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Tofranil (Imipramine)
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Tofranil

Generic Tofranil is a member of the family of drugs called tricyclic antidepressants. Generic Tofranil is used to treat depression. Generic Tofranil is also used on a short-term basis, along with behavioral therapies, to treat bed-wetting in children aged 6 and older. Sometimes Generic Tofranil is prescribed to treat bulimia, attention deficit disorder in children, obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Pamelor, Norpramin, Silenor, Zonalon, Aventyl, Norpress, Elavil

 

Also known as:  Imipramine.

Description

Generic Tofranil is used to treat depression. Generic Tofranil is also used on a short-term basis, along with behavioral therapies, to treat bed-wetting in children aged 6 and older. Sometimes Generic Tofranil is prescribed to treat bulimia, attention deficit disorder in children, obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.

Generic Tofranil is a member of the family of drugs called tricyclic antidepressants.

Tofranil is also known as Imipramine, Antideprin, Deprenil, Deprimin, Deprinol, Depsonil, Dynaprin, Eupramin, Imipramil, Irmin, Janimine, Melipramin, Surplix, Antidep, Apo-Imipramine, Chrytemin, Daypress, Depsol, Ethipramine, Fronil, Imidol, Imimine, Imine, Imiprex, Imiprin, Impril, Medipramine, Melipramine, Mipralin, Novopramine, Primonil, Pryleugan, Sermonil, Sipramine, Talpramin, Tofnil, Tofranil-PM, Venefon.

Generic name of Generic Tofranil is Imipramine hydrochloride.

Brand names of Generic Tofranil are Tofranil, Tofranil-PM.

Dosage

Take Generic Tofranil orally.

Take Generic Tofranil with or without food.

For adults

The usual starting dose is 75 mg a day. The maximum daily dose is 200 mg.

For children

Total daily dosages for children should not exceed 2.5 mg for each 2.2 pounds of the child's weight. Doses usually begin at 25 mg per day. This amount should be taken an hour before bedtime. If needed, this dose may be increased after 1 week to 50 mg (ages 6 through 11) or 75 mg (ages 12 and up), taken in one dose at bedtime or divided into 2 doses, 1 taken at mid-afternoon and 1 at bedtime.

Aged people

The usual dosage should start with 25 to 50 mg per day. The dose may be increased as necessary, but effective dosages usually do not exceed 100 mg a day.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Tofranil suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Tofranil and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Tofranil overdosage: agitation, bluish skin, convulsions, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, drowsiness, heart failure, high fever, involuntary writhing or jerky movements, irregular or rapid heartbeat, lack of coordination, low blood pressure, overactive reflexes, restlessness, rigid muscles, shock, stupor, sweating, vomiting.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Tofranil are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Tofranil if you are allergic to Generic Tofranil components.

Be very careful with Generic Tofranil if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not take Generic Tofranil if you are recovering from a recent heart attack or take MAO inhibitors, such as the antidepressants Nardil and Parnate.

Be very careful with Generic Tofranil if you have diabetes, hypoglycemia, a history of mental disorders.

Be very careful with Generic Tofranil if you are taking albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin), antidepressants that act on serotonin, including Prozac, Paxil and Zoloft, antipsychotic drugs such as Mellaril and chlorpromazine, barbiturates such as Nembutal and Seconal, blood pressure medications such as Catapres, Carbamazepine (Tegretol), cimetidine (Tagamet), decongestants such as Sudafed, drugs that control spasms, such as Cogentin, Epinephrine (EpiPen), Flecainide (Tambocor), Guanethidine, Methylphenidate (Ritalin), Norepinephrine, other antidepressants such as Elavil and Pamelor, Phenytoin (Dilantin), Propafenone (Rythmol), Quinidine, thyroid medications such as Synthroid, tranquilizers and sleep aids such as Halcion, Xanax, and Valium.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not participate in any activities that require full alertness if you are unsure about your ability.

Try to stay out of the sun as much as possible.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Tofranil taking suddenly.

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The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of T. bellirica on depression in mice using forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The extracts were administered orally for 10 successive days in separate groups of Swiss young male albino mice. Aqueous extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in a dose-dependent manner and ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg) significantly reduced the immobility time of mice in both FST and TST. The extracts were without any significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. The efficacies of aqueous extract (200 mg/kg) and ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg) were found to be similar to that of imipramine (15 mg/kg, po) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, po) administered for 10 successive days. Both extracts reversed reserpine-induced extension of immobility period of mice in FST and TST. Prazosin (62.5 microg/kg, ip; an alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist), sulpiride (50 mg/kg, ip; a selective D2 receptor antagonist) and p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg/kg, ip; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) significantly attenuated the aqueous and ethanolic extract-induced antidepressant-like effect in TST. Thus, both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of T. bellirica elicited a significant antidepressant-like effect in mice by interaction with adrenergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic systems.

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Subtoxic doses of physostigmine have been found to potentiate the convulsive toxicity and lethality of amitriptyline and imipramine in CD1 and B6A mice. Neostigmine failed to potentiate the toxicity and lethality of imipramine. Physostigmine tended to protect mice against atropine-induced lethality. These data suggest the site of toxicity of this drug-drug interaction between the tricyclic antidepressants and physostigmine may be occurring in the CNS through a mechanism distinct from the anticholinergic actions of the antidepressants.

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Presynaptic inhibition of the extensor (quadriceps, QUAD) monosynaptic reflex (MSR) in unanaesthetized decerebrate cats was antagonized by imipramine hydrochloride (2-5 mg/kg), 5-hydroxytryptophan (75 mg/kg) and a specific 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neuronal uptake blocker, fluoxetine hydrochloride (Lilly 110140, 0.25-6 mg/kg). These effects of imipramine and fluoxetine were partially reversed by the 5-HT antagonist, cyproheptadine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg), and completely reversed by the application of a thoracic cold block which prevents supraspinal inputs to the caudal spinal cord. Imipramine, however, failed to antagonize this inhibition in animals pretreated with either DL-p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA, 300 mg/kg i.p. for 2 consecutive days) or DL-a-methyl-p-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride (a-MPt, 125 mg/kg i.p. 16 and 4 h prior to the experiment). Cyproheptadine (2.5--5 mg/kg); phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride (2.5-5 mg/kg) and a cold block enhanced the inhibition of this extensor MSR but a cold block failed to alter the inhibition in animals pretreated with p-CPA or a-MPT. Presynaptic inhibition of the flexor (posterior biceps-semitendinosus, PBST) MSR was however not blocked by imipramine, fluoxetine or a cold block nor enhanced by cyproheptadine or phenoxybenzamine. The effects of the drugs tested and a cold block on the excitability of the QUAD group Ia afferents were reciprocal to those on the MSR during presynaptic inhibition. The results of this study indicate that descending tonically active systems (1) involving 5-HT and noradrenaline, antagonize presynaptic inhibition of the QUAD but not the PBST-MSR, (2) decrease the excitability of the QUAD Ia afferents and (3) increase the excitability of QUAD motoneurones.

