall extracts prepared from both infected and non-infected leaves. The discrepancy between the in situ and in vitro invertase activity of control leaves and the high in situ invertase activity in infected leaves can be explained by the pathogen-dependent repression of invertase inhibitor expression and a concomitant reduction in invertase inhibitor activity. The functional importance of the release of invertase from post-translational inhibition for the defense response was substantiated by the application of the competitive chemical invertase inhibitor acarbose. Post-translational inhibition of extracellular invertase activity by infiltration of acarbose in leaves was shown to increase the susceptibility to P. syringae. The impact of invertase inhibition on spatial and temporal dynamics of the repression of photosynthesis and promotion of bacterial growth during pathogen infection supports a role for extracellular invertase in plant defense. The acarbose-mediated increase in susceptibility was also detectable in sid2 and cpr6 mutants and resulted in slightly elevated levels of salicylic acid, demonstrating that the effect is independent of the salicylic acid-regulated defense pathway. These findings provide an explanation for high extractable invertase activity found in source leaves that is kept inhibited in situ by post-translational interaction between invertase and the invertase inhibitor proteins. Upon pathogen infection, the invertase activity is released by repression of invertase inhibitor expression, thus linking the local induction of sink strength to the plant defense response.

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A total of 108 drug-naïve patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, whose hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was between 7% and 10% and body mass index was greater than 24 kg/m(2), were enrolled in the First People's Hospital and Municipal Central Hospital of Xiangtan City, Xiangtan, China, from 1 February 2010 to 1 August 2011. Patients were randomly assigned to acarbose (100 mg three times a day) and metformin (1.5 g/day) groups for a predictive follow-up period of 24 weeks. Plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagons at 0, 0.5, and 2 hours after a standardized meal, and HbA1c were measured at baseline and 24 weeks.

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Today, obesity is the most important modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes. An excess of body fat is associated with a deterioration of glucose utilisation and promotes the development of type 2 diabetes, particularly in those with a genetic predisposition for the disease. It is also well established that a reduction of excess body fat improves insulin sensitivity and can prevent the conversion to diabetes. In those with overt diabetes, weight loss usually ameliorates glycaemic control and associated metabolic disturbances. Among the pharmacological agents that are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes only metformin has a weak weight-lowering activity and is considered as the drug of choice for adjunct pharmacotherapy in obese diabetic subjects. A few studies also suggest that acarbose can induce a modest weight reduction in such patients. In contrast, sulphonylurea and insulin treatment is frequently accompanied by substantial weight gain which should be taken into consideration when these drugs are used. Another approach to improve metabolic control in obese type 2 diabetic patients is the use of weight-lowering agents. The new serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor sibutramine promotes weight loss which subsequently leads to improved glycaemic control. Orlistat, a lipase inhibitor, is also able to ameliorate metabolic control in such patients due to its weight-lowering potential. As obesity remains a therapeutic challenge in most type 2 diabetic subjects, weight management drugs may represent an alternative or supplement to antidiabetic agents. Moreover, weight management agents have the advantage that they have additional favourable effects on associated cardiovascular risk factors.

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The model suggests first-line monotherapy with glipizide GITS should result in desirable short-term economic benefits for managed care. Because the model incorporates recommended glycemic goals and performed well in sensitivity analyses, it should be applicable to a variety of clinical practices and useful for economic assessments of new therapies. Results of this model should be verified prospectively in typical care settings.

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The highly prevalent, prediabetic condition of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) confers a high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is an emerging body of cost-effectiveness literature in the management of IGT. For acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, economic analyses have been conducted for Spain, Germany, Sweden and Canada. In Spain, acarbose was more effective and less costly (dominant) compared with placebo. In Germany, the cost per patient free of diabetes was under Pounds 800; acarbose was dominant for those at high risk for T2DM, CVD or both, and a similar outcome in the Swedish study. In Canada, acarbose was dominant compared with no intervention and very cost-effective compared with metformin [C Dollars 1798/life years gained (LYG)]. The particularly cost-effective outcomes or cost savings delivered by acarbose for IGT subjects at high risk for T2DM and/or CVD render an IGT-intervention program prioritised to such high-risk individuals an economically attractive strategy.

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The retrospective study was performed on a consecutive series of patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 1,002) failing to at least one oral agent, who had been prescribed either basal insulin or DPP4 inhibitors in the previous 2 years, with a duration of follow-up of at least 6 months. Clinical predictors of success after 6 months from the beginning of second-line treatment were identified in the cohort.

