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Prograf (Tacrolimus)

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Generic Prograf is an effective medication which is used to prevent rejection of kidney, heart, liver transplants. It can be used together with other medicines. The effectiveness of Generic Prograf is in decreasing immune system of the body.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Cellcept, Rapamune, Cyclosporine, Imuran


Also known as:  Tacrolimus.


Generic Prograf target is to prevent rejection of kidney, heart, liver transplants. It can be used together with other medicines.

The effectiveness of Generic Prograf is in decreasing immune system of the body.

Prograf is also known as Tacrolimus, Fujimycin, Advagraf, Protopic.

Generic name of Generic Prograf is Tacrolimus.

Brand names of Generic Prograf are Prograf, FK 506.


Generic Prograf can be taken in form of capsules (0.5 mg, 1 mg, 5 mg) and in injectable form.

The dosage of Generic Prograf depends on the type of your disease and health state.

Take Generic Prograf 2 times a day.

Take Generic Prograf orally, once a day with or without food.

Avoid grapefruit or grapefruit juice.

Avoid vaccinations.

Do not stop taking Generic Prograf suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Prograf and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Prograf are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not use Generic Prograf if you are allergic to Generic Prograf components.

Do not use Generic Prograf while you are pregnant or have nurseling.

Do not take Generic Prograf if you use cyclosporine (such as Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune).

Try to be careful with Generic Prograf usage in case of taking bromocriptine (Parlodel), carbamazepine (Tegretol), cimetidine (Tagamet), cisapride (Propulsid), clarithromycin (Biaxin), clotrimazole (Mycelex, Lotrimin), danazol (Danocrine), diltiazem (Cardizem), erythromycin (E-Mycin), fluconazole (Diflucan), ganciclovir (Cytovene), HIV protease inhibitors such as indinavir (Crixivan) and ritonavir (Norvir), itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), methylprednisolone (Medrol), metoclopramide (Reglan), nefazodone (Serzone), nicardipine (Cardene), nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia), omeprazole (Prilosec), phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifabutin (Mycobutin), rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane), spironolactone (Aldactone), triamterene-containing drugs (Dyazide, Dyrenium, Maxzide), troleandomycin (Tao), verapamil (Calan, Isoptin), and vitamins, amiloride (Midamor, Moduretic), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), oral contraceptives (birth control pills).

Try to be careful with Generic Prograf if you suffer from or have a history of kidney or liver disease, diabetes, high blood pressure.

Avoid ill people.

Avoid grapefruit or grapefruit juice.

Protect your skin from the sun.

Avoid vaccinations.

Be careful with Generic Prograf if you are going to have a surgery.

Avoid alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Prograf taking suddenly.

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Taking advantage of the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) phenomenon, we report the development of a highly photon-efficient, self-illuminating fusion protein combining a mutant red fluorescent protein (mOrange) and a mutant Renilla reniformis luciferase (RLuc8). This new BRET fusion protein (BRET3) exhibits severalfold improvement in light intensity in comparison with existing BRET fusion proteins. BRET3 also exhibits the most red-shifted light output (564-nm peak wavelength) of any reported bioluminescent protein that utilizes its natural substrate coelenterazine, a benefit of which is demonstrated at various tissue depths in small animals. The imaging utility of BRET3 at the single-cell level is demonstrated using an intramolecular sensor incorporating two mammalian target of rapamycin pathway proteins (FKBP12 and FRB) that dimerize only in the presence of rapamycin. With its increased photon intensity, red-shifted light output, and good spectral resolution (approximately 85 nm), BRET3 shows improved spatial and temporal resolution for measuring intracellular events in single cells and in living small animal models. The development of further BRET3-based assays will allow imaging of protein-protein interactions using a single assay directly scalable from intact living cells to small living subjects, allowing accelerated drug discovery.

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FKBP11 expression levels were analyzed in 123 paired tumor and tumor-adjacent non-tumorous (TA) tissue samples from patients with HCC and in 29 benign liver samples from patients with hemangioma using quantitative real-time polymerase-chain-reaction.

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Although gastroduodenal ulcers are common in solid organ transplant patients, there are few reports on multiple giant ulcers in the distal ileum and ileocecal valve caused by immunosuppressants Herein, we report on a liver transplant recipient and a renal transplant recipient with multiple large ulcers in the distal ileum and ileocecal valve who rapidly achieved ulcer healing upon withdrawal of sirolimus or tacrolimus and administration of thalidomide. In case 1, a 56-year-old man with primary hepatocellular carcinoma had received a liver transplantation. Tacrolimus combined with sirolimus and prednisolone was used as the anti-rejection regimen. Colonoscopy was performed because of severe abdominal pain and diarrhea at post-operative month 10. Multiple giant ulcers were found at the ileocecal valve and distal ileum. The ulcers healed rapidly with withdrawal of sirolimus and treatment with thalidomide. There was no recurrence during 2 years of follow-up. In case 2, a 34-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease received kidney transplantation and was put on tacrolimus combined with mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone as the anti-rejection regimen. Twelve weeks after the operation, the patient presented with hematochezia and severe anemia. Colonoscopy revealed multiple large ulcers in the ileocecal valve and distal ileum, with massive accumulation of fresh blood. The bleeding ceased after treatment with intravenous somatostatin and oral thalidomide. Tacrolimus was withdrawn at the same time. Colonoscopy at week 4 of follow-up revealed remarkable healing of the ulcers, and there was no recurrence of bleeding during 1 year of follow-up. No lymphoma, tuberculosis, or infection of cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or fungus was found in either patient. In post-transplantation cases with ulcers in the distal ileum and ileocecal valve, sirolimus or tacrolimus should be considered a possible risk factor, and withdrawing them or switching to another immunosuppressant might be effective to treat these ulcers.