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Platelet 3H-imipramine binding and serotonin uptake were studied simultaneously in normal subjects and in depressed, parkinsonian and Alzheimer's disease patients to investigate the usefulness of these variables in the diagnosis of depression in the elderly. Whereas Vmax of platelet serotonin uptake was significantly reduced in all patient groups compared to age matched normal subjects, the density of 3H-imipramine binding was reduced in depressed patients only. The lower Bmax values in depressed patients was independent of patient age. These data suggest that platelet 3H-imipramine binding may be a useful laboratory index which discriminates depression from dementia in the elderly.

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This study investigated the effect of tricyclic and atypical antidepressants on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) dependent calcium uptake by the endoplasmic reticulum of lysed synaptosomes from rat brain cortex. Tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine, desipramine, clomipramine, amitriptyline) exhibited no effect in the lower range (0.06 to 2 microM) of drug concentrations, and a concentration-dependent inhibition of calcium uptake in the upper range (6 to 200 microM). A concentration-dependent inhibition was observed for atypical antidepressants (mianserin, desmethylmianserin, venlafaxine, desmethylvenlafaxine, fluoxetine) in both the lower and the upper range of drug concentrations. Since no stimulation of calcium uptake was observed in either concentration range, it appears that the tricyclic and atypical antidepressants tested are not capable of normalizing, through their effect on the endoplasmic reticulum, an overactive calcium signal. which is possibly implicated in the etiology of affective disorders. Also, although only marginal inhibition of calcium uptake is expected at brain concentrations of tricyclics and mianserin-desmethylmianserin that are likely to be encountered during clinical use, a more substantial inhibition could occur with fluoxetine.

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Venlafaxine and imipramine were associated with small, but statistically significant, increases in SDBP during acute phase therapy. When compared with imipramine and placebo, venlafaxine was also associated with a greater proportion of persistent elevations of SDBP during continuation therapy. The effect of venlafaxine was highly dose dependent, and the incidence of elevated SDBP was statistically and clinically significant only at dosages above 300 mg/day. Venlafaxine did not adversely affect the control of blood pressure for patients with preexisting high blood pressure or elevated baseline values.

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The aim of the present study was to confirm the efficacy of antidepressants in post-stroke depression and to identify the factors related to outcome. Subjects consisted of 20 inpatients suffering from post-stroke in a rehabilitation hospital. The subjects were treated with various antidepressants, mainly imipramine, amitriptyline, and amoxapine. After 4 weeks of treatment, 13 showed some improvement; significant improvement in 5, moderate improvement in 5, mild improvement in 3 by a clinical global impression. Whereas all the patients aged less than 65 yr were responders, only 3 of the 10 patients over 65 yr were responders. All of the male patients, but only half of the female patients, were responders. With regards to the presence of a spouse, 13 of the 16 patients with a spouse, but none of 4 patients without, showed a response. No significant correlation was found between the occurrence of each depressive symptom and outcome. Thus, the responders were younger and had better social support in comparison with the non-responders. This result implies that antidepressants are effective for post-stroke depression.

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We compared 19 OCD patients before and after 8 weeks of SRI treatment with 19 sex-matched and age-matched controls. We assessed clinical improvement and whole-blood serotonin (5-HT) concentration, platelet 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) and 5-HT2A receptor binding characteristics and platelet IP3 content.

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A solid basis for the M4-approach has been developed over the past 10 years. Recent examples of the production of difficult-to-synthesize mammalian metabolites through microbial transformations attest to the utility of the methodology. There is, however, much more to be done. Model studies should be conducted to test parallels between microbial and mammalian S- and N-oxidations, O-glucuronidations, and ester and amide hydrolyses. Subsequently, even greater applications of M4- work can be envisioned. We have been pleased to see our colleagues in industry and academia adopt the M4- approach to solve difficult pharmacological and toxicological problems. In large measure, this has been our greatest reward for efforts initially presented before the membership of the American Society of Pharmacognosy in 1973.

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We have previously found that tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) induce apoptosis in quiescent human lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if TCAs induce apoptosis in proliferating human lymphocytes and in established blastoid lymphocytes also. The development of conA-induced lymphoblast populations was followed by measuring the CD25 membrane expression. Three TCA compounds were run with the following concentrations: imipramine (10, 20, 30, 40, 60 microM), clomipramine (1, 10, 20, 30, 40 microM) and citalopram (40, 60, 80, 100, 180 microM). They all induced a dose-dependent apoptosis both in continuously transformed, as well as in established lymphoblasts. Preincubation of the TCA up to 48 h did not significantly increase induction of apoptosis. The three drugs tested were found to be potent inducers of apoptosis in proliferating lymphocytes. Furthermore, we found that the apoptotic populations in proliferating and in established blastoid lymphocytes were of fairly the same magnitude than in the corresponding population in TCA-incubated resting lymphocytes. In conclusion, we demonstrate that TCAs induce apoptosis in proliferating lymphocytes, as they do in quiescent lymphocytes. Furthermore, the extent of apoptosis was even more pronounced in TCA-incubated lymphoblasts compared to TCA-treated resting lymphocytes.

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Acid sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) and its reaction product ceramide may play a role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and in the therapeutic action of antidepressive drugs. In a prospective case-control study, A-SMase activity was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 17 patients with a major depressive episode who were free of antidepressant drug therapy for at least 10 days and 8 healthy volunteers. In the patient group, A-SMase activity was correlated to the score (n=17, r=0.64, P=0.005). The patient group exhibited higher A-SMase activity compared to healthy volunteers (T=2.09, df=21.33, P<0.05). In addition, we demonstrate that the antidepressants imipramine and amitriptyline induce a long-term reduction of the activity of A-SMase in cultured cells.

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Eighteen patients were included. The reduction of wet nights was much better with either reboxetine in monotherapy or in combination with desmopressin than during the placebo period (p = 0.002) (Figure). However, only one patient achieved complete dryness, this during monotherapy. There were three intermediate responders to monotherapy and five to combination treatment. With reboxetine in monotherapy, six children experienced negative side effects compared with three with combination therapy, and two with placebo. All of these side effects were mild and reversible. Only one patient chose to cease treatment because of side effects. No prognostic factors were found in either the case history or in voiding chart data.

