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Memantine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, was titrated to a maximum dose of 10 mg BID in 34 adult subjects aged 18-55 who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD or ADHD NOS on structured interview. Twenty-eight subjects completed 12 weeks exposure. The Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Report (AISRS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI), a neuropsychological battery sensitive to domains of executive function, and the CANTAB cognitive battery were administered. Paired t-tests compared treated and baseline scores.
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of vaccines to prevent influenza? What are the effects of antiviral chemoprophylaxis of influenza? What are the effects of antiviral medications to treat influenza? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
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Memantine hydrochloride (Memary®), launched in June 2011 in Japan, is used in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. We performed an integrated analysis of data obtained from different clinical studies of memantine hydrochloride conducted between 2002 and 2011 in Japan in order to examine the long-term tolerability and efficacy of this drug at a dose of 20 mg/day.
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The authors summarize the case of a 59-year-old obese (BMI = 46.47 kg/m 2 ) male patient with chronic HCV infection. The weight reduction--after two ineffective antiviral treatments--helped the biochemical and virological response to combined peginterferon-alpha-2a and ribavirin treatment. Between the combined peginterferon and ribavirin therapy, the patient was treated with amantadine and silymarin.
Zanamivir inhalations, 10 mg daily for prophylaxis and 10 mg twice daily for treatment of influenza.
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In this multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial, 36 patients with Parkinson's disease and dyskinesias were randomized, and 62 interventions, which included amantadine (300 mg/day) or placebo treatment for 27 days, were analyzed. At 15 days after washout, the treatments were crossed over. The primary outcome measure was the changes in the Rush Dyskinesia Rating Scale (RDRS) during each treatment period. The secondary outcome measures were changes in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part IVa (UPDRS-IVa, dyskinesias), part IVb (motor fluctuations), and part III (motor function).
Alzheimer's disease, vascular and mixed dementia are the three commonest forms of dementia affecting older people. There is evidence that the excitatory activity of L-glutamate plays a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and in the damage from an ischaemic stroke. A low affinity antagonist to N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type receptors, such as memantine, may prevent excitatory amino acid neurotoxicity without interfering with the physiological actions of glutamate required for memory and learning.
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In this observational PMS study, donepezil was shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients who were being insufficiently treated with memantine or nootropic therapy. The magnitude of response was similar to that observed in patients who were previously treatment naive, suggesting prior medication does not effect donepezil's efficacy.
A retrospective case study.
Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that has been approved for the treatment of the cognitive deficits noted in Alzheimer's disease. While there is a body of research that supports memantine's facilitative action upon memory compromise, this series of studies aimed to investigate the effects of this drug in healthy animals with intact memory functioning. A 0.1 mM dose of memantine injected immediately after a weakly aversive training event (i.e. 20% v/v methyl anthranilate) was found to enhance passive avoidance learning for this event in day-old chicks up to 24 h following training. The same dose of memantine was also observed to enhance memory for the training event when it was administered in conjunction with a reminder trial. These results suggest that memantine is capable of facilitating both memory consolidation as well as memory reconsolidation. It was concluded that memantine's mechanism may involve the short-term or intermediate memory phases of the Gibbs and Ng model of memory, and that the current findings represent enhancement of intact memory, rather than amelioration of memory compromise.
In this open-label trial, combined antidepressant and memantine treatment in patients with DEP-CI was associated with improved cognition and a low rate of conversion to dementia compared with published studies in patients with DEP-CI. Although limited by the open-label study design that incorporates practice effects that can improve cognitive test performance, the findings suggest the need for a larger randomized placebo-controlled trial.
Acquired pendular nystagmus (APN) is regularly accompanied by oscillopsia and impairment of static visual acuity. Therapeutic approaches to APN remain controversial, and there is no generally accepted therapeutic approach. We tested 14 patients who had suffered from APN caused by multiple sclerosis for several years; 12 patients presented with fixational pendular nystagmus (increasing during fixation) and 2 with spontaneous pendular nystagmus. All 11 patients with fixational pendular nystagmus who were given memantine, a glutamate antagonist, experienced complete cessation of the nystagmus. In contrast, scopolamine caused no (6 of 8) or only a minor (10-50%) reduction of the nystagmus (2 of 8). It was concluded that memantine is a safe treatment option for APN.
