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Symmetrel (Amantadine)

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Generic Symmetrel is an antiviral medication. It blocks the actions of viruses in your body. Generic Symmetrel is used to treat and prevent influenza A (viral infection). Generic Symmetrel is also used to treat Parkinson's disease and "Parkinson-like" symptoms such as stiffness and shaking that may be caused by the use of certain drugs.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Famvir, Rebetol, Sustiva, Combivir, Epivir, Retrovir


Also known as:  Amantadine.


Generic Symmetrel is an antiviral medication. It blocks the actions of viruses in your body.

Generic name of Generic Symmetrel is Amantadine.

Symmetrel is also known as Amantadine.

Brand name of Generic Symmetrel is Symmetrel.


Take this medicine with a full glass of water. If you are taking Generic Symmetrel to treat influenza A, start taking the medication within 24-48 hours after flu symptoms begin.

Do not stop taking it suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Symmetrel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Symmetrel are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Be careful with Generic Symmetrel while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Symmetrel can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.

Do not use Generic Symmetrel if you are allergic to Generic Symmetrel components.

Do not use FluMist nasal influenza "live vaccine" while you are being treated with Generic Symmetrel and for at least 48 hours after you stop taking Generic Symmetrel. The nasal vaccine may not be as effective if you receive it while you are taking Generic Symmetrel.

Be careful with Generic Symmetrel if you have epilepsy or other seizure disorder, congestive heart failure, kidney or liver disease, low blood pressure, eczema, glaucoma, or a history of mental illness, suicide attempt, or drug/alcohol addiction.

Be careful with Generic Symmetrel if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Generic Symmetrel if you take atropine (Atreza, Sal-Tropine, and others); dicyclomine (Bentyl); glycopyrrolate (Robinul); hyoscyamine (Anaspaz, Levbid, Levsin, Nulev, and others); mepenzolate (Cantil); methscopolamine (Pamine); propantheline (Pro-Banthine); scopolamine (Maldemar, Scopace, Transderm-Scop); quinine (Qualaquin); quinidine (Cardioquin, Quinaglute); diuretic (water pill) such as triamterene (Dyrenium), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, Dyazide, HydroDiuril, Hyzaar, Lopressor, Vasoretic, Zestoretic); phenothiazines such as prochlorperazine (Compazine), thioridazine (Mellaril), and others.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking it suddenly.

symmetrel drug interactions

Memantine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, was titrated to a maximum dose of 10 mg BID in 34 adult subjects aged 18-55 who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD or ADHD NOS on structured interview. Twenty-eight subjects completed 12 weeks exposure. The Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Report (AISRS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI), a neuropsychological battery sensitive to domains of executive function, and the CANTAB cognitive battery were administered. Paired t-tests compared treated and baseline scores.

symmetrel drug

We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of vaccines to prevent influenza? What are the effects of antiviral chemoprophylaxis of influenza? What are the effects of antiviral medications to treat influenza? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

symmetrel drug summary

Memantine hydrochloride (Memary®), launched in June 2011 in Japan, is used in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. We performed an integrated analysis of data obtained from different clinical studies of memantine hydrochloride conducted between 2002 and 2011 in Japan in order to examine the long-term tolerability and efficacy of this drug at a dose of 20 mg/day.

symmetrel 100 mg

The authors summarize the case of a 59-year-old obese (BMI = 46.47 kg/m 2 ) male patient with chronic HCV infection. The weight reduction--after two ineffective antiviral treatments--helped the biochemical and virological response to combined peginterferon-alpha-2a and ribavirin treatment. Between the combined peginterferon and ribavirin therapy, the patient was treated with amantadine and silymarin.

symmetrel pill

Zanamivir inhalations, 10 mg daily for prophylaxis and 10 mg twice daily for treatment of influenza.

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In this multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial, 36 patients with Parkinson's disease and dyskinesias were randomized, and 62 interventions, which included amantadine (300 mg/day) or placebo treatment for 27 days, were analyzed. At 15 days after washout, the treatments were crossed over. The primary outcome measure was the changes in the Rush Dyskinesia Rating Scale (RDRS) during each treatment period. The secondary outcome measures were changes in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part IVa (UPDRS-IVa, dyskinesias), part IVb (motor fluctuations), and part III (motor function).

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Alzheimer's disease, vascular and mixed dementia are the three commonest forms of dementia affecting older people. There is evidence that the excitatory activity of L-glutamate plays a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and in the damage from an ischaemic stroke. A low affinity antagonist to N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type receptors, such as memantine, may prevent excitatory amino acid neurotoxicity without interfering with the physiological actions of glutamate required for memory and learning.

symmetrel user reviews

In this observational PMS study, donepezil was shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients who were being insufficiently treated with memantine or nootropic therapy. The magnitude of response was similar to that observed in patients who were previously treatment naive, suggesting prior medication does not effect donepezil's efficacy.