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The adherence rate was 66% (1,407/2,137); the rate of non-informed prescribers was 3% (1,547/55,296) among the general population, and 52% (1,547/2,954) when only TCA users were considered. While adherence was higher among older and female subjects, the number of other medications did not affect adherence rate.

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Five groups of albino mice (20-25 g) were selected for the study, with five animals in each group. Group A served as the naïve control and Group B served as the stressed control. Groups C and D received EETA (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w.). Group E received imipramine (20 mg/kg b.w.). Except for Group A, mice in each group were forced to swim 6 min each for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was measured on every alternate day. After 7 days, various behavioral tests (mirror chamber and elevated plus maize test for anxiety, open field test for locomotor activity) and biochemical estimations (malondialdehyde [MDA] and catalase activity) in mice brain were performed.

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3H-imipramine binding was studied in the blood platelets of 80 normal controls and 50 depressed (psychotic and nonpsychotic) patients. Protein concentration in the incubation mixture, and Kd and Bmax values were correlated in normal controls and depressed patients. A small but significant correlation between protein in the incubation mixture and Bmax was observed in normal controls and depressed patients. There was also a significant correlation between protein and Kd of imipramine binding in the blood platelets of unipolar psychotic depressed patients. However, analysis of covariance to remove the effect of protein on Kd and Bmax did not change the basic finding of decreased Bmax in the blood platelets of psychotic depressed patients.

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Neuroleptics, antidepressants and anticholinergics were compared in their action on the hypothermia produced by apomorphine (AP, 5.0 mg/kg i.p.) or piribedil (PRB, 100 mg/kg i.p.) in mice. Anticholinergics atropine, scopolamine and benactizine did not affect either hypothermia in contrast to neuroleptics and imipramine-like antidepressants which antagonized both hypothermias. Among neuroleptics studied the minimal effective doses (MED) antagonizing AP hypothermia (APH) ranged from 0.006 (trifluperidol) to 0.5 mg/kg (chlorpromazine), while MED antagonizing PRB hypothermia (PRBH) ranged from 0.05 (trifluperidol and perphenazine) to 2.0 mg/kg (haloperidol). Amongst antidepressants the MED ranged from 0.2 (desipramine) to 5.0 mg/kg (amitriptyline) in the case of APH, and ranged from 0.025 (desipramine) to 0.5 mg/kg (amitriptyline) in the case of PRBH, the potency correlated directly with the adrenopositive activity. The higher activity of neuroleptics in the case of APH, and the discrepancy between the order of their effectiveness in tests of APH and PRBH are discussed. The data confirm that the stimulation of the dopamine receptors results in hypothermia and are in accord with the postulated importance of the adrenergic link in the hypothermia produced by dopaminomimetics.

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Treatment-related decreases in Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS; Weissman & Beck, 1978) scores have been interpreted as evidence that dysfunctional attitudes are state-dependent concomitants of depression. Data from the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program were used to reexamine the stability of dysfunctional attitudes. Mean scores for Perfectionism, Need for Approval, and total DAS decreased after 16 weeks of treatment. However, test-retest correlations showed that the DAS variables displayed considerable relative stability. Structural equation models demonstrated that dysfunctional attitudes after treatment were significantly predicted by initial level of dysfunctional attitudes as well as by posttreatment depression. The relative stability of dysfunctional attitudes was even higher during the 18-month follow-up period. The results were consistent with Beck's (1967) and Blatt's (1974) theories of vulnerability.

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Several methodological factors in the preparation of platelets and the determination of platelet 3H-imipramine (3H-IMI) binding were examined. The ionic composition of the assay significantly affected platelet 3H-IMI binding. Approximately 25% of the specific binding of 3H-IMI to intact platelet preparations was retained in the absence of sodium and chloride ions. The addition of sodium ions enhanced the specific binding of 3H-IMI, but the addition of chloride in the presence of sodium had a more pronounced effect, enhancing binding approximately five-fold over that observed with the addition of sodium. Sodium was the only cation tested that enhanced binding. Only halides enhanced binding in the presence of sodium with the following order of potency: Cl- greater than Br- greater than I- = F-. Ions increased the density of binding sites (Bmax) and did not affect the affinity of the binding sites for 3H-IMI. In the presence of sodium and chloride, the use of serotonin (5HT) to define nonspecific binding in saturation experiments resulted in lower binding densities (Bmax) than when desipramine was used to define nonspecific binding. The component of binding that was insensitive to 5HT was roughly equal to the Bmax of 3H-IMI binding obtained in the absence of sodium and chloride using desipramine to define nonspecific binding. Overall, these data suggest that not all 3H-IMI binding that is displaced by desipramine is related to serotonergic mechanisms, and suggest that 5HT is a better choice than desipramine for the determination of the nonspecific binding of 3H-IMI. In addition, the binding of 3H-IMI to different platelet preparations was compared. The binding of 3H-IMI to intact platelets was less than that obtained using lysed platelet membranes when data were expressed per mg protein. The Coomassie Blue dye-binding method to determine platelet protein resulted in greater Bmax values than were obtained with the Folin phenol reagent method. The method of platelet preparation that is commonly used to prepare platelets for 3H-IMI binding resulted in similar binding values when compared to a method that prepares the entire platelet population. The results suggest that some, but not all, variations in laboratory methods used to prepare platelets and assay for platelet 3H-IMI binding may affect clinical studies examining this measure.

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Upon activation of specific cell signaling, hepatocytes rapidly accumulate or release an amount of Mg(2+) equivalent to 10% of their total Mg(2+) content. Although it is widely accepted that Mg(2+) efflux is Na(+)-dependent, little is known about transporter identity and the overall regulation. Even less is known about the mechanism of cellular Mg(2+) uptake. Using sealed and right-sided rat liver plasma membrane vesicles representing either the basolateral (bLPM) or apical (aLPM) domain, it was possible to dissect three different Mg(2+) transport mechanisms based upon specific inhibition, localization within the plasma membrane, and directionality. The bLPM possesses only one Mg(2+) transporter, which is strictly Na(+)-dependent, bi-directional, and not inhibited by amiloride. The aLPM possesses two separate Mg(2+) transporters. One, similar to that in the bLPM because it strictly depends on Na(+) transport, and it can be differentiated from that of the bLPM because it is unidirectional and fully inhibited by amiloride. The second is a novel Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) exchanger that is unidirectional and inhibited by amiloride and imipramine. Hence, the bLPM transporter may be responsible for the exchange of Mg(2+) between hepatocytes and plasma, and vice versa, shown in livers upon specific metabolic stimulation, whereas the aLPM transporters can only extrude Mg(2+) into the biliary tract. The dissection of these three distinct pathways and, therefore, the opportunity to study each individually will greatly facilitate further characterization of these transporters and a better understanding of Mg(2+) homeostasis.