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Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease leading to cirrhosis and its complications if left untreated. Clinical features include elevated transaminases, elevated immunoglobulin G and the presence of autoantibodies. A liver biopsy is necessary for the establishment of the diagnosis. If treated properly and timely, prognosis of AIH is excellent. Standard treatment today consists of azathioprine and prednisolone and leads to remission in the vast majority of patients. Intolerance to standard treatment or incomplete remission as well as special patient groups such as pregnant patients or elderly patients require second- or sometimes even third-line treatments. For those patients, a number of effective drugs are available off-label and induction of remission will be possible in the vast majority of patients. Choice of drug regimen is important as drug-drug-interactions, concomitant diseases, age and gender of the patients have to be taken into account to achieve a tolerable side effect profile and good quality of life in patients. Mycophenolate mofetil is the drug of first choice in azathioprine intolerance. Other treatments may include the use of cyclosporine, tacrolimus, cyclophosphamide or biologicals such as rituximab or infliximab. Close monitoring of the patients will be necessary as side effects may occur.

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To evaluate the efficacy of 0.03% tacrolimus in the treatment of corticosteroid-refractory vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC).

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Therapeutic drug monitoring of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was found to be beneficial in preventing acute rejection after kidney transplantation. The aim of this pilot prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of MMF dose adjustment in de novo liver transplant patients receiving MMF at fixed versus concentration-controlled doses [ie, adapted to mycophenolic acid (MPA) AUC0-12h] and tacrolimus during the first 12 months posttransplant. Twenty-nine patients received steroids only up to day 10, induction therapy by lymphoglobulins followed by tacrolimus and MMF. In all patients, MPA AUC0-12h were measured on posttransplant days 7 and 14 and at months 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12. From March 2006 to March 2007, 15 patients received MMF at a fixed dose of 1 g twice a day for 12 months. From April 2007 to December 2007, MMF was given to 14 patients at a dose of 1 g twice a day until day 7 and was then adapted to reach an MPA AUC0-12h target of 30-60 mg x h/L. The proportion of MPA AUC0-12h values within the target range was similar in both groups. The proportion of patients with MPA AUC0-12h below 30 mg x h/L tended to be higher in the fixed dose group within the first month posttransplant. However, MMF dose did not differ significantly between the 2 groups at any period except month 1. MPA AUC0-12h tended to be higher in the concentration-controlled group at day 14 and month 2 and was significantly so at month 1. Tacrolimus trough concentrations tended to be lower in the concentration-controlled group at all study periods and was significantly so at month 3. At 12 months posttransplant, patient and graft survivals, acute rejection rate, and adverse events were similar in both groups. We concluded that adapting the dose of MMF resulted in a significant increase in MPA AUC0-12h at month 1. There was a trend toward a lower proportion of patients with MPA AUC0-12h below 30 mg x h/L in the concentration-controlled group. No difference in outcome was found between both groups.

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We have designed a protocol for ABO-incompatible kidney transplantations based on preoperative plasmapheresis with a tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil/methylprednisolone/basiliximab protocol using low-dose rituximab (200 mg/body) instead of splenectomy to prevent antibody-mediated acute rejection. Eight patients successfully received transplants with this protocol. The titers of anti-A and -B antibodies as well as the number of CD20(+) cells were readily maintained at a low level posttransplantation. There were no side effects. All patients have renal transplant function with a follow-up of 1-34 months.

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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common infectious complication following solid organ transplantation. Ganciclovir (GCV)-resistant CMV infection may be fatal, and is difficult to treat while avoiding allograft rejection. A 31-year-old woman received a second ABO-incompatible kidney transplant, from her father. Induction therapy consisted of basiliximab and rituximab followed by maintenance immunosuppression with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone. Her CMV serostatus was D(+) /R(-) at second transplant and she received prophylactic low-dose valganciclovir (VGCV). BK polyoma virus nephropathy (BKVN) developed 7 months after transplant concurrent with CMV hepatitis and retinitis. VGCV was increased to a therapeutic dose combined with reduced immunosuppression with minimal methylprednisolone (2 mg/day) and everolimus (0.5 mg/day). However, pp65 antigenaemia continued to increase for 6 weeks. Her CMV was defined as ganciclovir (GCV)-resistant. Foscarnet was therefore administered and her CMV disease resolved within 2 weeks. Kidney allograft dysfunction developed 9 months after transplant, and graft biopsy showed tubulointerstitial injury with crystal deposition suggesting foscarnet nephrotoxicity, with no findings of BKVN or rejection. Kidney function recovered after cessation of foscarnet and the patient had good graft function 18 months after transplant. This case demonstrates the successful use of foscarnet to treat GCV-resistant CMV infection after ABO-incompatible kidney transplant complicated with BKVN, without acute allograft rejection. This case further highlights the need to establish appropriate management for CMV D(+) /R(-) patients to avoid the acquisition of GCV-resistant gene mutations.

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Studies reporting on rejection rate, allograft survival, or renal function were included and ranked according to the US Preventive Services Task Force classification; excluded were studies that were dose-finding or used cyclosporine only, involved patients on enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium or those with multiorgan transplant, or provided no information on concomitant immunosuppressants. Data extracted were study design, sample size, immunosuppression regimen, type of transplant, and allograft outcomes.