Dopaminergic drug treatment is persistently reduced and simplified following chronic STN-DBS for up to 3 years.
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To investigate whether early treatment with the NMDA antagonist memantine attenuates phantom pain memory formation in traumatic amputees.
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Some treatments used for Parkinson's disease attenuate locomotor depression in rats treated with reserpine and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. In the present study memantine (2.5, 5.0 mg/kg), amantadine (10, 20 mg/kg) (both uncompetitive NMDA antagonists), and L-deprenyl (1.0, 5.0 mg/kg; MAO-B inhibitor) were tested for possible synergistic interactions with the dopamine agonists: bromocriptine (2.5, 5.0 mg/kg) and L-dopa (50, 100 mg/kg, +benserazide, 100 mg/kg). At higher doses, memantine (10 mg/kg), amantadine (40 mg/kg), bromocriptine (5 and 10 mg/kg) and L-dopa (100, 200 mg/kg) but not L-deprenyl (up to 10 mg/kg) produced a pronounced increase in locomotor activity when given alone. The combination of memantine, amantadine and L-deprenyl with bromocriptine did not result in synergism of action and, at best, an additive effect was seen. On the other hand the combination of these agents with L-dopa produced a pronounced synergistic effect. Hence, the clinical observation that coadministration of L-dopa with either memantine or amantadine results in enhancement of their action is also reflected in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. Such a combination therapy should allow the use of lower doses of both drugs which may reduce the occurrence of side effects and may also be predicted to have additional benefits related to the neuroprotective properties of memantine, amantadine, and L-deprenyl.
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A spin-labelled derivative of amantadine was prepared and added to mouse liver and lung homogenates in vitro in the presence and in the absence of inhibitors of oxidative enzymes; the kinetics of the quenching of ESR signals was followed up in different experimental variants.
Pneumonia remains the leading infectious disease-related cause of death among the elderly. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent pathogen isolated from aged individuals with community-acquired pneumonia. Other common bacteria that cause this disease include Haemophilus influenzae and Legionella pneumophila. Manifestations of pneumonia in the elderly can be subtle and result in delayed recognition and treatment. Gram stain evaluation and culture of non-contaminated expectorated sputum remain the conventional techniques to guide initial antibiotic selection. While the presence of a new infiltrate on chest X-ray confirms the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia, the radiographic appearance of the infiltrate cannot accurately define the etiologic agent. Specific therapeutic measures include administration of appropriate antibiotics, correction of fluid and electrolyte imbalances, nutritional support and treatment of concomitant disorders. Preventive measures include use of influenza vaccine, amantadine and pneumococcal vaccine.
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A literature search of multiple databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO) and hand searched articles covering the years 1980-2008 was performed. Peer reviewed articles were assessed for methodological quality using the PEDro scoring system for randomized controlled trials and the Downs and Black tool for RCTs and non-randomized trials. Levels of evidence were assigned and recommendations were made.
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Nearly 90% of newly diagnosed persons with AD were prescribed anti-dementia drugs. Use of memantine was found to be associated with disease progression. Switching and use of anti-dementia drugs was consistent with Finnish and European clinical practice guidelines for AD.
Fifty-nine dependent and motivated to quit smokers were randomised to one of three groups receiving the following: (1) memantine with or (2) without reactivation of associative cue-smoking memories or (3) reactivation with placebo on their target quit day in a double-blind manner. Participants aimed to abstain from smoking for as long as possible. Levels of smoking and FTND score were assessed prior to intervention and up to a year later. Primary outcome was latency to relapse. Subjective craving measures and attentional bias to smoking cues were assessed in-lab.
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Chronic amantadine hydrochloride therapy may be responsible for irreversible corneal edema and may lead to graft failure in unrecognized cases.
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Partial and delayed recanalization is a regular finding after thrombolysis in stroke patients who may benefit from additional therapy with neuroprotectants. To translate this scenario into an experiment, memantine was combined with thrombolysis in an embolic stroke model and tissue outcome was assessed in terms of complete and incomplete damage.