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SK channels are small conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels that underlie neuronal slow afterhyperpolarization and mediate spike frequency adaptation. Using the patch clamp technique, we tested the effects of eight clinically relevant psychoactive compounds structurally related to the tricyclic antidepressants, on SK2 subtype channels cloned from rat brain and functionally expressed in the human embryonic kidney cell line, HEK293. Amitriptyline, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, cyproheptadine, imipramine, tacrine and trifluperazine blocked SK2 channel currents with micromolar affinity. The block was reversible and concentration-dependent. The potency differed according to chemical structure. In contrast, the cognitive enhancer linopirdine was ineffective at blocking these channels. Our results point to a distinct pharmacological profile for SK channels.

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This study investigated the involvement of NMDA receptors and the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the antidepressant-like effects of zinc in the forced swimming test (FST). The immobility times in the FST and in the tail suspension test (TST) were reduced by zinc chloride (ZnCl(2), 30 and 10-30 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.), respectively). The doses active in the FST and TST reduced locomotor activity in an open-field. The antidepressant-like effect of ZnCl(2) in the FST was prevented by pre-treatment of animals with guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP), ascorbic acid, L-arginine, or S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP), but not with D-arginine, administered at doses that per se produced no anti-immobility effect. The immobility time of mice treated with ZnCl(2)+MK-801 was not different from the result obtained with ZnCl(2) or MK-801 alone, but ZnCl(2)+imipramine had a greater effect in the FST than administration of either drug alone. Pre-treatment of animals with a sub-threshold dose of ZnCl(2) prevented the anti-immobility effect of MK-801, ketamine, GMP, L-arginine or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), but did not alter the effect of imipramine or fluoxetine. Taken together, the results demonstrate that zinc produced an antidepressant-like effect that seems to be mediated through its interaction with NMDA receptors and the L-arginine-NO pathway.

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The biological basis for the therapeutic mechanisms of depression are still unknown. While performing EST (expressed sequence tag) analysis to identify some molecular machinery responsible for the antidepressant effect, we determined the full-length nucleotide sequence of rat frizzled-3 protein (Frz3) cDNA. Interestingly, Northern blot analysis demonstrated that elevated levels of Frz3 were expressed continually from embryonic day 20.5 to postnatal 4 weeks in developing rat brain. In adult rat brain, Frz3 mRNA was expressed predominantly in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus and moderately in the hippocampus. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we demonstrated that chronic treatment with two different classes of antidepressants, imipramine and sertraline, reduced Frz3 mRNA expression significantly in rat frontal cortex. Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) also reduced Frz3 expression. In contrast, antidepressants and ECT failed to reduce Frz2 expression. Additionally, chronic treatment with the antipsychotic drug haloperidol did not affect Frz3 expression. Recently, the Frz/Wingless protein pathway has been proposed to direct a complex behavioral phenomenon. In conclusion, the Frz3-mediated signaling cascade may be a component of the molecular machinery targeted by therapeutics commonly used to treat depression.

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The psychotropic activity of a series of new aminouracil derivatives was studied on the widely applied models of pharmacological screening in rats. The most expressed antidepressant effect at the stage of primary pharmacological screening was been revealed for compound PIR-03-52 in a dose of 10 mg/kg. A profound study of the antidepressant activity on models of pathological states, PIR-03-52 exhibited a pronounced antidepressant effect that was comparable with that of a reference drug (imipramine). The given effect is related to the positive influence of PIR-03-52 on the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems.

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To study the transport system of propranolol (PL), a basic drug, in the blood-brain barrier, the uptake of PL into isolated bovine brain microvessels was investigated. The uptake of PL was a concentrative one via saturable process (Km = 42.5 microM) that was decreased by hypothermia (Q10 = 2.2), but not by metabolic inhibitors (2,4-dinitrophenol, KCN, ouabain). Although basic drugs such as quinidine and imipramine decreased both the initial rate of uptake and the steady-state cell-to-medium concentration ratio (C/M) of PL, acidic drugs (phenobarbital, salicylic acid) did not affect them. These results suggest that PL is taken up by the endothelial cells of the isolated brain microvessels by facilitated diffusion which is specific for basic drugs and then binds to certain binding sites in the cells.

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Chronic depressions are common, disabling, and undertreated, and prior chronicity predicts future chronicity. However, few studies directly inform the acute or maintenance phase treatments of chronic depressions and even less is known about the effects of treatment on psychosocial functioning.

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In tests with cats and rabbits sydnocarb in doses of 3,4-8.5-17 mg/kg (per os or intraperitoneally) produces a more lasting reticulo-cortical activation than does amphetamine used in respectively equimolecular amounts. According to the EEG finding there is also observed a substantial difference in the nature of interaction of these stimulants with chlorpromazine, reserpine and imipramine.

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It has been shown that cytotoxic action of neuropharmacological drugs (transmitter antagonists) on early urchin embryos is reduced or abolished by cyclic nucleotides and sodium fluoride. Such a protective action differs in cAMP and dibutyryl analogs of cyclic nucleotides, depending on the chemical structure of an embryotoxic substance. It is suggested that, endogenous intracellular "prenervous" transmitters and cyclic nucleotides are interrelated in the regulation of cell division in urchin embryos.

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We conclude that stabilization of exogenous surfactant by adding imipramine to create a "fortified surfactant preparation" improves lung function in a clinically relevant piglet model, and that this effect can be attributed to the inhibition of a-SMase as evidenced in the mouse model.