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Cancer is a major cause of mortality among transplant recipients. Immunosuppressive treatment is a modifiable factor contributing to this phenomenon. Cyclosporine in kidney transplant recipients was associated with reduced UV-induced DNA repair by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and increased cancer rate. H(2)O(2) is a common cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induces DNA damage followed by DNA repair.

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The endpoints of this investigator-initiated, observational, 36-month follow-up were acute rejection incidence rates, rates of patient and graft survival and renal function. An additional analysis was performed using the combined endpoints BPAR, graft loss and patient death. Data available from the original ITT population (557 patients; 286 tacrolimus and 271 CsA-ME) were analysed.

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Baseline eGFR was 89.3 ± 27.9 (range, 58-145). eGFR decreased to 75.7 ± 26.2, 71 ± 20.6, 66.5 ± 14.8, and 62.1 ± 11.2 at 6 months, 1, 3, and 5 years representing -15.2%, -20.5%, -15.8%, and -22.6% percentage decreases respectively (P < .05 for all pairwise comparisons). The Baseline SCr was 8.6 ± 2.3 mg/L (range, 5-13). SCr progressively increased to 10.1 ± 3, 10.5 ± 3.1, 10.9 ± 3.1, and 11.3 ± 1.7 at 6 months, 1, 3, and 5 years a 17.1%, 22%, 16.6%, and 19.9% increase respectively (P < .05 for all pairwise comparisons). One of ten, 2/8, and 3/7 patients displayed an eGFR <60 at transplantation versus 3 and 5 years thereafter, respectively. No patient developed a SCr > 25 mg/L or eGFR <30 or needed dialysis or kidney transplantation. Five of ten patients had micro-albuminuria or proteinuria before transplantation. Tacrolimus levels were within recommended therapeutic ranges over time.

prograf drug

Mutation of the immunophilin-like FK506-binding protein TWISTED DWARF1 (FKBP42/TWD1) causes dwarf and twisted-organ phenotypes in Arabidopsis. However, the function of FKBP42 is not fully understood at the molecular level. Using genetic, physiological, and immunological experiments, we show here that FKBP42/TWD1 is necessary for brassinosteroid (BR) signal transduction. The twd1 mutant showed reduced BR sensitivity in growth responses and activation of the BZR1 transcription factor. However, twd1 showed normal responses to an inhibitor of BIN2/GSK3, suggesting that twd1 has a defect upstream of BIN2 in the BR signaling pathway. In vitro and in vivo assays showed that TWD1 interacts physically with the kinase domains of the BR receptor kinases BRI1 and BAK1. TWD1 is not required for normal localization of BRI1-GFP to the plasma membrane or for activation of the flagellin receptor kinase FLS2. Our results suggest that FKBP42/TWD1 plays a specific role in the activation of BRI1 receptor kinase.

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Eighty patients received the study drug (40 patients in each group) and were included in the full analysis set. In the full analysis set, there was no significant difference in the primary efficacy endpoint between the two groups (p = 0.078). However, some secondary analyses suggested the steroid-sparing effect of tacrolimus. Tacrolimus was well tolerated, and no safety concerns were noted.

prograf medication interactions

The overall mean daily-dose requirement to reach the same predose Tac blood concentration was 33% lower for carriers of the T variant allele than for rs35599367CC patients (95% CI, -46% to -20%; P = 0.018). When combined with the *3 genotype of the CYP3A5 (cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 5) gene, the rs35599367C>T SNP was also associated with a risk of supratherapeutic Tac concentrations (>15 μg/L) during the first 3 days after surgery, with an odds ratio of 8.7 for carriers of the CYP3A4 T allele plus CYP3A5*3/*3 (P = 0.027) and 4.2 for the CYP3A4 CC homozygotes plus CYP3A5*3/*3 (P = 0.002), compared with CYP3A4 CC homozygotes having 1 or 2 CYP3A5*1 alleles. The overall increase in the Tac dose-adjusted trough blood concentration was +179% for carriers of the CYP3A4 T allele with CYP3A5*3/*3 (P < 0.001), +101% for CYP3A4 CC homozygotes with CYP3A5*3/*3 (P < 0.001), and +64% for CYP3A4 T allele carriers with CYP3A5*1 (P = 0.020),compared with CYP3A4 CC homozygotes with CYP3A5*1.

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Quantitative BKV DNA surveillance in plasma/urine and cytological testing in urine were performed regularly within the first year post-transplantation in 229 kidney recipients. Patients with BK viremia and BKVAN treated with immunosuppression reduction were monitored for BKV every 3-6 months. All the patients were followed up for a minimum of 5 years to exclude later development of BKVAN. Potential variables were compared and analyzed using logistic regression model multivariate analysis to assess and rank the BKV infection-related factors.

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Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis leads to impaired stress response. FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP5), which influences HPA axis activity via glucocorticoid receptors, is supposed to play an important role in the regulation of negative feedback and glucocorticoid resistance. Since ineffective stress response mechanisms are considered as a biological background of suicide behavior, we aimed to analyze a possible association between FKBP5 functional polymorphisms and completed suicide.

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A total of 62 consecutive patients with VKC refractory to conventional treatment were included retrospectively. Tacrolimus 0.01% ophthalmic solution was administered to patients twice daily after discontinuation of all previous topical medications. The duration of treatment ranged from 1 month to 29 months. The clinical symptoms of itching, redness, foreign body sensation, and discharge and the clinical signs of conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival papillary hypertrophy, limbal infiltration, Trantas dots, and superficial punctate keratopathy were graded as 0 (normal), 1+ (mild), 2+ (moderate), or 3+ (severe). Assessment was carried out before initiation of therapy and on the last visit after treatment.

