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Trandate (Labetalol)

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Trandate is used to treat severe high blood pressure (hypertension). Lowering high blood pressure Trandate helps prevent strokes, heart attacks and kidney problems.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Sectral, Tenormin, Coreg, Lopressor, Toprol, Corgard, Inderal


Also known as:  Labetalol.


Trandate is a drug which is used for treating high blood pressure. It is related to carvedilol (Coreg). Nerves that are part of the adrenergic nervous system travel to most arteries where they release an adrenergic chemical norepinephrine. The norepinephrine attaches to receptors on the muscles of the arteries and causes the muscles to contract, narrowing the arteries, and increasing the blood pressure. Trandate blocks receptors of the adrenergic nervous system. When Trandate attaches to and blocks the receptors, the arterial muscles relax, and the arteries expand, resulting in a fall in blood pressure.

Generic name of Trandate is Labetalol.

Trandate is also known as Labetalol, Normodyne.

Brand name of Trandate is Trandate.


Take this medicine with food or milk.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Trandate suddenly.


If you overdose Trandate and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Trandate if you are allergic to Trandate components.

Be careful with Trandate if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Trandate if you have a history of liver problems, heart problems, pheochromocytoma, diabetes, any allergies.

Do not take Trandate if you have a lung disease (asthma, COPD), advanced heart block, severe bradycardia, severe heart failure, post-CABG surgery.

This drug may make you dizzy for up to 3 hours after it is given. You should remain lying down during this time period in order to prevent falls.

You should get up slowly when rising from a seated or lying position.

Be very careful if you are driving machine.

Avoid alcohol.

Diabetic patients should be careful with Trandate.

Do not stop taking Trandate suddenly.

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The diagnosis at the time of treatment included radiotherapy-induced internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients (11/23, 48%), cavernous internal carotid artery giant aneurysm (6/23, 26%) and ophthalmic segment internal carotid artery giant aneurysm (4/23, 17%). Nineteen (79%) patients passed the balloon test occlusion. In the cohort of patients that passed balloon test occlusion and underwent main trunk occlusion, there were no (0/20, 0%) permanent and no (0, 0%) transient neurological complications related to a subsequent parent artery occlusion.

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Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity was measured in the oviduct of normal rats in diestrous and in rats ovariectomized (OVX) seven days before. OVX induced a significant decrease of GAD activity in the Fallopian tube. This effect was completely reversed by coadministration of estradiol benzoate + progesterone (E + P). Simultaneous injection of atropine, but not of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine or labetalol, completely prevented the activation of GAD induced by ovarian sterois. Moreover, prostigmin significantly potentiated the action of E + P on GAD activity in the rat oviduct. These data clearly suggest the participation of acetylcholine in the mechanisms whereby ovarian steroids regulate GAD activity in the rat Fallopian tube.

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The effect of a series of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on cholesterol biosynthesis was studied in vitro in normal human skin fibroblasts. Some, but not all, of the drugs studied stimulated the incorporation of [2-14C]-acetate into cell sterols in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was unrelated to beta-blocking potency, selectivity for beta 1 or beta 2 adrenoceptors and partial agonistic activity of the drugs, thus ruling out a beta-receptor mediated mechanism. A positive, statistically significant correlation was found, however, between the drug lipophilicity and the stimulation of sterol biosynthesis. Propranolol, the most effective agent in increasing [2-14C]-acetate incorporation into cellular sterols, also enhanced the conversion of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMGCoA) into mevalonic acid, suggesting an interference of lipophilic beta-adrenoceptor antagonists with HMHCoA-reductase, the feed-back regulated rate limiting step of cholesterol biosynthesis.