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Fluvoxamine facilitates serotoninergic neurotransmission via potent and selective inhibition of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake into presynaptic neurones. The overall antidepressant efficacy of fluvoxamine 100 to 300 mg/day for 4 to 6 weeks in once daily or divided dosage regimens appears to be at least comparable to that of imipramine and similar to that of clomipramine, dothiepin, desipramine, amitriptyline, lofepramine, maprotiline, mianserin and moclobemide. The efficacy of fluvoxamine has been maintained for up to 1 year, but long term data are limited, and there are no comparative studies of fluvoxamine with other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In some studies, fluvoxamine appeared to have an earlier beneficial effect on suicidal ideation and/or anxiety or somatic complaints compared with imipramine, dothiepin and maprotiline. Gastrointestinal adverse effects, especially nausea, are commonly reported with fluvoxamine but are generally mild to moderate in severity. The tolerability profile of fluvoxamine appears to be more favourable than that of tricyclic antidepressants in terms of cardiotoxic and anticholinergic adverse effects, sedation, weight gain and death from overdosage. Thus, fluvoxamine is an effective and well tolerated antidepressant agent that is becoming established as an alternative to older agents in patients with mild, moderate or severe depression. Fluvoxamine may be particularly beneficial in potentially suicidal patients with severe depression, in those with an underlying compulsive personality or cardiovascular disorder, in patients with coexistent anxiety or agitation, and in the elderly.

tofranil cost

TCA treatment in children and adolescents, like that in adults, is associated with cardiovascular changes of uncertain, but probably minor, clinical significance. More information is needed on the contribution of other physiological conditions on the cardiovascular system during exposure to TCAs. Guidelines for using TCAs in children and adolescents are presented.

tofranil and alcohol

In this paper from the Collaborative Depression Study (CDS)--Biological, a set of data analyses are presented which indicate that depressed states and perhaps depressed mood are associated with a greater activation of the adrenomedullary system than the sympathetic nervous system [as measured by norepinephrine (NE) and normetanephrine excretion]. For the most part this finding of predominant activation of the adrenomedullary system is seen in unipolar and not bipolar patients.

tofranil missed dose

It was shown by the analysis of the in situ data in the pH 6.5-8.5 interval for the lipophilic bases that the average vascular flow F(pf) = 0.036 mL∙g(-1)∙s(-1), centered in a "flow-limit window" (FLW) bounded by P (e) (min)  = 170 and P (e) (max)  = 776 (10(-6) cm∙s(-1) units). It was shown that the traditional CRE is expected not to work for half of the molecules in the FLW and is expected to underestimate (up to 64-fold) the other half of the molecules.

tofranil 25mg medication

In the present study the influence of imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, on the expression and function of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic rat brain regions was examined. Chronic administration of imipramine (18 days) decreased levels of TH enzyme activity in ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN), dopaminergic cell body regions, as well as in caudate-putamen (CP), nucleus accumbens (ACB), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and olfactory tubercle (OT), dopaminergic terminal fields. These effects were dependent on chronic drug treatment, as imipramine administration for 1 or 7 days did not significantly influence levels of TH activity in either SN or VTA. In contrast to drug regulation of enzyme activity, chronic imipramine treatment did not decrease levels of TH immunoreactivity in any of the dopaminergic cell body or terminal field regions studied, although levels of TH immunoreactivity were decreased in locus coeruleus (LC) as previously reported. However, imipramine treatment increased levels of TH back phosphorylation in VTA, suggesting that the antidepressant-induced decrease in levels of TH activity is a result of decreased phosphorylation of the enzyme. These results demonstrate that imipramine treatment regulates levels of TH enzyme activity in dopaminergic brain regions, and may account for some of the previously observed effects of these drugs on dopaminergic function. Finally, imipramine regulation of TH enzyme activity in VTA and immunoreactivity in LC was observed in Sprague Dawley, but not Wistar rats, demonstrating that different rat strains exhibit different biochemical responses to antidepressant treatment.

tofranil drug information

The objective of this study is to investigate antidepressant activity of various extracts and fractions of C. indica aerial parts, and to estimate content of quercetin in the plant using TLC densitometry.

tofranil brand name

To compare the efficacy of imipramine and fluvoxamine in depressed inpatients who subsequently received lithium supplement in case of poor response.

tofranil tablet uses

Platelet MAO activity decreased by 40% (p less than .001) in a group of 11 male patients with primary depression after 3 weeks of treatment with either amitriptyline or imipramine. This finding, together with data from previous in vitro studies demonstrating tricyclic-induced inhibition of mitochondrial MAO, suggests that inhibition of MAO plays a role in the clinical action of tricyclic antidepressant drugs.

tofranil pm reviews

When chlorpromazine was introduced into psychiatric therapy in 1952 and thus the modern psychopharmacological era was started, the situation in psychiatry was deplorable. The psychiatric hospitals were overcrowded and obsolete, complementary institutions were widely missing. In Germany, even after introducing the neuroleptic era and the beginning of the thymoleptic epoch in 1957, no decisive improvement took place at first. As late as in the 70s successes of psychiatric reform efforts in the sense of humanization became visible, along with modern psychopharmacotherapy making an important contribution to these improvements. With the social attitude towards the mentally ill changing, this contribution became effective. In 1954 the antipsychotic efficacy of Rauwolfia alkaloids was described; in 1958 the butyrophenones, especially haloperidol, were introduced. In 1957 the antidepressive efficacy of imipramine was discovered, in the same year the psychiatric importance of monoaminoxidase inhibitors was defined. In 1949 Cade published his findings on the antimanic effect of lithium salts. As tranquilizers meprobamate (1955) and chlordiazepoxide (1960) were made available. In 1966 clozapine was introduced. Objections to psychopharmacotherapy, which were not always objective, were often raised. The biochemical research in cooperation with psychopharmacology has made progress, yet the target of clarification of the pathophysiology of the main psychoses has not been reached as yet. At present there is considerable resistance towards a further expansion of psychopharmacology, research being hampered by legal reglementation and bureaucracy. This development must be faced. Psychopharmacotherapy is not yet sufficiently effective and safe; it must be improved.

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recommended tofranil dosage 2015-11-28

p-Chloroamphetamine (PCA) interacts with serotonin transporters in two membrane vesicle model systems by competing with serotonin for transport and stimulating efflux of accumulated serotonin. In plasma membrane vesicles isolated from human platelets, PCA competes with [3H]imipramine for binding to the serotonin transporter with a KD of 310 nM and competitively inhibits serotonin transport with a KI of 4.8 nM. [3H]Serotonin efflux from plasma membrane vesicles is stimulated by PCA in a Na(+)-dependent and imipramine-sensitive manner characteristic of transporter-mediated exchange. In membrane vesicles isolated from bovine adrenal chromaffin granules, PCA competitively inhibits ATP-dependent [3H]serotonin accumulation with a KI of 1 buy tofranil online .7 microM and, at higher concentrations, stimulates efflux of accumulated [3H]serotonin. Stimulation of vesicular [3H]serotonin efflux is due in part to dissipation of the transmembrane pH difference (delta pH) generated by ATP hydrolysis. Part of PCA's ability to stimulate efflux may be due to its transport by the vesicular amine transporter. Flow dialysis experiments demonstrated uptake of [3H]PCA into chromaffin granule membrane vesicles in response to the delta pH generated in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP. In plasma membrane vesicles, no accumulation was observed using an NaCl gradient as the driving force. We conclude that rapid nonmediated efflux of transported PCA prevents accumulation unless PCA is trapped inside by a low internal pH.