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Linearity was observed from 0.16 to 2.5 μmol/L of product peptide, with accuracy in the 15% tolerance range. Intraassay and interassay recoveries were 100.6 (9.6) and 100 (7.5), respectively. Michaelis-Menten kinetics for purified CN were Km = 10.7 (1.6) μmol/L, Vmax = 2.8 (0.3) μmol/min · mg, and for Jurkat lysate, Km = 182.2 (118.0) μmol/L, Vmax = 0.013 (0.006) μmol/min · mg. PBMC CN activity was successfully measured in a single tube with an inhibitor cocktail.

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A study of mortality in renal transplantation recipients showed that the combination of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and tacrolimus (TaC) reduced the mortality rate. We studied 1045 consecutive adult deceased donor kidney transplant recipients from 1986-2001, where follow-up to 2011 was a minimum of 10 years, to analyze the impact of these immunosuppressive drugs on patient survival. Cox multivariate analysis showed that treatment with MMF and the use of TaC instead of cyclosporine reduced the risk of death by 43%. In conclusion, both immunosuppressive drugs reduced the risk of death of patients receiving from renal transplants deceased donors.

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Macaques given a rAAV5 vector encoding human PBGD developed cellular and humoral immunity against viral capsids but not towards the transgene. Anti-AAV humoral responses were attenuated during 12 weeks but intensely rebounded following cessation of the immunosuppressants. Accordingly, subsequent gene transfer with a rAAV5 vector encoding green fluorescent protein was impossible. One macaque showed enhanced PBGD expression 25 weeks after rAAV5-pbgd administration but overexpression had not been detected while the animal was under immunosuppression. As a potential explanation, MMF decreases transgene expression in mouse livers that had been successfully transduced by a rAAV5 several weeks before MMF onset. Such a silencing effect was independent of AAV complementary strand synthesis and requires an adaptive immune system.

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A combination of narrowband ultraviolet B (NBUVB) phototherapy plus topical tacrolimus has been used in adult vitiligo but has not yet been explored in children. We therefore sought to highlight the efficacy of this synergistic combination in childhood vitiligo. The objective was to study the clinical efficacy and safety of a combination of NBUVB with topical tacrolimus ointment 0.03% in childhood vitiligo.

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At the time of LDLT, all patients had end-stage cholestatic liver failure. Seven patients were positive for AMAand anti-M2 while 1 patient was negative for these markers but strongly positive for ANA. Donors were blood relatives in 6 cases, and 2 donors who were not blood relatives still exhibited multiple HLA matches with the recipients. At the end of the study in May 2006, all patients were doing well. On laboratory examination, mild abnormal liver function test results were found in 4 patients: 3 were probably due to recurrence of PBC, 1 resulted from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Comparison of the AMA titer between before LDLT and the most recent follow-up visit showed an increase in three patients, a decrease in two patients and no change in three patients. In contrast, the ANA titer increased in five patients. Histologically, strong evidence of recurrent PBC was found in 4 patients, and findings compatible with PBC were present in 2 additional patients.

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Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a frequent and severe complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) affecting 9.6-17.3 % of cases. 200 HSCT, performed between January 1995 and March 2013 in our Paediatric HSCT Centre in Trieste, were retrospectively analysed to evaluate the frequency of VOD and to identify the associated risk factors. The frequency of VOD according to the Seattle criteria was 17 %, within the range reported in literature. The mortality rate was 37.5 % (75 out of 200 transplantations) in the general population and 73.5 % (25 out of 34) in VOD patients (p < 0.05). Veno-occlusive disease significantly decreased from 38 % (1995-2000) to 8 % (2007-2013) p < 0.05. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified sepsis and pre-transplant ferritin levels above 1000 ng/ml as two significant risk factors for VOD, while the use of tacrolimus appeared to be associated with a lower VOD risk. Veno-occlusive disease still remains an important cause of transplant-related mortality even if it appears to have decreased over the last few years.

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Intravesical therapy is a valuable option in the clinical management of urinary tract disorders such as interstitial cystitis/ painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and refractory overactive bladder. This review will cover the latest advances in this field using polymer and liposomes as delivery platform for drugs, protein and nucleic acids.

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Intestinal absorption and metabolism of tacrolimus was significantly affected by the SNPs in the CYP3A5 and MDR1 genes, which may offer a useful tool to optimize tacrolimus dosing after renal transplantation.

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FK506 binding protein (FKBP)-51 and FKBP52 act as molecular chaperones to control glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity. Dysregulation of proteins involved in GR-mediated signaling can lead to maladaptive stress response and aging-related cognitive decline. As HIV infection is related to chronic stress, we hypothesized that altered cortical expression of these proteins was associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). We used quantitative immunohistochemistry to assess expression levels of these proteins in the mid-frontal gyrus of 55 HIV-infected subjects free of cerebral opportunistic diseases compared to 20 age-matched non-HIV controls. The immunoreactivity normalized to the neuroanatomic area measured (IRn) for FKBP51 was increased in HIV subjects both in the cortex and subcortical white matter (p < 0.0001, U test), while no significant alterations were observed for GR or FKBP52. Notably, the cortical FKBP51 IRn was higher in HAND subjects than in cognitively normal HIV subjects (p = 0.02, U test). There was also a trend for increasing cortical FKBP51 IRn with the increasing severity of HAND (p = 0.08, Kruskal-Wallis test). No significant changes in FKBP51 IRn were found with respect to hepatitis C virus infection, lifetime methamphetamine use, or antiretroviral treatment in HIV subjects. In conclusion, the increased cortical expression of FKBP51 (an inhibitor for GR activity) might represent negative feedback in an attempt to reduce GR sensitivity in the setting of chronic stress-induced elevation of GR-mediated signaling inherent in HIV infection. The further increased FKBP51 expression might lead to maladaptive stress response and HAND.