Because of the low number of patients involved in this study, prediction of therapeutical success based on the quasispecies complexity was not possible. Larger studies are urgently needed.
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We found strong differences between effects of Pt(IV) complex-LA-12 and Pt(II) derivatives-LA-9 and cisplatin on cytokinetic parameters. Overall, LA-12 but not its reduced Pt(II) counterpart LA-9 is the compound effective in p53 null human ovarian cancer cells and it is able to overcome intrinsic cisplatin resistance in these cells.
Changes in encoding-related fMRI activity in regions implicated in mnemonic networks correlated with changes in psychometric measures of episodic memory retrieval performed outside the scanner. These exploratory results support the potential of fMRI activity to track cognitive change and detect signals of short-term pharmacologic effect in early-phase AD studies.
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No pharmacokinetic interactions between memantine and glyburide/metformin were detected in this study of healthy young volunteers. Memantine had no effect on the pharmacodynamic activities of glyburide and metformin, and the drug combination was well tolerated in this population.
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The hemagglutinin of the Rostock strain of fowl plague virus was expressed in CV-1 cells by a simian virus 40 vector, and its stability in the exocytotic transport process was examined by a fusion assay. A 50-fold increase in the fusion activity of the hemagglutinin was observed when expression occurred in the presence of ammonium chloride, Tris-HCl, or high doses of amantadine. When chloroquine, another acidotropic agent, was used, the hemagglutinin exposed at the cell surface had to be activated by trypsin, because intracellular cleavage was inhibited by this compound. Hemagglutinin mutants resistant to intracellular cleavage did not require acidotropic agents for full expression of fusion activity, when treated with trypsin after arrival at the cell surface. These results indicate that fowl plague virus hemagglutinin expressed by a simian virus 40 vector is denatured in the acidic milieu of the exocytotic pathway and that cleavage is a major factor responsible for the pH instability. Coexpression with the M2 protein also markedly enhanced the fusion activity of the hemagglutinin, and this effect was inhibited by low doses of amantadine. These results support the concept that M2, known to have ion channel function, protects the hemagglutinin from denaturation by raising the pH in the exocytotic transport system. The data also stress the importance of acidotropic agents or coexpressed M2 for the structural and functional integrity of vector-expressed hemagglutinin.
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Amantadine (1-aminoadamantane) induced Fos expression in the central, dorsal-medial and ventral-medial part of the striatum. The distribution pattern of Fos induced by amantadine was more similar to those seen with dopaminomimetics than with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists. Pretreatment with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390, and the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, blocked amantadine induction of Fos in the striatum. However, amantadine induction of Fos in the striatum was unaffected by the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride. These results suggest that amantadine induction of Fos in the rat striatum is related to dopamine D1 and NMDA receptors.
Argon laser treatment of the anterior chamber angle was used to induce chronic ocular hypertension (COHT) in the right eye of 18 macaque monkeys. Nine animals were orally dosed daily with 4 mg/kg memantine while the other nine animals received an oral dose of vehicle only. Using both conventional and multifocal methods, recordings of the electroretinogram (ERG) were made at approximately 3, 5, and 16 months after elevation of the intraocular pressure (IOP). Recordings of the visually-evoked cortical potential (VECP) were also made at the 16-month time point.
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Genistein, resveratrol, and memantine can reverse the apoptosis and oxidant production generated by B(e)P, a toxic element of smoking. These inhibitors may be beneficial against retinal diseases associated with the loss of RPE cells.
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Four-month old male Fischer 344 rats were subjected to right carotid exposure under intravenous anesthesia. Some rats received intraperitoneal injection of 25 mg/kg/day amantadine for 3 days with the first dose at 15 min before the surgery or intracerebroventricular injection of GDNF or an anti-GDNF antibody at the end of surgery. One week later, rats were started to be tested by Barnes maze and fear conditioning. Hippocampus was harvested at 6 h, 24 h or 10 days after the surgery for biochemical analysis. C8-B4 cells, a microglial cell line, were pretreated with 1 ng/ml GDNF for 30 min before being exposed to 5 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide for 2 h.
The results suggest that memantine may be a useful antidyskinetic drug, and a larger clinical study is warranted.