Compounds WHI-05 [5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-methoxyphenyl)-methoxyalaninyl phosphate] and WHI-07 [5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-bromophenyl)-methoxyalaninyl phosphate] are aryl phosphate derivatives of zidovudine (ZDV) with anti-HIV and contraceptive activity. WHI-05 and WHI-07 differ fundamentally from currently used surfactant microbicides that are cytotoxic to genital tract epithelial cells at spermicidal concentrations. These drugs were rationally designed to bypass the thymidine kinase dependency of ZDV activation in genital tract secretions, as well as to achieve spermicidal activity. WHI-05 and WHI-07 were formulated via a non-toxic gel-microemulsion for intravaginal use as potential anti-HIV spermicides. Pre-clinical safety studies of intravaginally administered WHI-05 and WHI-07 gel-microemulsions were performed in mice and rabbits to mimic closely the intravaginal application of a microbicidal preparation in women. In addition, systemic toxicity studies were performed in mice and non-human primates. The LD10 doses for WHI-05 and WHI-07 when administered intravenously or intraperitoneally were >500 mg/kg for mice. Female cynomolgus monkeys treated with 20 mg/kg WHI-05 and WHI-07 intravenously developed no grade 2-4 systemic toxicities. Repetitive intravaginal administration of 2% WHI-05 and WHI-07 via a gel-microemulsion to achieve concentrations as high as 6.1 x 10(4) and 5.7 x 10(6) times their respective in vitro anti-HIV IC50 values, and 1200 and 5700 times their spermicidal EC50 values, for up to 13 weeks, was not associated with mucosal, systemic or reproductive toxicity. Furthermore, long-term (2 years) intravaginal administration of 2% WHI-07 gel-microemulsion was not associated with systemic toxicity or increased carcinogenicity in mice. The improved potency, as well as the lack of mucosal, systemic and reproductive toxicity of WHI-05 and WHI-07, means that these compounds have clinical potential as safe, prophylactic contraceptives in addition to their microbicide activity to curb the sexual transmission of HIV.
Number of physicians prescribing antiretroviral agents (ARVs) and pharmacists stocking ARVs. Type of ARV utilised, cost to the patient and information on ARV available.
retrovir drug interactions
In the total lamivudine/abacavir group, 1585 of 2229 (71%) patients experienced at least one drug-related AE during the study compared with 247 of 325 (76%) patients in the lamivudine/zidovudine/efavirenz treatment group. The most common drug-related AEs reported during the study were diarrhoea (19%), nausea (18%) and dizziness (12%) in patients treated with lamivudine/abacavir plus a third agent, and nausea (31%), dizziness (27%) and headache (16%) in the comparator group. Overall, in the total lamivudine/abacavir group there were only three severe (Division of AIDS 1992 toxicity table grade 3 or 4) AEs that were reported in >1% of subjects: drug hypersensitivity, elevated ALT levels and elevated AST levels. In the lamivudine/zidovudine/efavirenz group, six severe AEs that occurred in >1% of the safety population were reported. The abacavir hypersensitivity reaction rate reported in these five studies was comparable with the previously reported rate. In addition, there were no patient fatalities attributed by investigators to the study drugs.
retrovir 250 mg
Little is known about the ability of women to adhere to recommended feeding strategies to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) from breast milk. We conducted a pilot study in rural Botswana to prevent MTCT from breast milk. Women were randomized to formula feed their infants or to exclusively breastfeed while providing prophylactic zidovudine. Women who chose to formula feed independently were also followed. Among those with > or = 3 postpartum visits, none of 31 women assigned to breastfeed did so exclusively for 5 months. Seven (22%) of 32 women in the formula arm definitely or probably breastfed by self-report or as witnessed in maternity, and evidence of breast milk on physical examination was present in 50% of women in > or = 2 visits beyond 1 month. Three (18%) of 17 women choosing formula definitely or probably breastfed, and breast milk was present on exam in 53%. We conclude that adherence to 5 months of exclusive breastfeeding did not occur, and that adherence to exclusive formula feeding was sub-optimal and potentially over reported. Breast examination may be a useful adjunct to self-report, but needs to be validated and standardized. Low adherence to infant feeding strategies that differ from local norms will reduce their effectiveness in preventing MTCT.
retrovir drug name
Extended prophylaxis with nevirapine or with nevirapine and zidovudine for the first 14 weeks of life significantly reduced postnatal HIV-1 infection in 9-month-old infants. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00115648.)