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GAA activity was measured in DBSs of known patients at pH 3.8 (with and without acarbose) and at pH 7.0. Additionally, lymphocytes were obtained from the same patients, and the enzyme activity was determined at pH 4 to pH 7. In total, seven infantile patients and 29 patients with late-onset variants were investigated. All patients were reliably identified by both methods. Furthermore, a simplified protocol was established for neonatal screening.

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In type 2 diabetic patients who were treated with sulfonylureas and metformin and possessed HbA1c levels between 7% and 10%, additional acarbose or pioglitazone for 6 months provided similar glycemic control and eGFR and UACR changes. In the pioglitazone group, the patients exhibited significant body weight gain.

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precose tabs 2016-12-25

Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients with lower baseline 2hPPG and HOMA-IR values are more likely to achieve glucose control with acarbose or metformin treatment. Furthermore, the change in BMI after acarbose or metformin treatment is also a buy precose online factor influencing HbA1c normalization. A prospective study with a larger sample size is necessary to confirm our results as well as measure β cell function and examine the influence of the patients' dietary habits.

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Dumping syndrome should be suspected based on concurrent presentation of multiple suggestive symptoms after upper abdominal surgery. Suspected dumping syndrome can be buy precose online confirmed using symptom-based questionnaires, glycemia measurements and oral glucose tolerance tests. First-line management of dumping syndrome involves dietary modification, as well as acarbose treatment for persistent hypoglycemia. If these approaches are unsuccessful, somatostatin analogues should be considered in patients with dumping syndrome and impaired quality of life. Surgical re-intervention or continuous enteral feeding may be necessary for treatment-refractory dumping syndrome, but outcomes are variable.

precose drug interactions 2017-08-30

Acarbose has been found to decrease some inflammatory parameters in diabetic patients. This study aimed to examine the influence of acarbose on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and on the incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. In a nationwide, matched case-control study, we identified 723 incident RA cases and selected 7,230 age-, sex- and RA diagnosis date-matched controls from all newly treated DM patients. We found that use of acarbose at > 16,950 mg per year was associated with a lower RA risk (odds ratio 0.60; 95% CI, 0.41-0.89). In the CIA mouse study, acarbose was orally administered from days -7 to 38 relative to type II collagen (CII) immunization. The results revealed that acarbose at the dose of 500 mg/kg/day attenuated buy precose online the incidence and severity of arthritis and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17 in the paw tissues. Acarbose further decreased the productions of anti-CII-IgG, IL-17 and IFN-γ by collagen-reactive lymph node cells. This work suggests that the use of acarbose decreased RA risk in DM patients and the incidence of CIA in mice. Acarbose also attenuated the severity of CIA via anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

precose generic 2015-01-24

Fitness cost is usually associated with insecticide resistance and may be mitigated by increased energy accumulation and mobilization. Preliminary evidence in the maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suggested possible involvement of amylases in such phenomenon. Therefore, alpha-amylases were purified from an insecticide-susceptible and two insecticide-resistant strains (one with fitness cost [resistant cost strain], and the other without it [resistant no-cost strain]). The main alpha-amylase of each strain was purified by glycogen precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography (>or=70-fold purification, buy precose online no-cost strain exhibited higher activity towards starch and lower inhibition by acarbose and wheat amylase inhibitors. Opposite results were observed for the alpha-amylase from the resistant cost strain. Although the alpha-amylase from the resistant cost strain exhibited higher affinity to starch (i.e., lower K(m)), its V(max)-value was the lowest among the strains, particularly the resistant no-cost strain. Such results provide support for the hypothesis that enhanced alpha-amylase activity may be playing a major role in mitigating fitness costs associated with insecticide resistance.

precose patient review 2017-05-09

Sucrose is divided by alpha-glucosidase into fructose and glucose, which are considered to raise plasma uric acid concentration through purine degradation and/or decreased uric buy precose online acid excretion.

precose buy 2016-11-27

Eighteen trials involving 4535 participants that lasted a mean of 31.3 weeks (24 to 52 weeks) were included. Compared with placebo, drug classes did not differ in effect on HbA(1c) level (reduction ranging from -0.70% [95% credible interval {CrI}, -1.33% to -0.08%] for acarbose to -1.08% [CrI, -1.41% to -0.77%] for insulin). Weight increase was seen with insulins (2.84 kg [CrI, 1.76 to 3.90 kg]) and thiazolidinediones (4.25 kg [CrI, 2.76 to 5.66 kg]), and weight loss was seen with glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists (-1.63 kg [CrI, -2.71 to -0.60 kg]). Insulins caused twice the absolute number of severe hypoglycemic episodes buy precose online than noninsulin antihyperglycemic agents.