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Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) complicates 6-10% of pregnancies. It is defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >90 mmHg. It is classified as mild (SBP 140-149 and DBP 90-99 mmHg), moderate (SBP 150-159 and DBP 100-109 mmHg) and severe (SBP ≥ 160 and DBP ≥ 110 mmHg). PIH refers to one of four conditions: a) pre-existing hypertension, b) gestational hypertension and preeclampsia (PE), c) pre-existing hypertension plus superimposed gestational hypertension with proteinuria and d) unclassifiable hypertension. PIH is a major cause of maternal, fetal and newborn morbidity and mortality. Women with PIH are at a greater risk of abruptio placentae, cerebrovascular events, organ failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Fetuses of these mothers are at greater risk of intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity and intrauterine death. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over a period of 24 h seems to have a role in predicting deterioration from gestational hypertension to PE. Antiplatelet drugs have moderate benefits when used for prevention of PE. Treatment of PIH depends on blood pressure levels, gestational age, presence of symptoms and associated risk factors. Non-drug management is recommended when SBP ranges between 140-149 mmHg or DBP between 90-99 mmHg. Blood pressure thresholds for drug management in pregnancy vary between different health organizations. According to 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines, antihypertensive treatment is recommended in pregnancy when blood pressure levels are ≥ 150/95 mmHg. Initiation of antihypertensive treatment at values ≥ 140/90 mmHg is recommended in women with a) gestational hypertension, with or without proteinuria, b) pre-existing hypertension with the superimposition of gestational hypertension or c) hypertension with asymptomatic organ damage or symptoms at any time during pregnancy. Methyldopa is the drug of choice in pregnancy. Atenolol and metoprolol appear to be safe and effective in late pregnancy, while labetalol has an efficacy comparable to methyldopa. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II antagonists are contraindicated in pregnancy due to their association with increased risk of fetopathy.

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The effects of a single intravenous bolus of labetalol (0.5 mg/kg) on the cardiovascular, hyperglycaemic and adrenocortical responses to major colonic surgery were studied in five patients. Results were compared with five patients who received the same anaesthetic and had similar operations performed but who did not receive labetalol. It was observed that labetalol reduced the rises in heart rate and rate-pressure product that occur at the time of skin incision but that it did not reduce the rise in mean arterial pressure. The rises in blood glucose and plasma cortisol were significantly less in the labetalol group after 30 minutes of surgery (p less than 0.05).

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[3H]-guanfacine (N-amidino-2-(2,6-dichloro 3[3H] phenyl) acetamide hydrochloride; 24.2 Ci/mmol) has been used as a radioligand in homogenates of rat cerebral cortex. Specific binding of [3H]-guanfacine was linear with respect to tissue concentration (2.5-15 mg/ml), saturable and not markedly affected in the pH range 6.5-8.0. Analysis of the saturation of [3H]-guanfacine binding using an iterative least squares fitting procedure gave best fits to a single site model. [3H]-guanfacine binding was of high affinity (Kd 1.77 +/- 0.24 nM; n = 8) to a population of non interacting sites (nH 0.99 +/- 0.02; n = 8) with a density of 118.2 +/- 8.4 fmol/mg protein (n = 8). Highest levels of binding were achieved in cerebral cortex followed by thalamus greater than hypothalamus greater than medulla/pons greater than spinal cord greater than striatum greater than cerebellum. Binding was stereoselective with regard to the (-)-isomer of noradrenaline and the order of potency for displacement of [3H]-guanfacine by agonists was naphazoline greater than clonidine greater than (-)-adrenaline greater than (-)-alpha methylnoradrenaline greater than (-)-noradrenaline greater than (+/-)-alpha-methylnoradrenaline greater than (+)-noradrenaline greater than methoxamine greater than (+)-adrenaline greater than phenylephrine and by antagonists was phentolamine greater than dihydroergocryptine greater than piperoxane greater than yohimbine greater than prazosin greater than labetalol greater than indoramin suggested binding to alpha 2-adrenoceptors. The monovalent cations Na+ and K+ and also guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) produced concentration-dependent inhibition whereas the divalent cations Ca2+, Mg2+, and Mn2+ first enhanced, then inhibited [3H]-guanfacine binding. Na+ (150 mM) or GTP (100 microM) produced marked reductions and Mn2+ (5 mM) marked increases in the number of receptor sites labelled by [3H]-guanfacine. 9 It is concluded that [3H]-guanfacine preferentially labels a high affinity state of the alpha 2- adrenoceptor in homogenates of rat cerebral cortex.

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Labetalol, an alpha- and beta- adrenoceptor antagonist was investigated for its central nervous system effects in rats and mice. A marked reduction in the spontaneous motor activity with no concomittant muscle weakness was produced. The drug caused closure of eyelids in rats. Labetalol caused hypothermia and prolonged the pentobarbitone-induced hyposis. In animals trained for conditioned avoidance response the drug blocked the SCR in all the animals and CAR in a few number of animals. The drug did not protect the animals against electroshock convulsions. From the results it appears that labetalol is a central nervous system depressant.