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A retrospective case study.

symmetrel tablets

Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that has been approved for the treatment of the cognitive deficits noted in Alzheimer's disease. While there is a body of research that supports memantine's facilitative action upon memory compromise, this series of studies aimed to investigate the effects of this drug in healthy animals with intact memory functioning. A 0.1 mM dose of memantine injected immediately after a weakly aversive training event (i.e. 20% v/v methyl anthranilate) was found to enhance passive avoidance learning for this event in day-old chicks up to 24 h following training. The same dose of memantine was also observed to enhance memory for the training event when it was administered in conjunction with a reminder trial. These results suggest that memantine is capable of facilitating both memory consolidation as well as memory reconsolidation. It was concluded that memantine's mechanism may involve the short-term or intermediate memory phases of the Gibbs and Ng model of memory, and that the current findings represent enhancement of intact memory, rather than amelioration of memory compromise.

symmetrel dosage

In this open-label trial, combined antidepressant and memantine treatment in patients with DEP-CI was associated with improved cognition and a low rate of conversion to dementia compared with published studies in patients with DEP-CI. Although limited by the open-label study design that incorporates practice effects that can improve cognitive test performance, the findings suggest the need for a larger randomized placebo-controlled trial.

symmetrel capsules

Acquired pendular nystagmus (APN) is regularly accompanied by oscillopsia and impairment of static visual acuity. Therapeutic approaches to APN remain controversial, and there is no generally accepted therapeutic approach. We tested 14 patients who had suffered from APN caused by multiple sclerosis for several years; 12 patients presented with fixational pendular nystagmus (increasing during fixation) and 2 with spontaneous pendular nystagmus. All 11 patients with fixational pendular nystagmus who were given memantine, a glutamate antagonist, experienced complete cessation of the nystagmus. In contrast, scopolamine caused no (6 of 8) or only a minor (10-50%) reduction of the nystagmus (2 of 8). It was concluded that memantine is a safe treatment option for APN.

symmetrel generic

Dopaminergic drug treatment is persistently reduced and simplified following chronic STN-DBS for up to 3 years.

symmetrel 200 mg

To investigate whether early treatment with the NMDA antagonist memantine attenuates phantom pain memory formation in traumatic amputees.

symmetrel 100mg capsules

Some treatments used for Parkinson's disease attenuate locomotor depression in rats treated with reserpine and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. In the present study memantine (2.5, 5.0 mg/kg), amantadine (10, 20 mg/kg) (both uncompetitive NMDA antagonists), and L-deprenyl (1.0, 5.0 mg/kg; MAO-B inhibitor) were tested for possible synergistic interactions with the dopamine agonists: bromocriptine (2.5, 5.0 mg/kg) and L-dopa (50, 100 mg/kg, +benserazide, 100 mg/kg). At higher doses, memantine (10 mg/kg), amantadine (40 mg/kg), bromocriptine (5 and 10 mg/kg) and L-dopa (100, 200 mg/kg) but not L-deprenyl (up to 10 mg/kg) produced a pronounced increase in locomotor activity when given alone. The combination of memantine, amantadine and L-deprenyl with bromocriptine did not result in synergism of action and, at best, an additive effect was seen. On the other hand the combination of these agents with L-dopa produced a pronounced synergistic effect. Hence, the clinical observation that coadministration of L-dopa with either memantine or amantadine results in enhancement of their action is also reflected in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. Such a combination therapy should allow the use of lower doses of both drugs which may reduce the occurrence of side effects and may also be predicted to have additional benefits related to the neuroprotective properties of memantine, amantadine, and L-deprenyl.

symmetrel brand name

A spin-labelled derivative of amantadine was prepared and added to mouse liver and lung homogenates in vitro in the presence and in the absence of inhibitors of oxidative enzymes; the kinetics of the quenching of ESR signals was followed up in different experimental variants.

symmetrel medication

Pneumonia remains the leading infectious disease-related cause of death among the elderly. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent pathogen isolated from aged individuals with community-acquired pneumonia. Other common bacteria that cause this disease include Haemophilus influenzae and Legionella pneumophila. Manifestations of pneumonia in the elderly can be subtle and result in delayed recognition and treatment. Gram stain evaluation and culture of non-contaminated expectorated sputum remain the conventional techniques to guide initial antibiotic selection. While the presence of a new infiltrate on chest X-ray confirms the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia, the radiographic appearance of the infiltrate cannot accurately define the etiologic agent. Specific therapeutic measures include administration of appropriate antibiotics, correction of fluid and electrolyte imbalances, nutritional support and treatment of concomitant disorders. Preventive measures include use of influenza vaccine, amantadine and pneumococcal vaccine.

symmetrel drug class

A literature search of multiple databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO) and hand searched articles covering the years 1980-2008 was performed. Peer reviewed articles were assessed for methodological quality using the PEDro scoring system for randomized controlled trials and the Downs and Black tool for RCTs and non-randomized trials. Levels of evidence were assigned and recommendations were made.

symmetrel drug classification

Nearly 90% of newly diagnosed persons with AD were prescribed anti-dementia drugs. Use of memantine was found to be associated with disease progression. Switching and use of anti-dementia drugs was consistent with Finnish and European clinical practice guidelines for AD.