precose dosage 2017-01-21

The inhibitory effect of different polyphenolic plant compounds on alpha-amylase activity was investigated in vitro. A kinetic assay was performed using 96-well-plates. Acarbose was used as buy precose online positive control (IC50: 23.2 microM). Some of the tested compounds, occurring in plants traditionally used in anti-diabetic tea species, showed an inhibition of the enzyme in physiological concentrations, e.g. luteolin, tannic acid, and isochlorogenic acid.

precose dose 2016-09-22

The long-term benefit of acarbose treatment was studied prospectively 20 NIDDM patients on diet, and 20 IDDM patients were treated with acarbose and followed for six years. 5 NIDDM patients and 7 IDDM patients were dropped-out due to side-effects or planned pregnancy or price of the drug. In the NIDDM group, acarbose treatment had to be supplemented with sulfonylureas in six patients, and a conversion to insulin had to be carried out in two patients. At the end of the study, all of NIDDM patients had a significantly lowered fasting blood-glucose level as compared to the baseline value. In the IDDM group, the postprandial blood-glucose level (at 90 minutes after meal) was significantly decreased, whereas the fasting glucose level remained unchanged versus the baseline level. In both groups, the values of HbA1c and serum lipids were significantly better than before acarbose treatment. The frequency of hypoglycaemic episodes was buy precose online decreased, the body weight was without significant change. In addition, five NIDDM patients with late sulfonylurea-resistance were also treated with acarbose and followed for two years. After six months of treatment, however, four out of the five patients had to be converted to insulin.

precose 100 mg 2015-03-05

Type 2 diabetic patients 30-70 years of age with glycosylated hemoglobin 7.0%-11.0% while treated with one or two oral antidiabetic drugs were successively enrolled. After 8 weeks of run-in with metformin 500 mg thrice daily, either acarbose 50 mg or glibenclamide 2.5 mg three times daily was randomly added on and force titrated to acarbose 100 mg or glibenclamide 5 buy precose online .0 mg three times daily for the subsequent 16 weeks. Demographic data, biochemical data and continuous glucose monitoring system data were recorded upon randomization and at the end of the study. Various parameters that measure glucose variability were derived from the continuous glucose monitoring system data.

precose tablets 2015-01-06

Because its low oral bioavailability can be overcome by P-glycoprotein inhibitors like herbal polyphenols, we have tested the nutraceutical combination of Berberis aristata extract and Silybum marianum extract (Berberol(®)) in type 2 diabetes in terms buy precose online of its additive effect when combined with a conventional oral regimen for patients with suboptimal glycemic control. After 90 days of treatment, the nutraceutical association had a positive effect on glycemic and lipid parameters, significantly reducing glycosylated hemoglobin, basal insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. A relevant effect was also observed in terms of liver function by measuring aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase. The product had a good safety profile, with distinctive gastrointestinal side effects likely due to its acarbose-like action.

precose online 2017-09-03

The development of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose provides a new approach in the management of diabetes. By competitive and reversible inhibition of intestinal alpha-glucosidases, acarbose delays carbohydrate digestion, prolongs the overall carbohydrate digestion time, and thus reduces the rate of glucose absorption. After oral administration of acarbose, the postprandial buy precose online rise in blood glucose is dose-dependently decreased, and glucose-induced insulin secretion is attenuated. Because of diminished postprandial hyperglycemia and hyper-insulinemia by acarbose, the triglyceride uptake into adipose tissue, hepatic lipogenesis, and triglyceride content are reduced. Therefore, acarbose treatment not only flattens postprandial glycemia, due to the primary and secondary pharmacodynamic effects, but also ameliorates the metabolic state in general. In diabetic animals, acarbose reduced urinary glucose loss, the blood glucose area under the curve, and prevented the decrease in skeletal muscle GLUT4 glucose transporters. As a consequence of the reduced mean blood glucose area under the curve, the amount of protein nonenzymatically glycated was diminished, as was the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). The prevention of basement membrane glycation and thickening in various tissues indicated that acarbose treatment of diabetic animals produced beneficial effects against the development of nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. Thus, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose may have the potential to delay or possibly prevent the development of diabetic complications.