Lamivudine (3TC), a drug used in the treatment of HIV infection, needs to cross the plasma membrane to exert its therapeutic action. Human Organic cation transporter 1 (hOCT1), encoded by the SLC22A1 gene, is the transporter responsible for its uptake into target cells. As SLC22A1 is a highly polymorphic gene, the aim of this study was to determine how SNPs in the OCT1-encoding gene affected 3TC internalization and its interaction with other co-administered drugs. HEK293 cells stably transfected with either the wild type form or the polymorphic variants of hOCT1 were used to perform kinetic and drug-drug interaction studies. Protein co-immunoprecipitation was used to assess the impact of selected polymorphic cysteines on the oligomerization of the transporter. Results showed that 3TC transport efficiency was reduced in all polymorphic variants tested (R61C, C88R, S189L, M420del, and G465R). This was not caused by lack of oligomerization in case of variants located at the transporter extracellular loop (R61C and C88R). Drug-drug interaction measurements showed that co-administered drugs [abacavir (ABC), zidovudine (AZT), emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir diproxil fumarate (TDF), efavirenz (EFV) and raltegravir (RAL)], differently inhibited 3TC uptake depending upon the polymorphic variant analyzed. These data highlight the need for accurate analysis of drug transporter polymorphic variants of clinical relevance, because polymorphisms can impact on substrate (3TC) translocation but even more importantly they can differentially affect drug-drug interactions at the transporter level.
The process of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) cell entry was examined using assays for virus replication intermediates. FIV subtype B was found to utilize the chemokine receptor CXCR4, but not CCR5, as a cellular receptor. Zidovudine blocked formation of late viral replication products most effectively, including circular DNA genome intermediates. Our findings extend the role of CXCR4 as a primary receptor for CD4-independent cell entry by FIV.
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Data from a paediatric ART cohort at the All African Leprosy and Rehabilitation Centre, Addis Abeba, were analysed. Outcome measures included survival, age, gender, WHO stage, weight, regimen and CD4 cell count.
cost of retrovir
Most HIV-infected patients treated with potent combination antiretrovirals develop responses to recall and presumed neoantigens after immunization. Functional immune restoration in response to immunization is related to control of viral replication, decreased immune activation as well as to both quantitative and qualitative restoration of circulating T- lymphocyte subpopulations.
retrovir brand name
CSF HIV RNA levels cannot be expected to fall below 50 HIV RNA copies/ml even after 2 months of therapy on HAART. Prolonged therapy may be required to suppress HIV levels within the central nervous system.
Investigators and pharmaceutical companies were contacted, and MEDLINE searches were supplemented by searching conference abstracts.
retrovir dosage forms
Zidovudine (ZDV, AZT) is the first clinically effective drug licensed for use in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Activation of ZDV requires phosphorylation to ZDV triphosphate by cellular kinases. It is important, therefore, to determine the intracellular levels of the active form because measurement of ZDV concentrations in plasma have not reflected any direct relationship with activity or toxicity. In this paper a validated assay for the measurement of both ZDV and its three phosphorylated anabolites, ZDV mono-, di- and triphosphate, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is described. The method consisted of a combination of isocratic high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and radioimmunoassay (RIA). The PBMCs were separated from whole blood and ZDV and ZDV nucleotides were extracted and separated by isocratic elution with an ion-pairing mobile phase on a reversed-phase HPLC column. The collected ZDV and individual ZDV nucleotide fractions were dephosphorylated to ZDV, cleaned by solid phase extraction and assayed by a commercially available RIA kit. The assay developed was successfully used to determine intracellular ZDV and anabolite concentrations of 10 PBMC samples taken from HIV positive patients on ZDV treatment.