tofranil overdose 2015-05-14

Eleven new derivatives of 4-phenylquinoline, having various substituents at the 2-position of the quinoline ring, were previously synthesized. The antidepressant activities of these derivatives were demonstrated by their antagonism to reserpine-induced hypothermia in mice. The ED50 values were found to be in the range of 12-42 mg/kg (imipramine is 21.0 mg/kg). In the present work, comparative studies of the effects of these new drugs on the cholinergic and histaminergic (H1) systems, as well as their effects on the cardiovascular system, are presented. Both imipramine and trazodone were utilized as standards representing typical and atypical antidepressant drugs, respectively. All these new compounds have very low antihistaminic (H1) activities, as compared to imipramine. In addition, a clear cut separation of the antidepressant activity from the antihistaminic (H1) activity was observed. These compounds have weak anticholinergic (atropine-like properties) activity as compared to imipramine, using the isolated guinea-pig ileum. Animal studies of the cardiac toxicity of these compounds showed reduced lethality for some of them as compared to imipramine. Arrhythmias commonly associated with imipramine were absent for most of these compounds. buy tofranil online The effects of these compounds on the heart conduction were determined by electrocardiographic studies. Although some of these compounds do not interfere with heart conduction, as compared to imipramine most were inferior to trazodone. Correlation between the pharmacological activities and structural modifications of these derivatives has also been observed.

tofranil tablet 2015-06-24

Cognition was assessed using the Aversive Light Stimulus Avoidance Test (ALSAT). The Unavoidable Aversive Light Stimulus (UALST) and the Forced Swimming Test (FST) were used to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of KO. Imipramine (IMIP) was used buy tofranil online as the antidepressant reference substance.

tofranil 10 mg 2017-10-11

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) have been shown to provide analgesia for a variety of neuropathic and headache pain syndromes regardless of the presence of depression. There is a high incidence of depression in patients with chronic pain, thereby making tricyclic antidepressants particularly suitable for chronic pain patients. We wanted to study patterns of use of tricyclic antidepressants in our Pain Management Center (Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA, U.S.A.) primarily to answer four questions: (1) What percentage of all patients were treated with tricyclic antidepressants? (2) How many patients were treated with each antidepressant, and what was the dose range used for individual antidepressants? (3) Were tricyclic antidepressants beneficial for chronic pain, and was that buy tofranil online response dependent on a particular dose? (4) Did patients receive an adequate TCA trial, and what factors led to the discontinuation of a TCA trial?

tofranil overdose symptoms 2016-10-13

Amoxapine is an N-demethylated dibenzoxazepine closely related in the neuroleptic loxapine. Its tricyclic structure appears to give it antidepressant properties resembling imipramine and amitriptyline. In uncontrolled trials it was shown to have antidepressant activity in usual doses up to 200 to 400mg daily. In placebo and double-blind controlled studies comparing amoxapine with the standard tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and amitriptyline, it was buy tofranil online shown to be comparable in efficacy with a possibly somewhat faster onset of improvement of selected symptoms of depression in some studies. Because of the small study groups and lack of placebo control, many reports do not show statistically significant differences of treatment over standard drugs. To date there have been no studies comparing amoxapine with electroconvulsive therapy. Side effects were qualitatively similar to standard drugs with a suggestion that in standard doses or overdose myocardial effects are mild. However, the final place of amoxapine in the therapy of depressed states is still to be decided.

tofranil overdose death 2017-08-18

Plasma and red blood cells (RBCs), amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, doxepin, and desmethyl doxepin levels were measured in depressed inpatients during steady-state kinetics. A strong positive correlation between the drug levels in plasma and RBCs was found for amitriptyline, nortriptyline, desipramine, and desmethyl doxepin. However, at a given plasma level, up to a 6-fold interindividual variation in the RBC drug levels was found. The buy tofranil online correlations between plasma and RBC imipramine and doxepin levels were low. The interindividual variation in the RBC-plasma tricyclic level ratios was large enough to warrant further clinical studies on the relationship between efficacy and pharmacokinetics of tricyclic antidepressants.

tofranil syrup 2015-06-03

The metabolism of the widely used antidepressant drug imipramine is subject to marked interindividual variation. A sensitive and specific reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of imipramine and seven of its metabolites in human liver microsomal preparations was developed. These metabolites include 10-hydroxy-desipramine, 10-hydroxyimipramine, 2-hydroxydesipramine, 2-hydroxyimipramine, desipramine, didesmethylimipramine buy tofranil online , and imipramine N-oxide. The detection limit for imipramine and the metabolites was approximately 20 pmol. At concentrations of 100 and 500 pmol per tube, the reproducibility showed a coefficient of variation less than 10%, except for the 2-hydroxy-desipramine (16%), 2-hydroxyimipramine (15%), and imipramine N-oxide (17%), all three at 100 pmol per tube. Linear standard curves were obtained for all the compounds within a concentration range of 50 to 1000 pmol per tube. This assay will provide a tool to assess the contribution of different enzymes to the formation of imipramine metabolites.

tofranil drug study 2017-12-29

1 Noradrenaline (0.1-3.0 muM) inhibited the twitch responses to single pulse field stimulation of the isolated vas deferens of the mouse. The higher concentrations of noradrenaline (ca. 0.3-3.0 muM) were required to make the tissue contract.2 Phentolamine (10 muM) abolished the contractor response to higher concentrations of noradrenaline and antagonized the inhibitory effect of lower concentrations on the twitch response.3 Propranolol (10 muM) potentiated both the contractor and the inhibitory effect of noradrenaline on the twitch response.4 Isoprenaline (0.1-3.0 muM) and salbutamol (1.0-3.0 muM) both inhibited the twitch response. Their effects were antagonized by propranolol (10 muM), but not by practolol (10 muM).5 The effects of uptake(1) and uptake(2) blocking agents were determined. Cocaine (10 muM) reduced the size of the twitch response in 2 out of 4 experiments. Imipramine (0.18 muM) also reduced the size of the twitch, as did oestradiol (3.7 muM) and a combination of cocaine and oestradiol.6 Contractor responses to exogenous noradrenaline showed tachyphylaxis, but when this was not very marked, the response could be shown to be potentiated by uptake blocking agents.7 The inhibitory effect of noradrenaline on the twitch response was greatly potentiated by cocaine (10 muM) and much less so by oestradiol (3.7 muM).8 It is concluded that the transmitter responsible for the twitch response is either an unknown buy tofranil online substance released from the sympathetic neurone, or noradrenaline acting upon a receptor with none of the characteristics of known alpha- or beta-adrenoceptors. In either case, noradrenaline can inhibit the output, probably by stimulation of presynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors.