symmetrel reviews

Fifty-nine dependent and motivated to quit smokers were randomised to one of three groups receiving the following: (1) memantine with or (2) without reactivation of associative cue-smoking memories or (3) reactivation with placebo on their target quit day in a double-blind manner. Participants aimed to abstain from smoking for as long as possible. Levels of smoking and FTND score were assessed prior to intervention and up to a year later. Primary outcome was latency to relapse. Subjective craving measures and attentional bias to smoking cues were assessed in-lab.

symmetrel en alcohol

Chronic amantadine hydrochloride therapy may be responsible for irreversible corneal edema and may lead to graft failure in unrecognized cases.

symmetrel medication cost

Partial and delayed recanalization is a regular finding after thrombolysis in stroke patients who may benefit from additional therapy with neuroprotectants. To translate this scenario into an experiment, memantine was combined with thrombolysis in an embolic stroke model and tissue outcome was assessed in terms of complete and incomplete damage.

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Because of the low number of patients involved in this study, prediction of therapeutical success based on the quasispecies complexity was not possible. Larger studies are urgently needed.

symmetrel dosage forms

We found strong differences between effects of Pt(IV) complex-LA-12 and Pt(II) derivatives-LA-9 and cisplatin on cytokinetic parameters. Overall, LA-12 but not its reduced Pt(II) counterpart LA-9 is the compound effective in p53 null human ovarian cancer cells and it is able to overcome intrinsic cisplatin resistance in these cells.

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Changes in encoding-related fMRI activity in regions implicated in mnemonic networks correlated with changes in psychometric measures of episodic memory retrieval performed outside the scanner. These exploratory results support the potential of fMRI activity to track cognitive change and detect signals of short-term pharmacologic effect in early-phase AD studies.

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No pharmacokinetic interactions between memantine and glyburide/metformin were detected in this study of healthy young volunteers. Memantine had no effect on the pharmacodynamic activities of glyburide and metformin, and the drug combination was well tolerated in this population.

symmetrel medication identification

The hemagglutinin of the Rostock strain of fowl plague virus was expressed in CV-1 cells by a simian virus 40 vector, and its stability in the exocytotic transport process was examined by a fusion assay. A 50-fold increase in the fusion activity of the hemagglutinin was observed when expression occurred in the presence of ammonium chloride, Tris-HCl, or high doses of amantadine. When chloroquine, another acidotropic agent, was used, the hemagglutinin exposed at the cell surface had to be activated by trypsin, because intracellular cleavage was inhibited by this compound. Hemagglutinin mutants resistant to intracellular cleavage did not require acidotropic agents for full expression of fusion activity, when treated with trypsin after arrival at the cell surface. These results indicate that fowl plague virus hemagglutinin expressed by a simian virus 40 vector is denatured in the acidic milieu of the exocytotic pathway and that cleavage is a major factor responsible for the pH instability. Coexpression with the M2 protein also markedly enhanced the fusion activity of the hemagglutinin, and this effect was inhibited by low doses of amantadine. These results support the concept that M2, known to have ion channel function, protects the hemagglutinin from denaturation by raising the pH in the exocytotic transport system. The data also stress the importance of acidotropic agents or coexpressed M2 for the structural and functional integrity of vector-expressed hemagglutinin.

symmetrel drug interactions

Amantadine (1-aminoadamantane) induced Fos expression in the central, dorsal-medial and ventral-medial part of the striatum. The distribution pattern of Fos induced by amantadine was more similar to those seen with dopaminomimetics than with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists. Pretreatment with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390, and the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, blocked amantadine induction of Fos in the striatum. However, amantadine induction of Fos in the striatum was unaffected by the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride. These results suggest that amantadine induction of Fos in the rat striatum is related to dopamine D1 and NMDA receptors.

symmetrel drug

Argon laser treatment of the anterior chamber angle was used to induce chronic ocular hypertension (COHT) in the right eye of 18 macaque monkeys. Nine animals were orally dosed daily with 4 mg/kg memantine while the other nine animals received an oral dose of vehicle only. Using both conventional and multifocal methods, recordings of the electroretinogram (ERG) were made at approximately 3, 5, and 16 months after elevation of the intraocular pressure (IOP). Recordings of the visually-evoked cortical potential (VECP) were also made at the 16-month time point.

symmetrel drug summary

Genistein, resveratrol, and memantine can reverse the apoptosis and oxidant production generated by B(e)P, a toxic element of smoking. These inhibitors may be beneficial against retinal diseases associated with the loss of RPE cells.

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Four-month old male Fischer 344 rats were subjected to right carotid exposure under intravenous anesthesia. Some rats received intraperitoneal injection of 25 mg/kg/day amantadine for 3 days with the first dose at 15 min before the surgery or intracerebroventricular injection of GDNF or an anti-GDNF antibody at the end of surgery. One week later, rats were started to be tested by Barnes maze and fear conditioning. Hippocampus was harvested at 6 h, 24 h or 10 days after the surgery for biochemical analysis. C8-B4 cells, a microglial cell line, were pretreated with 1 ng/ml GDNF for 30 min before being exposed to 5 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide for 2 h.