precose drugs 2017-05-17

Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. is one of an ancient traditional shrub, which has been used for the treatment of diabetes, pain and inflammation for thousands of years in India. The root extract of Calotropis procera has been widely used by the tribal׳s of district Udaipur, Rajasthan (India) for treatment of diabetes mellitus and its associated complications like diabetic neuropathy. The present study was performed to explore the protective effect of root buy precose online , stem and leaf extracts of Calotropis procera in diabetes and diabetic neuropathy against tactile allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal hyperalgesia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

precose 50 mg 2016-08-14

Multiple oral therapies are required long term for the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to achieve acceptable glycaemic levels; alternatively, insulin therapy has to be initiated. This study investigated the addition of acarbose to maximum doses of sulfonylurea in very poorly controlled type buy precose online 2 diabetes patients and assessed its effect in delaying further glycaemic deterioration.

precose tablet 2016-04-07

The glucose lowering effects of metformin monotherapy and acarbose monotherapy are the same by direct comparison, while metformin is a little buy precose online better by indirect comparison. This implies that the effect of metformin is at least as good as acarbose's.

acarbose precose medication 2015-08-16

All the evaluated plants demonstrated inhibitory activity against the specific GIT enzyme systems evaluated. Only H. hemerocallidea had insulin secretory Lasix Oral Dosage activity, adding evidence to the traditional use of these purchased plants in the management of the type II diabetic post-prandial hyperglycemia.

precose dosing 2015-02-15

Acarbose and its homologs inhibit alpha-D-glucosidases, particularly alpha-amylases. These homologs have the same core, the pseudo-disaccharide acarviosine, linked to various numbers of glucose residues. The conformations of (R)- and (S)-acarviosine have been analysed. The potential energy maps, obtained by molecular mechanics calculations, show that acarviosine is flexible and has several important minima. One low-energy form is close to the shape assumed by the acarviosine moiety when acarbose is adsorbed on the surface of glycogen phosphorylase. Another likely conformation is the same as that inferred from n.m.r. data and HSEA calculations. The results reconcile those conflicting reports. Molecular modelling of other inhibitors of alpha-amylases, such as 4- Amoxil Infant Dosage thiomaltose and moranoline, shows that these pseudo-disaccharides can fill similar volumes of conformational space.

precose 25 mg 2016-07-19

The drugs used to treat diabetes mellitus are diverse and involve several classes. However, these drugs can be roughly separated into hypoglycaemic agents, such as insulin and the sulphonylureas, and antihyperglycaemic agents, such as the biguanides, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and troglitazone. Reports of insulin overdose are rare. The major effects of insulin overdose are secondary to the insult to the CNS produced by hypoglycaemia. The mainstay of insulin overdose management is glucose replacement therapy. Sulphonylureas are the most commonly used oral antihyperglycaemic agents in the management of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent; NIDDM) diabetes mellitus. Sulphonylureas primarily cause serum glucose reduction by stimulating the release of preformed insulin from the pancreatic islets. The mainstay of sulphonylurea overdose management is glucose replacement therapy, and in severe cases, reduction of insulin release. In the large majority of patients intravenous glucose supplementation will be sufficient to maintain euglycaemia. Repaglinide, a meglitinide analogue, is a new nonsulphonylurea oral hypoglycaemic agent. In overdose, this drug may produce prolonged hypoglycaemia similar to the sulphonylureas. The primary problem with biguanide overdose is the potential for lactic acidosis. The management of biguanide overdose is largely supportive and directed at correcting the metabolic acidosis along with associated complications. The alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, acarbose, voglibose and miglitol competitively and reversibly inhibit the alpha-glucosidase enzymes (glucoamylase, sucrase, maltase and isomaltase) in the brush border in the small intestine, which delays the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates. They appear unlikely to produce hypoglycaemia in overdose, but abdominal discomfort and diarrhoea may occur. Troglitazone is the first thiazolidinedione antidiabetic drug available. There Voltaren Xr Dosage are no data on overdose, probably because of its very recent introduction. Overdoses with antidiabetic drugs produce major morbidity, with many cases requiring intensive care medicine and prolonged hospital stays. However, fatalities are rare when treatment is initiated early. The management of the hypoglycaemic drugs (insulin and sulphonylureas) is based primarily on restoring and maintaining euglycaemia via intravenous dextrose supplementation. In the case of the sulphonylureas, reduction of insulin secretion via pharmacological intervention may also be necessary. With biguanides the main risk appears to be cardiovascular collapse secondary to profound acidosis. The management focus is on restoring acid-base balance with hyperventilation and the use of insulin to shift the utilisation of glucose from the nonoxidative pathway to the oxidative pathway. Use of haemodialysis has shown equivocal results but may be valuable in metformin overdose.