tofranil y alcohol 2016-12-16

The case of a male infant with the ankyloglossum superius syndrome is documented. In buy tofranil online addition to oromandibular and limb malformations, the patient had extensive jejunal and ileal atresia. The cause of this syndrome remains unknown, but both genetic and intrauterine environmental factors have been suggested. There was no family history of other affected relatives, but throughout her pregnancy the mother had received imipramine, diazepam, chlorpromazine, and meclizine.

tofranil tablets 10mg 2016-01-11

The purpose of this study was to develop a method for estimating the hepatic clearance (CL(h)) without using a protein binding test. This method allows the simultaneous evaluation of the intrinsic hepatic clearance (CL(int)) with a correction for microsomal binding, and the free fraction in the serum (fu). It uses the decrease in metabolic velocity achieved by decreasing the free fraction of a compound in the incubation mixture (fu(inc)) by the addition of serum, and by changing the microsomal protein concentration. This method is denoted as the 'matrix inhibition method', because it uses the inhibition of the metabolic velocity by the incubation matrix. The metabolic rates of eight compounds (diazepam, imipramine, warfarin, and compounds A-E) were evaluated under several incubation conditions using rat serum and microsomes. The correlation of CL(int) evaluated using the method and using equilibrium dialysis after the CL(int) was corrected for microsomal binding was r = 0.968. The correlation of fu . CL(int) was r = 0.996. Although the method required a high enough fu and fu(microsomes) difference among the reaction conditions for each compound, it could evaluate CL(int) and fu simultaneously and easily by adding additional reaction conditions to buy tofranil online the metabolic stability tests performed in ADME screening.

tofranil 25mg medication 2017-11-10

Oxygen and Ni(II) are ideal paramagnetic species for NMR studies of immersion depth since they establish prominent concentration gradients across the membrane-water interface of either bilayers or micelles. Corresponding gradients of paramagnetic shifts and relaxation rates are observed by NMR for membrane embedded amphiphiles. Specifically, upon dissolution of oxygen at a partial pressure of 20 bar or more, (13)C NMR spectra of membrane embedded amphiphiles reveal chemical shift perturbations which depend sensitively on average immersion depth in the membrane. Similarly, depth-dependent enhancements of spin-lattice relaxation rates can be detected by ( buy tofranil online 1)H NMR. Generally, such paramagnetic effects depend both on steric or accessibility factors and on the local concentration of the paramagnet. The steric terms can be factored out by combining paramagnetic rates arising from O(2) and Ni, in the form of a ratio, R(1P)(O(2))/R(1P)(Ni). The natural logarithm of this ratio is shown to depend linearly on immersion depth in a micelle. The analysis is verified using molecular dynamics simulations of dodecylphosphocholine in a detergent micelle, while thorough consideration of the paramagnetic rate data also allows for the determination of the orientation of imipramine in the micelle. Thus, a complete picture of topology arises from this approach which is readily applicable to studies of drugs and amphiphiles in fast-tumbling bicelles, small unilamellar vesicles, and micelles.

tofranil online 2015-05-25

There were no important relations between drug concentrations and efficacy, or indication of synergistic interaction between the drugs buy tofranil online . It was not implied that treatment can be improved by measurement of drug concentration of pregabalin.

tofranil mg 2017-02-25

Our results verify inhibition of Pgp as a potential mechanism of action for verapamil during buy tofranil online treatment resistant depression. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of novel treatment strategies in depression.

tofranil dosage forms 2015-09-25

A total of 312 patients with PD Voltaren Oral Medication were included in the analysis.

tofranil 100 mg 2015-02-11

Antidepressant drugs modify in different ways the activity of neurons, by increasing monoamines levels and by modulating ion channels. Sodium channels are molecular targets for antiepileptic drugs, which can also be mood stabilizers (i.e. lamotrigine, topiramate, phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid). After a short overview on the sodium channels and the interaction with antidepressants and mood stabilizers, a comparison of the activity of both antidepressants and mood stabilizers with the addition of veratrine (sodium channel opener) on the forced swimming test (FST) in mice was presented. By comparing the antidepressant-like effect of the antidepressants (paroxetine, imipramine and desipramine) with the one of anticonvulsants (lamotrigine, phenytoin and topiramate) on the FST, it seems that the mechanism of action of anticonvulsants and antidepressants are different, because veratrine limits the activity of anticonvulsants but not of antidepressants. The anticonvulsants topiramate and phenytoin reduce the immobility time in the FST in a range of time similar to those induced by antidepressants, suggesting that the FST could be sensitive to both drugs. The magnitude of antidepressant-like effect of the lamotrigine (acting through an increase in Cymbalta Generic Reviews monoaminergic neurotransmission and a blockade of sodium channels) in the FST is greater than what is obtained after administration of the other drugs, suggesting that this dual activity could be used as an augmentation strategy. Authors conclude that the development of new drugs acting on sodium channels could potentially be of interest as antidepressants, but also as augmentation strategies for classical antidepressants.

tofranil dosage 2016-07-08

The effect of phenobarbitone on the steady state volume of distribution ( Coumadin Drug Interactions Vdss) and the total body blood clearance (CLtot, b) of imipramine and the serum concentration of its metabolite, desipramine was examined. The serum disappearance of imipramine after an 8 mg kg-1 i.v. dose followed a biexponential decline in both control and phenobarbitone-treated rats while the concentration of its metabolite increased in the phenobarbitone-treated rats then rapidly declined compared with that in control rats. Since CLtot,b was nearly equal to the hepatic blood flow (QH), QH may be the rate-determining step of imipramine elimination. In the control rats the Vdss of imipramine was large at 19.9 litre kg-1. In the phenobarbitone-treated rats the pharmacokinetic parameters, biological half-life (t1/2) and Vdss significantly decreased to approximately 23-40% while CLtot,b increased to 126% of those in the control rats, although the latter difference was not statistically significant. The blood-to-plasma concentration ratios (RB) of imipramine and desipramine decreased in the phenobarbitone-treated rats. The urinary excretion ratios of imipramine and desipramine, to the dose of imipramine over 8 h, were less than 1.5% in both groups. These ratios were not significantly changed in the phenobarbitone-treated rats. It was concluded that the significant decrease in t1/2 of the phenobarbitone-treated rats may not be attributed to the changes in CLtot,b and/or in the urinary excretion, but mainly to the decrease in Vdss.