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prograf generic substitution 2016-04-17

To assess clinical features of RD associated with buy prograf online tacrolimus, 44 cases of patients diagnosed with RD between 2005 and 2010 at our hospital were retrospectively reviewed.

prograf cost 2mg 2016-12-04

Cellular ATP level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was measured during culture growth of strain US50-18C overproducing all major PDR pumps and its isogenic mutants variously deleted in these pumps. It was found to be inversely proportional to the intensity of cell metabolism during different growth phases and to the activity of PDR pumps, which are thus among major ATP consumers in the cells. The ATP level was increased when membrane integrity was affected by 0.5% butanol, and further increased by compound 23.1, a semisynthetic phenol lipid derivative that acts as inhibitor of Pdr5p and Snq2p pumps. The magnitude of increase in cell ATP caused by inhibition of Pdr5p pump by compound buy prograf online 23.1 and the Pdr5p pump inhibitor FK506 used for comparison reflects the activity and hence the energy demand of the pump. The rise in cell ATP caused by different PDR pump inhibitors can be thus used as an indicator of pump activity and the potency of the inhibitor.

prograf mg 2017-12-08

Overall, our study suggests that exposure-related risks associated with the exchange of different generic drugs in clinical practice are not increased to a relevant extent compared to the situation in which a buy prograf online generic is exchanged with the innovator.

prograf drug levels 2017-01-22

Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups: sham-operated rats, 5/6 nephrectomized rats (Nx) treated with vehicle, CNI (cyclosporine A 5.0 or 7.5, or tacrolimus 0.5 mg/kg/day) or hydralazine (20 mg/kg twice a day) for 14 days, starting on the day of surgery. Creatinine clearance was significantly lower and blood pressure significantly higher in Nx rats when compared with controls. Morphological and echocardiographic analyses revealed increased left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased number of capillaries in Nx rats. Treatment with CNI affected neither the renal function nor the blood pressure, but prevented the development of cardiac hypertrophy and improved vascularization. In addition, regional blood volume improved as confirmed by contrast agent-based echocardiography. Hydralazine treatment did not avoid heart remodelling in this model. Gene expression analysis verified a decrease in hypertrophic genes in the heart buy prograf online of CNI-treated rats, while pro-angiogenic and stem cell-related genes were upregulated. Moreover, mobilization of stem/progenitor cells was increased through manipulation of the CD26/SDF-1 system.

prograf pediatric dosage 2016-01-09

We examined 206 non-diabetic kidney allograft recipients (age 46.4 ± 12.3 years, buy prograf online time since transplantation 45.5 ± ± 33.6 months, BMI 26.3 ± 4.5 kg/m2). Glucose metabolism disorders were diagnosed using an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of each risk factor (age, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, the presence of cardiovascular disease, positive family history of diabetes, cholesterol and triglycerides concentration) on the development of glucose metabolism disorders.

prograf 1mg capsule 2015-05-27

Conversion from BID TAC to OD TAC, milligram for milligram, is clinically safe; however, monitoring of tacrolimus concentration in patients receiving low buy prograf online dosage is mandatory to prevent subtherapeutic levels.

prograf cost 2017-02-23

A method for selecting antibodies against a membrane protein is important for attaining a variety of antibody-based diagnostics and therapies. In this study, buy prograf online we propose a novel system to select specific antibodies against a membrane protein based on mammalian cell proliferation as a readout. The system employs a chimeric membrane protein in which a target membrane protein of interest is fused to the intracellular signaling domain of a cytokine receptor. The chimeric membrane protein transduces a cell proliferation signal through dimerization when co-expressed with a specific single-chain Fv fused with a mutant of FK-binding protein 12 (scFv-Fk) that can be conditionally dimerized by a synthetic ligand AP20187. To demonstrate this system, ErbB2 and gp130 were chosen as the target membrane protein and cytokine receptor, respectively. Consequently, co-expression of the ErbB2/gp130 chimera and ErbB2-specific scFv-Fk rendered the cells proliferative in response to AP20187. The system also allowed selection of high-affinity binders from a mixture composed of dominant low-affinity binders. This system may be extended to affinity maturation of scFvs by modulating AP20187 concentration in the selection process.

prograf medicine 2017-01-30

The incidence of hepatic artery thrombosis was not significantly different in patients early treated with everolimus when compared with the remaining cohort (0% vs 9.1%; p = 0.12). Other vascular complications occurred in 9.1% of patients with early everolimus vs 7.3% in the remaining cohort (p = 0.72). No wound healing complications were detected with early everolimus. There were similar rates of incisional hernia (p = 0.31), infections (p = 0.15), renal impairment (p = 0.37), and buy prograf online histologically-proven acute rejection (p = 0.24) between groups. The rates of hyperlipidemia were increased with early everolimus (29.9% vs 16.5% at 3 years; p = 0.018). Graft loss and mortality rates were similar between groups (p = 0.34 and p = 0.94 respectively), after adjusting for possible confounding factors.