precose drug class 2016-09-23

We investigated how fasting or postprandial insulin levels were altered by treatment with acarbose or sulfonylureas. Plasma glucose and serum insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin levels were measured before as well as 1 and 2 h after breakfast in 23 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 17 patients with impaired glucose tolerance. In the diabetic patients, 12 weeks of acarbose therapy decreased the postprandial levels of glucose (1 h: -60.0%; 2 h: -67.6%), insulin (1 h: -67.5%; 2 h: -72.2%) and proinsulin (1 h: -55.2%; 2 h: -46.7%), and proinsulin (1 h: -20.9%; 2 h Singulair Medication Generic : -57.5%). In contrast, sulfonylurea treatment increased postprandial insulin and proinsulin levels. Since increased in the serum insulin or proinsulin levels are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, the present findings suggest that the acarbose-induced reduction of the postprandial serum insulin or proinsulin responses to food intake might be useful for preventing vascular complications in patients with diabetes.

precose cost 2015-02-22

Various invitro antioxidant activity of fruit peel extracts was determined by standard protocol. Antibacterial Zovirax 500 Mg and antifungal activities were determined using disc diffusion and microdilution method respectively. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of fruit peel was observed using fluorescence microscope for in vivo study.

precose medication 2017-08-26

In patients with Type 2 diabetes, the appropriate intensity of glucose control is determined by age, life expectancy, and the presence of concomitant disease. Geriatric patients are especially susceptible to hypoglycaemia and therefore particular care should be taken in this group characterized by polypharmacy, renal or hepatic dysfunction, cardiovascular multimorbidity and malnutrition. As hypoglycaemia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, treatment regimens for diabetes should minimize the occurrence of hypoglycaemic episodes and be tailored to the patient's individual needs. The pharmacological options for treating Type 2 diabetes have increased considerably and the risk of hypoglycaemia of the currently available drugs varies considerably. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and acarbose, oral antidiabetic drugs that decrease insulin resistance or postprandial glucose absorption, are associated with a low risk of hypoglycaemia. These drugs can also be used effectively in various combination regimens; however, by improving insulin sensitivity, combinations of metformin and thiolidinediones with sulphonylureas or meglitinides may considerably increase the risk of hypoglycaemia. On account of its complex pharmacoprofile glibenclamide is a problematic substance carrying a high risk of hypoglycaemia. There are limited preliminary data indicating that, under routine Zofran Drug Uses conditions, glimepiride may be associated with a lower risk of hypoglycaemia than glibenclamide and is no more likely to cause hypoglycaemia than other shorter-acting agents such as gliclazide and glipizide. Nateglinide and repaglinide as short-acting insulin secretagogues may be associated with a reduced risk of hypoglycaemia compared with glibenclamide, in particular when dosed flexibly. Repaglinide might be beneficial in individuals with renal impairment.

precose user reviews 2017-06-09

Current study based on the synthesis of new thiazole derivatives via "one pot" multicomponent reaction, evaluation of their in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, and in silico studies. All synthetic compounds were fully characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and EIMS. CHN analysis was also performed. These newly synthesized compounds showed activities in the range of IC50=9.06±0.10-82.50±1.70μM as compared to standard acarbose (IC50=38.25±0.12μM). It is worth mentioning that most of the compounds such as 1 (IC50=23.60±0.39μM), 2 (IC50=22.70±0.60μM), 3 (IC50=22.40±0.32μM), 4 (IC50=26.5±0.40μM), 6 (IC50=34.60±0.60μM), 7 (IC50=26.20±0.43μM), 8 (IC50=14.06±0.18μM), 9 (IC50=17.60±0.28μM), 10 (IC50=27.16±0.41μM), 11 (IC50=19.16±0.19μM), 12 (IC50=9.06±0.10μM), 13 (IC50=12.80±0.21μM), 14 (IC50=11.94±0.18μM), 15 (IC50=16.90±0.20μM), 16 (IC50=12.60±0.14μM), 17 (IC50=16.30±0.29μM), and 18 (IC50=32.60±0.61μM) exhibited potent inhibitory potential. Molecular docking study was performed in order to understand the molecular interactions between the molecule and enzyme. Newly identified α-glucosidase inhibitors except few were found to be completely non-toxic.