tofranil with alcohol 2015-04-26

The Cardiac Arrhythmia Pilot Study (CAPS) was a randomized, double-blind trial of antiarrhythmic drugs (encainide, flecainide, moricizine, imipramine and placebo) in 502 patients with at least 10 ventricular premature complexes/hour, 6 to 60 days after acute myocardial infarction. CAPS tested the feasibility of performing a larger study to determine if suppression of ventricular ectopic activity after acute myocardial infarction could improve survival. Patients in CAPS were followed for 1 year. All death or cardiac arrest events were evaluated by at least 2 investigators using a classification scheme that characterized the underlying mechanism as cardiac arrhythmic, cardiac nonarrhythmic or noncardiac. Forty-five patients (9%) died or had cardiac arrest during the 1-year follow-up, 29 (64%) within 1 hour from the onset of symptoms and 16 greater than Claritin Children Dosage 1 hour from the onset of symptoms. Twenty-three deaths (51%) were classified as arrhythmic, 19 (42%) as nonarrhythmic and 3 (7%) as noncardiac. Acute myocardial ischemia or infarction was associated with the death/cardiac arrest event in 16 patients (36%), 8 in the arrhythmic death group. Discrepancies in classification among reviewers were particularly common in patients with long-standing symptoms of congestive heart failure, in whom it was frequently difficult to identify the precise moment of the onset of symptoms in the death/cardiac arrest event. Using only the temporal relation of symptoms to categorize deaths or cardiac arrests, the mechanism of 12 (27%) of the 45 patients was in disagreement with the classification based on the Events Committee review. Classification of death as sudden or nonsudden is not equivalent to the classification of death as arrhythmic or nonarrhythmic.

tofranil low dose 2016-09-18

Several animal models are currently utilised in the investigation of major depressive disorder; however, each is validated by its response to antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Few animal models consider the notion of antidepressant treatment resistance. Chronic daily administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticosterone can alter behavioural responses to antidepressants, effectively blocking antidepressant efficacy. Herein, we demonstrate that ACTH-(1-24) (100μg/day; 14 days) blocks the immobility-reducing 'antidepressant' effects of a single dose of imipramine (10mg/kg) in the forced swim test. This finding was accompanied by altered monoamine tissue levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) 1h after exposure to the acute stress of the forced swim test. PFC tissue from ACTH pre-treated animals contained significantly higher serotonin, noradrenaline Medication Zoloft and adrenaline concentrations relative to saline pre-treated controls. Conversely, dopamine levels were significantly decreased. Altered plasma corticosterone responses to ACTH injections were observed over the treatment course. Measures were taken on treatment days 1, 4, 8, 11, 14 and 15. ACTH administration initially enhanced plasma corticosterone levels, however, these normalised to levels consistent with control animals by day 14. No differences in corticosterone levels were observed across the treatment time course in saline-treated animals. Taken together these results indicate that pre-treatment with ACTH (100μg/day; 14 days) blocks the antidepressant effects of imipramine (10mg/kg), significantly alters key PFC monoamine responses to stress and downregulates glucocorticoid responses. These results suggest that chronic ACTH treatment is a promising paradigm for elucidation of mechanisms mediating antidepressant treatment resistance.

tofranil 150 mg 2015-05-15

The efficacy of tianeptine in the treatment of major depressive episodes was assessed in three double-blind placebo-controlled studies. In a first double-blind study comparing tianeptine (37.5 mg/day) with placebo, 126 patients with Major Depression or a Depressed Bipolar Disorder were treated for 42 days; 60% of these patients fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria for melancholia. Final MADRS scores showed the efficacy of tianeptine in comparison with placebo (P = 0.007). This result was confirmed by the time course of the Severity of Illness (CGI item 1) (P = 0.015). 58% of the patients responded to tianeptine versus 41% to placebo. In another study comparing tianeptine (37.5 mg/day), imipramine (150 mg/day), and placebo, 186 depressed patients were treated for 42 days. The patients had either Major Depression or Depressed Bipolar Disorder, without melancholia (DSM III-R). In the intention-to-treat analysis, final MADRS scores showed a better efficacy of tianeptine and imipramine than placebo (P = 0.012 and P = 0.034, respectively). There were 56% responders on tianeptine vs 48% on imipramine, and 32% on placebo. A third study involved 244 patients with Major Depression with or without melancholia (DSM-III-R). They were treated in a parallel group design with tianeptine (37.5 mg/day) or tianeptine (75 mg/day) or placebo for 42 days. The high rate of placebo-responders (> 65%) did not allow any conclusion about the efficacy of tianeptine. Altogether Diflucan One Cost , tianeptine was shown to be an effective and safe medication for the treatment of major depressive episodes. However, a controlled study in endogenous depression would be useful to determine the position of tianeptine among the other antidepressants in this indication.

tofranil 5 mg 2016-07-19

Angelica archangelica Linn. is widely used in Zovirax Tablet food and liquor preparations and also in Kashmiri folk medicine to reduce anxiety. We evaluated the anxiolytic effect of successive extracts of A. archangelica linn. (SAE) on rats tested in the elevated T-maze test (an animal model of generalized anxiety) at doses that exhibit antidepressant-like activity in humans.

tofranil 50 mg 2015-09-12

Rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway were examined for cocaine-induced rotational behavior 1 month after receiving transplants of fetal substantia nigra grafted over the dopamine (DA)-deafferented striatum. The ipsiversive rotational behavior induced by cocaine was significantly reduced as compared with the pre-transplantation baseline, and occurred only during the first 2 min after injection. In all rats with transplants, cocaine induced strong 4 Diflucan Pills contraversive rotation starting after 2-3 min and lasting for 10-15 min. This contraversive rotation, which was never observed in response to cocaine in rats prior to transplantation or in rats with sham transplants, was reproduced using nomifensine and GBR 12909, but not imipramine and fluoxetine. These results indicate that the transplant-reinnervated striatum responds selectively and in an exaggerated fashion to the actions of DA uptake inhibitors.

tofranil generic 2016-02-20

The effect of imipramine treatment on the aggressive display and predatory dominance was tested in 16 male cats yoked in 8 pairs. Imipramine applied chronically during 3 weeks in submissive cats produced a tendency to compete with the dominant cat in Amoxil Maximum Dose a predatory situation and an accompanying enhancement of aggressive display. Some of the treated cats gained the predatory dominance over previously dominant partners. The level of aggressiveness was not, however, directly related with the process of gaining dominance. Therefore it was concluded that imipramine enhances some mechanisms involved in dominance, not limited to aggression.