prograf tacrolimus cost 2017-12-11

Although prior studies have suggested age as a risk factor for rejection in liver transplantation, this is the first study of national-level data to demonstrate a robust dose buy prograf online dependent relationship between age and risk for rejection at one year. Clinicians should place significant weight on recipient age when they assess their recipients for the immunologic risk of rejection.

prograf overdose 2017-03-19

Both pairs underwent simultaneous uneventful kidney transplant surgeries and creatinine was 1 mg/dL on tacrolimus based immunosuppression at 11 buy prograf online mo follow up. The uniqueness of these transplantations was that they are first international KPD transplantations in our center.

prograf cost assistance 2015-09-01

The ABO-incompatible kidney transplants were successful after the preconditioning protocol that included double-filtration buy prograf online plasmapheresis and rituximab. The use of ABO-incompatible kidney transplant may increase the availability of kidney transplant and avoid or shorten dialysis. Future multicenter studies are justified to develop a standardized preconditioning protocol.

prograf 2 mg 2017-01-09

Linear morphoea (LM) is a rare fibrosing disorder of the limbs or the face that may cause functional disability and severe aesthetic sequelae. Despite a wide range of therapeutics reported for LM, there is currently a lack of consensus on the optimal therapy. Little is known about the long-term outcome buy prograf online of this disease.

prograf drug classification 2017-10-26

The hippocampus is a tiny nub in the mammalian brain that is involved in forming, organizing, and storing memories. Global cerebral ischemia ( buy prograf online GCI) and reperfusion induced apoptosis lead to cell injury and death. FK-506 is a strong immunosuppressant drug that has neuroprotective effects on the hypoxic-ischemic effects of brain damage. BAD and Bcl-xL are pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes, respectively. These genes belong to The B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family.

prograf 2000 review 2017-02-18

Among 1368 either liver or kidney transplant recipients 61 subjects buy prograf online including 49 male patients of overall mean age 42.8±12 years underwent FB. FB was performed for lung infiltrates (n=42), lung nodules (n=2), atelectasis (n=1), bronchopleural fistula (n=1), stridor (n=1), mediastinal lymphadenopathy (n=2), pleural effusion (n=1), fever (n=9), and/or hemoptysis (n=2). FB was unremarkable in 17. Other findings were as follows: increased secretions (n=24), chronic mucosal changes (n=7), endobronchial lesion (n=1), edematous mucosa (n=3), submucosal narrowing (n=1), necrotic plaque (n=2), hemorrhage (n=2), tracheal stenosis (n=1), and/or friable mucosa (n=3). We performed bronchial washings (n=56) and/or bronchoalveolar lavage (n=5). In 24 patients the microorganisms were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catharralis, Candida albicans, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumonia, Stenotrofomonas maltofilia, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Pseudomonas aerigunosa. In 34 patients a final diagnosis was established using FB (diagnostic yield, 55.7%). Thirty-one patients had received tacrolimus (10.5±5.3 ng/ng/mL); 22 cyclosporine (187.1±79.3 ng/mL); and 8, sirolimus (6.2±2.2 ng/mL). No significant difference was observed between high versus low drug levels and the culture results (P>.05).

prograf generic availability 2015-04-06

Patients with post-transplant hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence were treated with sorafenib. Adverse events Epivir Suspension were assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria of AEs version 3.0, tumour response was evaluated according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours.

prograf dose adjustment 2016-07-19

Combinations of posaconazole and tacrolimus were synergistic in checkerboard assays for 4 clinical isolates of Lipitor 5 Mg R. oryzae (48-hour fractional inhibitory concentration index, 0.187-0.281). Pharmacodynamic analysis of the combination revealed that the 90% effective concentration threshold of posaconazole activity against R. oryzae could be achieved with 2-fold lower drug concentrations (0.5-1 mg/L) when administered with tacrolimus (0.007-2 mg/L). In vivo, combination therapy was associated with improved survival in the fly model of mucormycosis (65% vs 57% posaconazole alone) and with significant reductions in cutaneous lesions and R. oryzae fungal burden, compared with animals that received posaconazole monotherapy, in the cutaneous model of mucormycosis.

prograf capsules 2016-01-04

The advent of novel immunosuppressive strategies in renal transplantation, with immunomodulatory properties, might facilitate long-term allograft survival. T Asacol Prices Online -cell depletion, costimulation-blockade and mTor inhibition have been shown to favour anti-donor hyporesponsiveness. Recently, the combination of rATG, belatacept (Bela) and sirolimus (SRL) has been used in kidney transplantation, showing very low incidence of acute rejection and excellent 12-month graft and patient survival. Herein, we have analysed the 1-year evolution of memory/effector and regulatory T cells and assessed the donor-specific T-cell alloimmune response in a group of these patients and compared with others treated with a calcineurin-inhibitor(CNI)-based (rATG/tacrolimus/MMF), and two other Bela-based regimens (rATG/Bela/MMF and basiliximab/Bela/MMF/steroids). During the first year after transplantation, patients receiving rATG/Bela/SRL had significantly higher percentage of Tregs upon the memory T-cell compartment and showed a potent anti-donor suppressive activity. In an in vitro naive and memory/effector T-cell co-culture, the combination of costimulation-blockade and SRL could abrogate both antigen-specific T-cell responses as efficiently as using a CNI drug. The combination of T-cell depletion, costimulation-blockade and mTor inhibition seems to be able to allow Treg survival and inhibit donor-specific alloreactive effector immune responses after kidney transplantation in humans.