precose reviews 2016-04-26

One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic.

precose generic name 2015-04-21

Eight randomized controlled trials with 2628 participants were included. Acarbose decreased the occurrence of T2DM (number needed to treat [NNT], 6.7). Compared with the control (placebo and/or lifestyle intervention), the incidence of T2DM was significantly lower in the Eastern group (NNT, 5.9) than in the Western group (NNT, 11.1) (P < 0.0001, I(2) = 94.7%). At the end of follow-up, reversal of prediabetes to normal glucose tolerance was more likely in the Eastern group (NNT, 4.3) than in the Western group (NNT, 25) (P = 0.004, I(2) = 92%). Among those remaining prediabetic, there was no significant difference between the subtotal estimates for the subgroups (P = 0.17, I(2) = 46.5%). There was no positive correlation between preventive effect and dose, and no difference in studies with varying follow-up durations within and across either ethnic group.

precose acarbose tablets 2015-08-30

In patients with type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia, colestimide was suggested to have blood glucose-lowering activity as does acarbose.

buy precose online 2015-08-10

Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) not responding to dietary treatment alone in patients with non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis is characterized by high postprandial hyperglycaemia. The control of postprandial hyperglycaemia in such patients, is generally achieved by the means of progressively higher doses of insulin, with an increasing risk of hypoglycaemia in the late postprandial period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of acarbose for the control of postprandial hyperglycaemia in 100 patients with well-compensated liver cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes treated with insulin.

precose medicine 2016-06-23

Phase 1: The median hs-CRP was 0.6 mg/L (0.2-6.2) in Chinese, 1.2 mg/L (0.2-7.9) in Malays, and 1.9 mg/L (0.2-10.0) in Indians. The Indians had higher hs-CRP compared to Chinese (P < 0.05) when adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), lipids, blood pressure, and smoking, and a significant correlation was seen between female sex, smoking status, fasting glucose and triglyceride concentration, and hs-CRP in all three ethnicities. Phase 2: The median hs-CRP was 1.2 mg/L (0.2-9.9) in Chinese, 2.2 mg/L (0.2-9.0) in Malays, and 2.3 mg/L (0.2-9.8) in Indians. Indians had higher hs-CRP when compared to Chinese (P < 0.05) and a significant correlation was seen between BMI, female gender, diabetes, and the use of metformin and hs-CRP in all three ethnicities (P < 0.05) when adjusted for the above variables and use of aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB), statin, metformin, rosiglitazone, sulfonylurea, glinides, acarbose, and insulin.

precose tabs 2017-01-13

Extracellular alpha-amylase from Lactobacillus fermentum (FERMENTA) was purified by glycogen precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. The purification was approximately 28-fold with a 27% yield. The FERMENTA molecular mass (106,000 Da) is in the same range as the ones determined for L. amylovorus (AMYLOA), L. plantarum (PLANTAA) and L. manihotivorans (MANIHOA) alpha-amylases. The amino acid composition of FERMENTA differs from the other lactobacilli considered here, but however, indicates that the peptidic sequence contains two equal parts: the N-terminal catalytic part; and the C-terminal repeats. The isoelectric point of FERMENTA, PLANTAA, MANIHOA are approximately the same (3.6). The FERMENTA optimum pH (5.0) is slightly more acidic and the optimum temperature is lower (40 degrees C). Raw starch hydrolysis catalyzed by all three amylases liberates maltotriose and maltotretaose. Maltose is also produced by FERMENTA and MANIHOA. Maltohexaose FERMENTA catalyzed hydrolysis produces maltose and maltotriose. Finally, kinetics of FERMENTA, PLANTAA and MANIHOA using amylose as a substrate and acarbose as an inhibitor, were carried out. Statistical analysis of kinetic data, expressed using a general velocity equation and assuming rapid equilibrium, showed that: (1) in the absence of inhibitor k(cat)/Km are, respectively, 1x10(9), 12.6x10(9) and 3.2x10(9) s(-1) M(-1); and (2) the inhibition of FERMENTA is of the mixed non-competitive type (K(1i)=5.27 microM; L(1i)=1.73 microM) while the inhibition of PLANTAA and MANIHOA is of the uncompetitive type (L(1i)=1.93 microM and 1.52 microM, respectively). Whatever the inhibition type, acarbose is a strong inhibitor of these Lactobacillus amylases. These results indicate that, as found in porcine and barley amylases, Lactobacillus amylases contain in addition to the active site, a soluble carbohydrate (substrate or product) binding site.