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The results suggest that memantine may be a useful antidyskinetic drug, and a larger clinical study is warranted.

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symmetrel pill 2017-09-18

Cognitive disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD) lead to occupational, social, everyday and psychological maladaptation in patients and their relatives. The paper addresses the epidemiology, structure and character of cognitive disorders in PD. The main pathogenetic factors of the development of moderate cognitive disorders and buy symmetrel online dementia in PD, methods of diagnosis and assessment of cognitive disorders and approaches to treatment of memory and intellect impairment are considered. We present the results of our own study on the effect of amantadine sulfate, prescribed in the dosage of 300 mg during 6 months, on cognitive disorders in 25 PD patients. Results of the therapy were assessed using neuropsychological tests and scales (MMSE, the Frontal Assessment battery, the Mattis dementia rating scale). The significant improvement in neuropsychological performance was seen in patients with moderate cognitive disorders treated with amantadine sulfate during 6 months.

symmetrel medication 2017-02-13

Nine subjects met the final inclusion and exclusion criteria, 7 of whom agreed to participate. Five subjects completed both arms of the study. Amantadine total body clearance was 0.17 L/h/kg with a half-life of 13.9 hours buy symmetrel online . Higher exposure of amantadine (average concentration of amantadine during 6 mg/kg/day > 1.5 mg/L) may be associated with better recovery of consciousness.

symmetrel overdose 2017-09-07

We have synthesized and characterized a series of compounds containing the 3-azatetracyclo[,8).0(1,5)]undecane scaffold designed as analogues of amantadine, an inhibitor of the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus. Inhibition of the wild-type (WT) M2 channel and the amantadine-resistant A/M2-S31N and A/M2-V27A mutant ion channels were measured in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp (TEV) assays. Most of the novel compounds inhibited the WT ion channel in the low micromolar range. Of note, several compounds inhibited the A/M2 V27A mutant ion channel, one of them with submicromolar IC50. None of the compounds was found to inhibit the S31N mutant ion channel. The antiviral activity of three novel dual WT and A/M2-V27A channels inhibitors was confirmed by influenza virus yield buy symmetrel online assays.

symmetrel 100 mg 2016-03-06

We investigated clinical features of adverse reactions to long-term levodopa therapy by the multivariate analysis. Dyskinesia, wearing off effect, on-off effect, mental symptoms, and frozen gait were noted in 29 (11.2%), 78 (30.0%), 17 (6.5%), 45 (17.7%), and 52 (20.0%), respectively, of 260 patients with Parkinson's disease to whom levodopa had been buy symmetrel online administered for over one year. In the statistical investigation by the multivariate analysis (quantification method type II), the age of initial levodopa therapy, the duration from the onset to the initiation of levodopa therapy, and the duration of levodopa therapy were not closely related to the development of any adverse reaction, while Hoehn & Yahr's stage and the dosage of levodopa had the most significant influence on the development of adverse reactions. Furthermore, concomitant use of amantadine hydrochloride produced an inhibitory effect on the development of dyskinesia. We conclude that early institution of levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease may not be an important risk factor of adverse reactions.

symmetrel generic 2015-02-15

This study assessed the frequency of PS in patients with MCP, the phenotype of these patients, and buy symmetrel online their response to anti-Parkinson medication, during a 1-year period.

symmetrel capsules 2016-01-21

Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist which is registered in both Europe and the USA for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cultured rat hippocampal neurons were used to evaluate the potency and blocking kinetics of this therapeutically very well-tolerated agent in the presence of various concentrations of the synthetic agonist NMDA and a constant, saturating concentration of the co-agonist D-serine (10 microM). Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments at -70 mV revealed that the degree of "equilibrium" blockade of NMDA-induced currents by memantine was largely unaffected by the concentration of the agonist NMDA. The IC50 values for NMDA at 300, 100, 30 and 10 microM were 0.80+/-0.12, 1.01+/-0.08, 0.92+/-0.13 and 1.31+/-0.09 microM, respectively, giving an average IC(50) for all agonists concentrations tested of 1.01+/-0.11 microM. In contrast, and as expected, the onset and offset kinetics of blockade were clearly dependent on agonist concentration. For NMDA 300, 100, 30 and 10 microM, kon values were 10.55+/-1.41, 8.60+/-0.17, 4.90+/-0.20 and 3.22+/-0.08x10(4) M(-1) s(-1), respectively; 1/tauon values at the IC50 concentration of memantine-i.e. 1 microM-were 0.58+/-0.11, 0.28+/-0.05, 0.15+/-0.02 and 0.11+/-0.03 s(-1), respectively and koff values were 0.24+/-0.01, 0.19+/-0.01, 0.14+/-0.00 and 0.09+/-0.01 s(-1), respectively. It therefore appears that the kinetics, but not the equilibrium potency, of memantine are agonist concentration-dependent. These fast agonist concentration-dependent kinetic properties, in addition to the clear voltage-dependence of memantine, are proposed to buy symmetrel online be important for the therapeutic tolerability of this compound in the treatment of AD.