prograf dosage 2017-03-23

Neutrophil (p Imodium Drug Use = 0.001) engraftment and platelet engraftment (p = 0.027) were significantly faster in patients who have closer Class I (HLA-A, -B, -C) matching. Neutrophil engraftment was faster in patients who had closer HLA-B matching to their combined cords (p = 0.007). There was a low incidence of aGVHD overall, especially in the SIR/TAC group. Class I HLA matching had no effect on aGVHD. HLA-DR and -DQ had no effect on engraftment or aGVHD.

prograf 6 mg 2016-06-01

Despite using a screening protocol combined with immunosuppression minimization, BK-positive recipients had a greater risk of graft loss and impaired function than recipients free of infection Neurontin High Dosage . Future investigations should focus on practices to prevent BK viremia.

prograf and alcohol 2015-12-13

Serum levels of IL-23 and IL-17 were determined in 38 healthy subjects and 35 stable hepatic transplant recipients Cytoxan Tablet Form who were free of rejection episodes for at least 8 years. The results were analyzed according to the simultaneous blood levels of cyclosporine (n = 20) or tacrolimus (n = 15).

prograf medication guide 2017-11-20

As corticosteroid-sparing protocols are increasingly utilized in kidney transplant recipients, it is crucial to understand potential drug interactions between tacrolimus (TAC) and the effect of corticosteroid withdrawal as well as to characterize dose adjustments of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in this setting. This prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study included 397 patients who were randomized on posttransplant day 8 to receive either placebo (CSWD) or corticosteroid continuance (CCS). TAC trough levels at week two posttransplant were significantly greater in the CSWD group whereas TAC doses were comparable to the CCS group. This interaction was not observed in the African American subgroup. Higher serum creatinine and potassium levels were also observed in the CSWD group. MMF dose was significantly reduced in the CSWD group by the investigators because of decreased WBC counts, mostly outside of study protocol criteria, despite similar incidence of neutropenia and reported cytomegalovirus infection. Understanding TAC and MMF exposure in the context of corticosteroid-sparing protocols should allow for improved dosing Paxil Dosage Information of immunosuppressants and better management of posttransplant patients.

prograf storage 2017-04-18

Organic solvents used for extraction of tacrolimus from whole blood samples lower the apparent affinity of the antibody used Zovirax Syrup Dose in a diagnostic immunoassay, thereby affecting the detection limit.

prograf generic problems 2016-07-08

Tacrolimus (Tac) is a macrolide immunosuppressant drug Diamox Iv Dose isolated from Streptomyces tsukubaensis, widely used in organ transplantation.

prograf cost price 2016-10-23

Women with lichen sclerosus (LS) are more likely to have dyspareunia, decreased orgasm, and decreased coital frequency as compared to unaffected women. It is unknown whether standard medical therapy to treat LS results in improved sexual Diovan 90 Mg functioning.

prograf generic sandoz 2015-02-05

Findings suggest that exposure to tacrolimus alone post-LT is insufficient to initiate de novo allergic disease in LT recipients; rather, younger age and underlying predisposition to atopic disease may play larger roles.

prograf storage temperature 2016-08-15

Some difficult cases of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) have been treated with a HIV protease inhibitor provided with proteasome-inhibiting activity. The objective of this study was to limit nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation which is up-regulated in these patients, aiming at decreasing proteinuria and prednisone need.

prograf pills 2015-12-25

Ethanol is likely among the most widely and extensively used drugs in the world. It has also been demonstrated to alter the expression or activity of some drug-metabolizing enzymes. Thus, marked ethanol-provoked drug interactions could be of notable clinical importance. To date, relatively few clinically important interactions have been reported, involving cocaine, disulfiram and tacrolimus. Limited or modest interactions with ethanol have also been reported for drugs such as abacavir, cisapride, 'ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymetamfetamine), gamma-hydroxybutyrate, methylyphenidate, metronidazole and verapamil. Most of these interactions do not seem to involve CYP2E1, the enzyme initially characterized and cloned based on its ability to metabolize and be induced by ethanol. Important work has elucidated the relationship between CYP2E1-mediated formation of the hepatotoxic metabolite of acetaminophen and alcohol consumption. Lastly, drug interactions involving other components of alcoholic beverages such as flavonoid and other polyphenolic components of red wine have been reported.

prograf injection dosage 2016-08-03

These results indicate that TREC levels may become a marker of the curative effect of tacrolimus therapy for thymomatous MG, and that tacrolimus suppresses not only activating T-lymphocytes, but also naïve T-cells.

prograf generic cost 2015-05-30

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary infection is usually seen in elderly persons. We encountered a rare case of MAC pulmonary disease seen in a 19-year-old adolescent. The patient had received bone marrow transplantation at the age of 16 for myelodysplastic syndrome. Subsequently, he developed constrictive bronchiolitis and has been treated with corticosteroid and taclorimus. At age 19, small or fine nodules and a cavitary nodule in right lung were detected on the chest radiograph and computed tomography. Afterwards, Mycobacterium avium was detected by bronchoscopic examination and sputum examination and he was diagnosed as MAC pulmonary infection. MAC pulmonary infection in a young person at the age of 19 is an extremely rare case, in which constrictive bronchiolitis, immunosuppression by corticosteroid and tacrolimus, and diabetes mellitus were considered as critical predisposing factors.