precose drug 2016-02-29

Midgut infusions of sucrose and other disaccharides were compared with monosaccharides for their effects on intestinal mucosal growth in rats otherwise maintained on total parenteral nutrition for 7 days. Mucosal mass progressively increased in a proportional relationship to the concentration of infused sucrose. At equal concentrations by weight, disaccharide infusions stimulated mucosal growth more than monosaccharides. Disaccharide-induced mucosal adaptation was abolished when there was no hydrolysis of the disaccharide. The results suggest that the functional work load of absorbing epithelium, including the "work of hydrolysis," plays an important role in the stimulus for intestinal adaptation.

precose drug interactions 2015-11-11

Several new oral drugs have been approved for the management of type II diabetes. Metformin is an "antihyperglycemic agent" that decreases hepatic glucose production and improves insulin sensitivity. It may be used as monotherapy or in combination with a sulfonylurea. Acarbose slows carbohydrate absorption after a meal, giving endogenous or injected insulin more time to respond to ingested glucose. Glimepiride is an insulin-sparing sulfonylurea with a once-daily dosing schedule. How might these medications fit into the primary care of older diabetics?

precose generic 2015-06-06

The placebo efficacy was evident and varied not only in comparison to 5 indication groups analyzed, but also within them. Placebo showed for example hardly an effect on the symptomatology of stroke patients with a severe neurological deficit in comparison to verum while there was a 50% improvement in symptoms following placebo application in patients with a mild stroke. In angina patients exercise tolerance increased under placebo by 10% (time to onset of ST segment depression and symptoms of angina) while verum showed a 22% improvement. In diabetes placebo had no effect as compared to baseline and to a verum on blood glucose and HbA1C. ADRs could be observed under placebo treatment. The frequency and kind of placebo-induced ADRs varied also between the indication groups, i.e. typical CV side-effects were observed in CV controls. The placebo ADR profile was similar to the reference drug also. Some ADRs were reported even more frequently under placebo than under verum, like "dry mouth" in patients with general anxiety status.

precose patient review 2015-07-18

The most common lipoprotein abnormality in type 2 diabetics is hypertriglyceridemia, which is known to be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetics. It is known that remnant lipoproteins, small, dense LDL, and isolated hypo-alphalipoproteinemia exist in diabetics even if they are apparently normolipidemic. Our previous observation revealed that type 2 diabetics had smaller LDL even if they were without hyperlipidemia. We also found that diabetics with microalbuminuria had smaller LDL than those with normoalbuminuria, indicating early nephrotoxicity of small, dense LDL. More than half of the Japanese type 2 diabetics associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) showed isolated hypo-alpha lipoproteinemia, indicating the clinical importance of suppressed HDL fraction without prominent hyperlipidemia in the diabetics. Finally, strict diet control and treatment of diabetics with dyslipidemias by acarbose, troglitazone, fibrates and/or statins were all successful in increasing LDL size.

precose buy 2016-12-23

Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus sp. glucoamylases were purified on an affinity chromatography column from commercially available, impure enzyme preparations. Up to 2 mg of glucoamylase protein was bound without leakage to a 1-ml affinity gel column (0.7 X 2.5 cm) possessing a covalently linked acarbose ligand (1 mg acarbose/g wet gel), and the bound enzyme was specifically released by irrigation of the column with a solution of maltose. A complete cycle of purification was accomplished in about 8 h. Glucoamylases were recovered, in more than 80% yield, free of alpha-amylase activity and possessing specific activities comparable to those of preparations obtained by time-consuming, multistep procedures involving several ion-exchange and hydrophobic column fractionations. Thus, acarbose affinity chromatography provides a general method for the rapid and efficient purification of the glucoamylases, and seems to be ideally suited for scale-up for the commercial purification of these enzymes.

precose dosage 2015-04-24

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on glucose fluctuations in patients with type 2 diabetes using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).

precose dose 2016-06-20

To compare the health and economic outcomes of using acarbose, an intensive lifestyle modification programme, metformin or no intervention to prevent progression to diabetes in Canadian individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).