buy symmetrel uk 2015-10-09

Emergence of antiviral resistance among H5N1 avian influenza viruses is the major challenge in the control of pandemic influenza. Matrix 2 (M2) inhibitors (amantadine and rimantadine) and neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir) are the two classes of antiviral agents that are specifically active against influenza viruses and are used for both treatment and prophylaxis of influenza infections. Amantadine targets the M2 ion channel of influenza A virus and interrupts virus life cycle through blockade of hydrogen ion influx. This prevents uncoating of the virus in infected host cells which impedes the release of ribonucleoprotein required for transcription and replication of virion in the nucleus. The present study was carried out to review the status of amantadine resistance in H5N1 viruses isolated from India and to study their replicative capability. Results of the study revealed resistance to amantadine in antiviral assay among four H5N1 viruses out of which two viruses had Serine 31 Asparagine (AGT-AAT i.e., S31N) mutation and two had Valine 27 Alanine (GTT-GCT i.e., V27A) mutation. The four resistant viruses not buy symmetrel online only exhibited significant difference in effective concentration 50% (EC50) values of amantadine hydrochloride from that of susceptible viruses (P < 0.0001) but also showed significant difference between two different types (S31N and V27A) of mutant viruses (P < 0.05). Resistance to amantadine could also be demonstrated in a simple HA test after replication of the viruses in MDCK cells in presence of amantadine. The study identifies the correlation between in vitro antiviral assay and presence of established molecular markers of resistance, the retention of replicative capacity in the presence of amantadine hydrochloride by the resistant viruses and the emergence of resistant mutations against amantadine among avian influenza viruses (H5N1) without selective drug pressure.

symmetrel generic name 2015-09-19

Rats consuming alcohol voluntarily for a long time show increased alcohol consumption after a phase of alcohol deprivation and this might reflect increased craving for alcohol. Administration buy symmetrel online of memantine (1-amino-3,5-dimethyl-adamantane), a clinically used uncompetitive NDMA receptor antagonist, resulted in a significant reduction of the alcohol deprivation effect without any sedative, dysphoric or stimulant side-effects. The dose of memantine used (4.8 mg/day) resulted in serum levels close to the therapeutic range in humans. These results indicate that memantine may have therapeutical potential as an anti-craving drug for alcohol.

symmetrel drug classification 2017-05-09

Recent data suggest that vascular disease plays an important role in the physiopathology of AD. Memantine is a buy symmetrel online non-competitive, low-affinity N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist of glutamate that offers a very attractive efficacy and safety profile for treating moderate to severe AD.

symmetrel brand name 2017-11-20

In this study, we proposed a hypothesis to explain the mechanisms of memantine action in treating Alzheimer disease (AD). Memantine may reduce the expression of amyloid precursor protein and tau protein, as well as acting as an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the brain. buy symmetrel online

symmetrel drug class 2017-07-28

The anti-proliferative effects of AMANTADIG and digitoxin on leukemia and urological cancer cell lines were analyzed using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, buy symmetrel online 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tetrazolium reduction viability assay.

symmetrel user reviews 2015-12-14

Amantadine and rimantadine have comparable effectiveness in the prevention and treatment of influenza A in healthy adults, although rimantadine induces fewer adverse effects than amantadine. [This abstract has buy symmetrel online been prepared centrally.]

symmetrel drug interactions 2016-02-10

Cognitive manifestations usually are the primary abnormalities in dementia. In most cases cognitive deterioration arise in association with behavioral disturbances, and may accelerate institutionalization of patients. Noncognitive symptoms are distressing for both patients and their caregivers. These symptoms are described as "behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia-- buy symmetrel online BPSD" or neuropsychiatric symptoms. BPSD occurs in all types of dementia, and often are among the most prominent symptoms in the clinical course of the disease. Some disturbances like agitation and aggression may be disruptive and life-treating for patients and surrounding people. Non-pharmacological interventions should be recommended as a first line treatment unless BPSD symptoms are severe, persistent or recurrent. Drug treatment should have a specific target symptom. Atypical antipsychotics are widely used as the first line pharmacological approach to treat BPSD. Antidepressants, anxiolytics and antiepileptic's are also used. Treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors and/or memantine may delay the onset of BPSD and reduce the severity of some symptoms. Effective and safe treatment of BPSD should significantly improves the quality of life of patients and their caregivers.

symmetrel medication identification 2016-02-08

Ephedrine alkaloid pharmacokinetic differences in rat Propecia Online Store plasma could help explain previous findings of pharmacological and toxicity differences between Mahuang and Mahuang-Guizhi herb-pair preparations. These results could facilitate future studies to increase the efficacy and decrease the toxicity of Mahuang and Guizhi.