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The excitotoxins, kainic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA), were injected bilaterally into the paraventricular hypothalamus of rats. Kainic acid elicited pressor responses, tachycardia and sudden cardiac death in Nembutal-anesthetized rats. Injections of NMDA caused cardiovascular stimulation on cessation of halothane anesthesia. Intramyocardial hemorrhage, hyaline myocardial necrosis and predominantly mononuclear inflammation were evident 48 h following NMDA. Labetalol pretreatment did not protect from nor did i.v. NMDA cause these changes. Intrahypothalamic excitotoxin injections cause deleterious myocardial changes.

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In so-called essential hypertension, at least three different subsets of pathophysiologic findings can be identified: mild hypertension in nonobese juvenile subjects characterized by elevated cardiac output, normal peripheral resistance, increased sympathetic activity as measured by norepinephrine and plasma renin activity; hypertension in the elderly with a low cardiac output, often with left ventricular hypertrophy, elevated total peripheral resistance, nephrosclerosis contracted intravascular volume, and low plasma renin activity; and obese hypertensive patients with a high cardiac output, expanded intravascular volume, and a normal total peripheral resistance. Although there is often an overlap among these three entities, antihypertensive treatment can easily be adapted accordingly. A beta-adrenoreceptor blocker is the step-one drug to be used in mild hypertension with an elevated cardiac output. The drug's negative inotropic and chronotropic properties will bring the elevated cardiac output and heart rate back to normal. In the elderly hypertensive patient, an arteriolar and venous vasodilator, such as an antiadrenergic agent, slow channel calcium blocker, or a converting enzyme inhibitor, will lower total peripheral resistance and unburden the left ventricle. In the obese patient and also in most black subjects, the first-step antihypertensive agent remains a thiazide diuretic. Labetalol, an agent with both beta- and alpha-adrenoreceptor properties, shows promise for the treatment of hypertension in the young as well as in the older patient. It seems to be the agent of choice in patients with established essential hypertension who are concomitantly suffering from coronary artery disease.

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Sixty patients with chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps were divided into three groups: Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) group (A), diltiazem+SNP group (B), labetalol+SNP group (C). We started induced hypotension with beginning of functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI) and ejection fraction (EF) were recorded during induced hypotension. Sugar and lactic acid in arterial and venous blood were also assayed. Then we calculate rate-pressure product (RPP), arteriovenous difference in blood glucose [D(v-a) BG], blood glucose extraction rate (BGER), arteriovenous difference in lactate [L(v-a)] and lactate produce rate (LPR).

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Three patients are described who experienced headache from hypertension: one had acute headache from acute hypertension, one had daily, morning headaches from chronic hypertension, and one had acute headache with generalized tonic-clonic seizure from hypertensive encephalopathy. The presumed pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the three hypertensive headache conditions are reviewed.

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Fifteen patients with severe or malignant resistant arterial hypertension were treated by simultaneous administration of captopril and labetalol. Seven patients (group A) were given captopril alone and 8 patients (group B) labetalol alone without noticeable results. However, when the two drugs were given jointly a significant fall in mean arterial pressure from 165 +/- 19.8 (+/- 1 S.D.) to 102.4 +/- 15.1 mmHg (p less than 0.001) in group A patients and from 162.7 +/- 20 to 117 +/- 21.4 mmHg (p less than 0.05) in group B patients was observed. There were no significant changes in heart rate, a few side-effects were recorded. The captopril-labetalol combination may be considered as a useful alternative treatment of resistant arterial hypertension.

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The beta- and alpha-adrenoceptor blocking activity, the specificity of its beta-adrenoceptor blocking action, partial agonistic and membrane-stabilizing properties, as well as antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, and anti-ischemic effects were studied. Proxodolol was shown to be superior to labetalol in its beta-adrenoceptor blocking action and similar to it in its alpha-adrenoceptor blocking agent. The drug has no a partial agonistic activity and produces a moderate membrane-stabilizing action. Proxodolol proved to be effective in treating experimental hypertension and arrhythmias. It exhibits anti-ischemic activity.