To determine the effect of low-dose splenic irradiation on severe Zidovudine-resistant, HIV-1-associated thrombocytopenia (HAT).
retrovir oral suspension
A randomized double-blind controlled trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of passive immunotherapy in the treatment of symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This trial included 86 symptomatic patients randomized to receive plasma rich in anti-HIV-1 antibody or standard seronegative plasma. Each patient in both groups received a 300-ml infusion every 14 days over a 1-year period, and every 28 days thereafter, in addition to zidovudine and other conventional prophylactic treatments. Plasma donors were selected among symptomless seropositive individuals with a CD4 lymphocyte count > or = 400 x 10(6) cells per liter, a negative p24 antigen assay, and a high concentration of anti-p24 antibody. The plasmas were heat-inactivated before infusion. During the study period (day 28-day 365) scheduled by the protocol, clinical benefit from passive immunotherapy was observed in delaying the appearance of the first AIDS-defining event (P < 0.009) and reducing the cumulative incidence of such events, which was estimated 3-fold higher in the control group compared to the treatment group. Seven deaths occurred in the treatment group vs. 11 in the control group (P = 0.27). A total of 47 patients died or exhibited new AIDS-defining events, 18 in the treatment group and 29 in the control group (P = 0.009). No clinical benefit was observed after the 1-year period with infusions performed every 4 weeks. These results indicate a favorable effect of passive immunotherapy on the evolution of advanced AIDS.
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clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00197587.
retrovir syrup dosage
3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), the first chemotherapeutic drug approved by FDA for treatment of HIV-infected patients and still used in combination therapy, has been shown to induce, upon prolonged exposure, severe bone marrow toxicity manifested as anemia, neutropenia and siderosis. These toxic effects are caused by inhibition of heme synthesis and, as a consequence, transferrin receptor (TfR) number appears increased and so iron taken up by cells. Since iron overload can promote the frequency and severity of many infections, siderosis is viewed as a further burden for AIDS patients. We have previously demonstrated that AZT-treated K562 cells showed an increase of the number of TfRs located on the surface of the plasma membrane without affecting their biosynthesis, but slowing down their endocytotic pathway. In spite of the higher number of receptors on the plasma-membrane of AZT-treated cells, intracellular accumulation of iron showed a similar level in control and in drug-exposed cells. The chelating ability of AZT and of its phosphorylated derivatives, both in an acellular system and in K562 cells, was also checked. The results demonstrated that AZT and AZTMP were uneffective as iron chelators, while AZTTP displayed a significant capacity to remove iron from transferrin (Tf). Our results suggest that AZT may be not directly involved in the iron overloading observed upon its prolonged use in AIDS therapy. The iron accumulation found in these patients is instead caused by other unknown mechanisms that need further studies to be clarified.
retrovir generic name
This was an observational cohort study of 50 persons with psoriasis and HIV infection followed up during a 2-year period.
To help clinicians better assess and treat functional disabilities in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the authors estimate empirical relations among biologic and physiologic variables, symptoms, and physical functioning in persons with AIDS. The sample of 305 persons with AIDS for this cross-sectional analysis came from three sites in Boston, Massachusetts: a hospital-based group practice, a human immunodeficiency virus clinic at a city hospital, and a staff-model health maintenance organization. Physical functioning, 10 AIDS-specific symptoms, and mental health were assessed by interview. Clinical diagnoses, comorbidities, health habits such as smoking, laboratory results, and selected medication use were assessed by chart review. Significant predictors of physical functioning P < 0.01, R2 = .58) in a multivariable regression model included energy/fatigue, neurologic symptoms, fever symptoms, a lower hemoglobin level, and current non-pneumonia bacterial infection. Ninety-six percent of the explained variance in physical functioning was accounted for by three symptom complexes: energy/fatigue, neurologic symptoms, and fever symptoms. Significant predictors of energy/fatigue in multivariable models included poorer mental health, lower white blood cell count, longer time since diagnosis, and weight loss (P < 0.01, R2 =.36). Significant predictors of neurologic symptoms included poorer mental health, weight loss, and no zidovudine use (P < 0.001, R2 = .30). Predictors of fever symptoms included poorer mental health, no zidovudine use, weight loss, and history of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P < 0.05, R2 = .25). In conclusion, symptom reports were strong predictors of physical functioning. Poorer mental health and weight loss were correlated consistently with worse symptoms, and not using zidovudine was correlated with worse neurologic and fever symptoms. These variables, and the others the authors identified, may represent mutable determinants of physical functioning in persons with AIDS, and potential targets for specific clinical interventions.