symmetrel buy 2016-07-20

The treatment of patients Flomax 200 Mg with community-acquired pneumonia can be expensive, particularly if care is hospital-based. Cost control begins with prevention. Current influenza vaccines are about 80 percent protective, but grossly underused. Amantadine and rimantadine are effective chemoprophylactic agents against influenza A, but also underused. Use of pneumococcal vaccine is controversial, but patients who are thought to be at increased risk should be immunized. Management decisions in patients with pneumonia that have major cost implications include the need for hospitalization and choice of diagnostic tests and therapy. The need for hospitalization has not been well studied. In general, young patients with atypical pneumonia are treated at home, whereas older patients with complicating illnesses are admitted to hospitals. Length of hospitalization has decreased in recent years. Diagnostic tests have traditionally emphasized chest roentgenography, Gram staining of the sputum, and sputum culture. Published data suggest that a Gram staining of the sputum can be useful. Sputum cultures are frequently confusing and should be discontinued. Intermittent positive pressure breathing treatments have no value, and chest physiotherapy is unnecessary for most patients.

symmetrel drug summary 2017-01-22

Twenty-five residents exhibited Prevacid Generic Solutab a 4-fold or greater increase in titer to influenza A/Sichuan/2/87. Vaccine efficacy was measured at -7.1%, suggesting that the influenza vaccine in 1988/1989 did not offer optimal protection against influenza A infection for the institutionalized elderly.

symmetrel drug 2016-03-28

Viral pneumonias are common in infants and young children but rare in adults. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and para-influenza viruses are the most frequent viral pathogens in infants and Lipitor And Alcohol children. Influenza virus types A and B account for over one half of viral pneumonias in adults. Immunocompromised hosts are susceptible to pneumonias caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV) and other herpesviruses, as well as rubeola and adenovirus. Diagnosis of viral pneumonia depends on appropriate viral cultures and acute and convalescent sera for specific antibodies. Superinfection with bacteria is common in adults. Anti-viral therapy is available for several respiratory viruses. Ribavirin, amantadine/rimantadine, interferon alpha, and acyclovir are antiviral drugs that may be of benefit in treatment and prophylaxis. Prevention of viral pneumonia will depend upon improved viral immunization practices.

symmetrel tablets 2017-04-21

Although compulsive Periactin Buy Online buying (CB) is relatively common, pharmacotherapy research for CB is limited. Memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, appears to reduce glutamate excitability and improve impulsive behaviors, suggesting it may help individuals with CB.

symmetrel dosage 2017-08-06

The authors studied patients with painful diabetic neuropathy (DN) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in two crossover trials: (1) efficacy trial (dextromethorphan vs. memantine vs. active placebo [lorazepam]) and (2) dose-response trial of the preferred active drug in responders Nexium Safe Dosage from the first study (0% vs. 25% vs. 50% vs. 100% of each patient's maximally tolerated dose). Pain intensity was measured on a 20-point scale.

symmetrel cost 2017-07-19

Amantadine is commonly used for Parkinsonism. However amantadine can induce adverse corneal reaction. Here we report a patient with primary progressive freezing of gait who had severe corneal edema associated with amantadine, which was reversible after discontinuation of the amantadine. This report alerts neurologists for Inderal Starting Dose this reversible but potentially critical corneal edema in patients with Parkinsonism who are receiving amantadine.

symmetrel reviews 2017-09-03

The impact of ribavirin exposure on sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C is unknown. Preliminary studies showed marked inter-individual variability of ribavirin concentrations despite dose adjustment for body weight (BW) and suggested there was a correlation between single time point concentrations and SVR. None of them evaluated the global exposure to ribavirin. This study was conducted to determine whether early ribavirin global exposure is related with SVR. An exploratory pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) study was conducted in genotype 1 hepatitis C patients treated with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin (dose-adjusted for BW) for 12 weeks, to which amantadine was added for the following 36 weeks. Full and abbreviated ribavirin area under the concentration time curves (AUC(0-12h), AUC(0-4h)) were derived from plasma concentration profiles at day 0 (D0), week 12 (W12), W12 + 1 day, and W24. Virological follow-up was performed at D0 (0, 12, and 24 hours), W2, W4, W6, and monthly until W72 (TaqMan polymerase chain reaction, cut-off 15 international units/mL). Twenty-eight patients were enrolled in the study and 24 completed it. Patients with a SVR had a significantly higher D0 AUC(0-12h) (3695 [1571-6916] versus 2937 [1266-4913] microg/hour/L, P = 0.03) and D0 AUC(0-4h) (2010 [615-3175] versus 1340 [622-2246] microg/hour/L, P = 0.03). Patients with D0 AUCs above the cut-off values defined by receiver operating characteristic curves (3014 microg/hour/L and 1755 microg/hour/L for AUC(0-12h) and AUC(0-4h), respectively) had a significantly better chance of achieving an SVR than patients with AUCs under the thresholds (odds ratio = 16.0, 95% confidence interval 1.54-166.6, P = 0.02 and odds ratio = 8.9, 95% confidence interval, 1.4-56.6; P = 0.02).

symmetrel 200 mg 2017-06-02

Influenza A/H3N2 was isolated from two of four symptomatic infants. The application of rapid diagnostic techniques for the characterization of influenza virus infection allowed the timely institution of basic infection control measures, limiting this outbreak. Resistance to amantadine was documented for the first time in this patient population by reverse transcription-PCR within 48 h of treatment in one case.