prograf drugs 2015-05-03

The final model identified time post-transplantation and CYP3A5*1 allele as influential covariates on tacrolimus apparent clearance according to the following equation: TVCL = 12.9 x (Weight/13.2)(0.75) x EXP(-0.00158 x TPT) x EXP(0.428 x CYP3A5) where TVCL is the typical value for apparent clearance, TPT is time post-transplantation in days and the CYP3A5 is 1 where *1 allele is present and 0 otherwise. The population estimate and inter-individual variability (%CV) of tacrolimus apparent clearance were found to be 0.977 l  h(-1)  kg(-1) (95% CI 0.958, 0.996) and 40.0%, respectively, while the residual variability between the observed and predicted concentrations was 35.4%.

prograf missed dose 2015-06-07

Information-processing biases may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depression. There is growing evidence that children of depressed mothers exhibit attentional biases for sad faces. However, findings are mixed as to whether this bias reflects preferential attention toward, versus attentional avoidance of, sad faces, suggesting the presence of unmeasured moderators. To address these mixed findings, we focused on the potential moderating role of genes associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Participants included children (8-14 years old) of mothers with (n = 81) and without (n = 81) a history of depression. Eye movements were recorded while children passively viewed arrays of angry, happy, sad, and neutral faces. DNA was obtained from buccal cells. Children of depressed mothers exhibited more sustained attention to sad faces than did children of nondepressed mothers. However, it is important that this relation was moderated by children's genotype. Specifically, children of depressed mothers who carried reactive genotypes across the corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor (CHRH1) TAT haplotype and FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) rs1360780 (but not the solute carrier family C6 member 4 [SLC6A4] of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region [5-HTTLPR]) exhibited less sustained attention to sad faces and more sustained attention to happy faces. These findings highlight the role played by specific genetic influences and suggest that previous mixed findings may have been due to genetic heterogeneity across the samples.

prograf generic equivalent 2017-10-03

A total of 26 cases, 53% men, had a median age of 33 years (range 2-61). Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy occurred after stem-cell transplant (35%) or solid-organ transplant (65%), frequently associated with the use of cyclosporine or tacrolimus (96%). A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS 13) level was always >10%. After TA-TMA diagnosis, the following drug adjustments were made: discontinuation of cyclosporine or tacrolimus in 45%, dose reduction in another 27%, continuation of the drugs in 23%, and switch from cyclosporine to tacrolimus in remaining 5%. Plasma exchange was performed in ∼43%. The median interval between transplant and initiation of eculizumab was 63 days (range 11-512). A median of 5.5 doses (range 2-21) of eculizumab was utilized with 92% response occurring after a median of 2 doses (range 1-18). At a median follow-up of 52 weeks (range 3-113), the survivors (92%) were doing well.

prograf 1mg cost 2015-02-14

Tacrolimus (FK506), an effective immunosuppressant for treating inflammatory skin diseases, hardly penetrates into and through the skin owing to its high hydrophobicity and molecular weight. The aim of this study was to develop a hybrid system based on nicotinamide (NIC) and nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating FK506, such as FK506-NPs-NIC, for facilitating percutaneous delivery, which exploited virtues of both NIC and NPs to obtain the synergetic effect. Solubility and percutaneous permeation studies were carried out. The results showed that NIC could increase the solubility and permeability of FK506 and that 20% (w/v) NIC presented higher FK506 permeability and was thus chosen as the hydrotropic solution to solubilize FK506 and prepare FK506-NPs-NIC. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was chemically conjugated with cholesterol (Chol) to obtain amphiphilic conjugate of HA-Chol, which self-assembled NPs in 20% NIC solution containing FK506. The particle size, zeta potential, and morphology of NPs were characterized. The encapsulation efficiency and in vitro percutaneous permeation of NPs were evaluated in the presence and absence of NIC. The results demonstrated that hydrotropic solubilizing FK506 was readily encapsulated into NPs with a higher encapsulation efficiency of 79.2%±4.2%, and the combination of NPs with NIC exhibited a significantly synergistic effect on FK506 deposition within the skin (2.39±0.53 μg/cm(2)) and penetration through the skin (13.38±2.26 μg/cm(2)). The effect of the combination of NPs with NIC on drug permeation was further visualized by confocal laser scanning microscope through in vivo permeation studies, and the results confirmed that NPs-NIC synergistically enhanced the permeation of the drug into the skin. The cellular uptake performed in HaCaT cells presented a promoting effect of NPs on cellular uptake. These overall results demonstrated that HA-Chol-NPs-NIC can synergistically improve the percutaneous delivery of FK506, and it is a novel potential strategy based on a nano-sized carrier for FK506 to treat skin diseases.

prograf 9 mg 2017-12-24

The Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CN), a heterodimer composed of a catalytic subunit A and an essential regulatory subunit B, plays critical functions in various cellular processes such as cardiac hypertrophy and T cell activation. It is the target of the most widely used immunosuppressants for transplantation, tacrolimus (FK506) and cyclosporin A. However, the structure of a large part of the CNA regulatory region remains to be determined, and there has been considerable debate concerning the regulation of CN activity. Here, we report the crystal structure of full-length CN (β isoform), which revealed a novel autoinhibitory segment (AIS) in addition to the well-known autoinhibitory domain (AID). The AIS nestles in a hydrophobic intersubunit groove, which overlaps the recognition site for substrates and immunosuppressant-immunophilin complexes. Indeed, disruption of this AIS interaction results in partial stimulation of CN activity. More importantly, our biochemical studies demonstrate that calmodulin does not remove AID from the active site, but only regulates the orientation of AID with respect to the catalytic core, causing incomplete activation of CN. Our findings challenge the current model for CN activation, and provide a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of CN activity regulation.