To investigate the effects of short-course nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (Zidovudine, ZDW/AZT) on maternal immune responses and risk of infant infection with HIV-1 among rural-based mothers in western Kenya.
retrovir pediatric dosing
3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine 5'-monophosphate (AZT-MP) has been hypothesized by us to possibly affect 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) excision from host cell DNA. In the present study, AZT-MP inhibited 3' to 5' exonuclease activity of calf thymus DNA polymerase delta at pharmacological relevant intracellular concentrations. Other 2',3'-dideoxynucleoside-5'-monophosphate (ddN-MP) analogs, including 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate (AMT-MP), were also assayed as potential inhibitors of 3' to 5' exonuclease activity. The monophosphate derivative of 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine (AMT), an in vivo toxic catabolite of AZT, was the most potent of the ddN-MP analogs tested, inhibiting this activity by more than 50% at 100 microM. These results suggest that inhibition of 3' to 5' exonuclease activities by AZT-MP and AMT-MP may increase steady-state levels of AZT in host DNA, accounting in part for the cell toxicity associated with this drug. The present study also raises the question of whether AZT-MP inhibition of this activity may lead to potential mutagenic effects due to inhibition of 3' to 5' exonuclease-mediated proofreading functions involved in DNA replication.
retrovir drug class
Children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, 6 weeks through 15 years of age, were stratified according to age and randomly assigned to receive ddI, ZDV/3TC, or ZDV/ddI. The primary endpoint was time to first progression of HIV disease or death. Enrollment in the ZDV/ddI arm stopped after 11 months on the basis of results of PACTG Protocol 152, but blinded follow-up continued.
Zidovudine is well a known cause of anaemia and thus should be used with caution in the initiation of antiretroviral therapy.
A 55-year-old Caucasian man was switched to efavirenz, zidovudine and lamivudine in February 2003, while on viral suppression in his first-line highly active anti-retroviral treatment regimen. One month later, he reported inconsistent adherence and his viremia level was 5700 c/mL. He did not attend further checkups until September 2005, when his viral load was 181,000 c/mL. The patient reported interrupting his medications approximately three weeks after simplification. The genotyping resistance testing assay was performed both on HIV RNA and HIV DNA from plasma, yielding an identical pattern with the isolate presence of the K103N mutation in the prevalent strain.
Human placental tissue and human trophoblast cells (JAr) were examined after exposure to the anti-HIV nucleoside analog AZT (Zidovudine) for the presence of 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine (AMT), a toxic catabolite. Placental cells were exposed to 7.6 mM AZT for 48 hr, and placental lobular tissue was perfused with 3.8 mM AZT for 14 hr. Cell homogenates were prepared, and supernatants were subjected to HPLC analysis. Despite large cellular concentrations of AZT, AMT was not detected in any of the samples analyzed. Exposure of JAr cells to this concentration of AZT produces a 72% inhibition of cell proliferation when compared with unexposed controls. Based upon the results of the current study, AMT was not formed by placental cells exposed to AZT and, thus, not a mechanism for toxicity after in vitro exposure to AZT.
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A prospective study in a general 525-bed hospital with special funding for treatment and research of HIV-infected patients.
retrovir 200 mg
In the United Kingdom (UK) and Ireland, avoidance of breastfeeding and alternative combinations of antiretroviral therapy regimen and mode of delivery are recommended according to maternal clinical status. The aim of this analysis was to explore the impact of different strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission at a population level.
Retrospective study on 148 cART and 145 Zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy-exposed infants identified from four Canadian centres where cART for PEP has routinely been prescribed in high-risk situations. Physician-reported adverse events and clinical outcomes were extracted by chart review. Haematological and growth parameters at birth, one and six months of age were compared between cART and ZDV-exposed infants using multivariate mixed effects modelling.