symmetrel 100mg capsules 2016-04-23

The epidemiology and clinical features of diseases caused by the herpes simplex virus, are reviewed and recent results are discussed which give an insight into the complex mechanism of primary and chronic, recurrent HSV-1 infections. Immunological reactions in HSV infection and data concerning the oncogenic potential of HSV-1 and -2 are dealt with. Furthermore, current therapeutic possibilities are outlined.

symmetrel medication cost 2017-05-31

Symptoms consistent with dysfunction of the frontal lobes can occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI) or other types of acquired brain injury (stroke, aneurysm). These symptoms can include problems with short-term memory, attention, planning, problem solving, impulsivity, disinhibition, poor motivation, and other behavioral and cognitive deficits ("frontal lobe syndrome"). These symptoms may respond to certain drugs, such as dopaminergic agents. This case series describes results of using amantadine in 7 patients with this type of symptom profile (6 with TBI, 1 with meningitis following sinus surgery). Patients received neuropsychiatric examinations and serial neuropsychological testing. All patients showed some degree of positive response. One had side effects that resolved upon discontinuation of drug. The rationale for using dopaminergics is discussed, and pertinent literature is reviewed.

symmetrel dosage forms 2017-01-03

In female rats the urinary bladder was instilled with turpentine oil 2.5% to induce cystitis. After surviving for 10 days the rats were anaesthetized with urethane, the bladder catheterized and connected to a pressure transducer. Stimulating electrodes were placed in the sacral foramina bilaterally. The spinal cord was exposed by a laminectomy, and a small pool was placed on the cord for intrathecal administration of neurotransmitter antagonists. Sacral neuromodulation was applied before and after administering the antagonists. The antagonists used were: memantine, an antagonist for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors; CNQX, an antagonist for non-NMDA receptors, and L-NAPNA, a blocker of nitric oxide synthase.

symmetrel syrup 2016-03-11

Using recombinant receptor expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and two electrode voltage clamp recordings we characterized pharmacological properties of rat NR1/NR2A NMDARs with altered CTDs. We assessed the effects of truncating [at residue Iso1098; NR2A(trunC)] and deleting [from residue Phe822; NR2A(delC)] the CTD of NR2A NMDAR subunits on agonist potencies, channel block by Mg(2+) and memantine and potentiation of NMDAR-mediated responses by chelating contaminating divalent cations.

symmetrel en alcohol 2016-10-18

The laser group in alleviation of cough, nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, sputum sound were significantly better than the medication group (P < 0.001, P < 0.01); the cured rate was 68.5% in the laser group and 42.4% in the medication group, the former being better than the latter (P < 0.001).

symmetrel pill 2017-01-31

Electrophysiological analysis of the blink reflex makes it possible to quantitate the reflex changes observed in pathology. The authors therefore propose a `habituation index' to be determined by recording the electromyographic reflex response during stimulation at controlled frequencies. Several populations of subjects were tested. It was confirmed that marked differences in blink reflex habituation exist between normals and patients with Parkinson's disease. It was also found that when patients with Parkinsonism were treated with the classical anticholinergic drugs their habituation index remained virtually unchanged. However, treatment with either l-dopa or amantadine caused a rise in the index in almost all patients tested. On the basis of these findings it is suggested that these two new drugs have a highly similar mechanism of action.

symmetrel medication 2017-12-22

We found no convincing evidence to support the efficacy of pharmacological symptomatic treatment for MS-associated memory disorder because most of available RCTs had a limited quality. Whether pharmacological treatment is effective for memory disorder in patients with MS remains inconclusive. However, there is moderate-quality evidence that donepezil 10 mg daily was not effective in improving memory in MS patients with mild memory impairment, but had a good tolerability. Adverse events such as nausea, diarrhoea and abnormal dreams were not frequent but were associated with treatment. Ginkgo biloba, memantine and rivastigmine were safe and well tolerated and no serious adverse effects were reported. Future large-scale RCTs with higher methodological quality are needed.

symmetrel overdose 2016-11-24

BPs for candy were greater than for pellets. Varying the pellet/candy pieces per delivery produced an inverted U-shaped function on the first trial, i.e., maximal BP was observed for three items, and the BP for multiple items, but not a single item, decreased across trials, i.e., BP decreased with food intake and satiation. DFEN and MEM decreased responding with the greatest effects at ten deliveries, suggesting that DFEN and MEM enhanced satiation.

symmetrel 100 mg 2016-12-25

Patients assigned to continue donepezil, as compared with those assigned to discontinue donepezil, had a score on the SMMSE that was higher by an average of 1.9 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 2.5) and a score on the BADLS that was lower (indicating less impairment) by 3.0 points (95% CI, 1.8 to 4.3) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Patients assigned to receive memantine, as compared with those assigned to receive memantine placebo, had a score on the SMMSE that was an average of 1.2 points higher (95% CI, 0.6 to 1.8; P<0.001) and a score on the BADLS that was 1.5 points lower (95% CI, 0.3 to 2.8; P=0.02). The efficacy of donepezil and of memantine did not differ significantly in the presence or absence of the other. There were no significant benefits of the combination of donepezil and memantine over donepezil alone.

symmetrel generic 2016-10-08

We conducted a review of literature using the Medline Browser tool, screening studies from 1950 to 2013 in English or French with keywords « tardive dyskinesia », « tardive dystonia », and « abnormal movements caused by antipsychotic drugs ».

symmetrel capsules 2017-03-30

A sensitive liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of clarithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, in human serum using pre-column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) is described. The method involved liquid-liquid extraction of the drug and an internal standard (amantadine) followed by pre-column derivatization of the analytes with FMOC-Cl. A mixture of 0.05 M phosphate buffer containing triethylamine (2 mL L(-1); pH 3.8) and methanol (17:83, v/v) was used as mobile phase and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shimpack CLC-ODS column. The eluate was monitored by a fluorescence detector with respective excitation and emission wavelengths of 265 and 315 nm. The analytical method was linear over the concentration range of 0.025-10 microg mL(-1) of clarithromycin in human serum with a limit of quantification of 0.025 microg mL(-1). The assay is sensitive enough to measure drug levels obtained in human single dose studies. In the present method, sensitivity and run time of analysis have been improved, and successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of three different clarithromycin preparations in 12 healthy volunteers.

buy symmetrel uk 2016-12-21

There were no significant differences on MMSE, NPI, ADAS-cog, ADCS-ADL, CDR-SB, NPI and FAB between rivastigmine patch monotherapy and memantine plus rivastigmine patch according to the APOE genotype. However, patients with moderately severe AD (MMSE ≤15) who were APOE ε4 carriers showed higher responder rates on ADCS-ADL with memantine plus rivastigmine patch compared to rivastigmine patch monotherapy.

symmetrel generic name 2015-12-04

Data on medication utilization were taken from Croatian Health Insurance Fund (HZZO) and Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices of Croatia (HALMED). Data on the number of hospital stays were supplied by Croatian Institute of Public Health (HZJZ). Internal data on the number of outpatient examinations from the Clinical hospital "Sveti Duh" were used as well.

symmetrel drug classification 2015-02-23

The objective of this study is to compare the occurrence of dementia among Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated with amantadine (AM group) with those never exposed to it (NoAM group). PD dementia shares neuroanatomical and biochemical similarities with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist has been shown to be beneficial in AD. Memantine is a dimethyl derivative of amantadine, which also possesses NMDA receptor blocking properties. We hypothesized that amantadine could have a beneficial effect on the occurrence of PD dementia. PD patients attending the Movement Disorders Clinics in Hillel Yaffe, Asaf Harofe Medical Centers (Israel) and Pisa (Italy) were included. Taking the onset of dementia as the endpoint, survival curves for AM and NoAM patients were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The study population consisted of 593 patients (age, 69.5 +/- 9.9 years; PD duration, 9.2 +/- 6.0 years; 263 patients (44%) amantadine treated). The endpoint of dementia was reached by 116 patients (20%). PD duration until dementia was significantly longer for AM patients (9.1 +/- 5.7 years) than for NoAM patients (5.9 +/- 4.6 years, P = 0.006). The duration of amantadine exposure positively correlated with PD duration until dementia (P = 0.0001). Survival analysis, taking dementia onset as endpoint, showed slower mental decline in AM patients (Log rank P = 0.0049, Wilcoxon P = 0.0024). Mini-Mental State Examination scores were significantly higher for AM patients than for the NoAM group (P = 0.01). Age of PD onset also significantly influenced the duration of PD until dementia. Amantadine use may delay the onset of dementia in PD patients and may attenuate its severity.

symmetrel brand name 2017-05-11

Memory loss is one of the key features of cognitive impairment in either aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or dementia. Pharmacological treatments for memory loss are today focused on addressing symptomatology. One of these approved compounds is memantine, a partial NMDA receptor antagonist that has proved its beneficial effects in cognition. The Octodon degus (O. degus) has been recently proposed as a potential model relevant for neurodegenerative diseases. However, there are no previous studies investigating the effect of pharmacological treatments for age-related cognitive impairment in this rodent. In this work we aimed to evaluate the effect of memantine on sleep deprivation (SD)-induced memory impairment in young and old O. degus. Young and old animals were trained in different behavioral paradigms validated for memory evaluation, and randomly assigned to a control (CTL, n=14) or an SD (n=14) condition, and treated with vehicle or memantine (10-mg/Kg i.p.) before the SD started. We demonstrate that SD impairs memory in both young and old animals, although the effect in the old group was significantly more severe (P<0.05). Memantine pretreatment was able to prevent the cognitive impairment caused by SD in both age groups, while it had no negative effect on CTL animals. The positive effect of memantine in counteracting the negative effect of SD on the retrieval process even in the aged O. degus further supports the translational potential of both the challenge and the species, and will enable a better understanding of the behavioral features of memantine effects, especially related with reference and working memories.