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Complete final steady state selective antagonism by beta-blockers of different conventional classes versus acetylcholine effects on isolated frog rectus abdominis, guinea pig ileum and spontaneous beating auricles had been measured. The results do not support common beta-blockers groupings, nor binary conventional subdivision of "nicotinic" and "muscarinic" cholinergic receptors, confirming our previous findings.

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Alpha-adrenergic antagonists were the first substances to receive serious consideration as antihypertensive agents. However, their therapeutic potential in the management of essential hypertension was not realized until prazosin, a highly selective alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist, became available. A number of analogs of prazosin have now been synthesized, as have several structurally distinct alpha 1-adrenergic antagonists. Preliminary investigations suggest that these agents may also be clinically useful antihypertensive drugs. The alpha 1 receptor of arteriolar smooth muscle is the predominant adrenergic subtype determining sympathetically mediated vascular tone. Therefore, its selective blockade by an agent such as prazosin is a relevant approach to the major pathophysiologic defect in hypertension: an elevation of peripheral vascular resistance. Because prazosin has little selectivity for the alpha 2 receptor, the negative feedback control of norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerve terminals remains intact. This unique action of prazosin may explain why it effectively lowers arterial pressure without markedly increasing cardiac output, heart rate and plasma renin activity. An additional factor in the favorable therapeutic effects of this agent is its ability to induce a balanced reduction in both arteriolar and venous tone, with little change or even improvement in renal hemodynamics. The antihypertensive effects of prazosin, when used as a single agent, may be modest. However, it may be useful as initial as well as adjunctive therapy for the management of hypertension because of its high toxic to therapeutic ratio, coupled with a sustained reduction in arterial blood pressure, a low incidence of side effects, and a potentially favorable metabolic profile.

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The development of more sensitive and selective analytical techniques has greatly improved scientists' ability to study the PK, PD, and metabolism of drugs in pregnancy. This chapter has chronicled the evolution of the study of drug disposition in pregnant sheep in the laboratory. With the advent of more sensitive and selective analytical techniques, researchers have been able to progress significantly beyond measuring the extent of fetal drug exposure by a single-point determination. A number of interesting and significant advances have been made using highly selective and specific analytical techniques (i.e., gas chromatography-electron-capture detection, gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphoros-specific detection, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy). Researchers have characterized drug kinetics in multiple fluids from the pregnant sheep (amniotic fluid, fetal and maternal plasma and urine, and fetal tracheal fluid) and have demonstrated extensive accumulation of several basic drugs in the fluid produced by the fetal lung. With the simultaneous administration of labeled and unlabeled drug to the ewe and fetus researchers have, for the first time, examined the assumption that the clearance parameters determined from the model developed by Szeto and coworkers (1982) are not affected by the time interval between maternal and fetal infusions given on separate days. Also using SIL drug, researchers have characterized fetal hepatic first-pass drug clearance in a chronic preparation. With the establishment of a stereoselective assay for labetalol, scientists have begun to examine the fetal exposure to the individual enantiomers of racemic drugs in pregnancy. The availability of newer analytical tools and techniques (i.e., HPLC interfaced with tandem mass spectrometers) will further expand the study of drugs in pregnancy and challenge the creativity of future investigators in this field.

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Twenty hypertensive patients entered a crossover, placebo-controlled study of prazosin and labetalol that was designed to compare treatment effects on blood pressure control and lipid parameters. Both drugs significantly reduced sitting and standing systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p less than or equal to 0.01). No significant differences were noted between treatment groups in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, a trend toward an increase in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was seen during therapy with labetalol, whereas in contrast, no such effect was seen during treatment with prazosin.

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Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells oxidize low-density lipoproteins (LDL), assessed as increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance formation and oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release). Endothelial cell-generated oxidized also enhances the adhesiveness of endothelial cells to monocytes. Carvedilol, a new vasodilating beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, inhibits the oxidation of LDL by endothelial cells and reduces oxidized LDL-induced LDH release from endothelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 2.56 and 1.38 microM, respectively. Moreover, carvedilol inhibits oxidized LDL-induced adhesion of monocytes to the endothelial cells in a similar concentration-dependent manner. Under the same conditions, propranolol, atenolol, pindolol and labetalol had only weak or no consistent effects on both LDL oxidation by endothelial cells and adhesion of monocytes to the endothelial cells. Monoclonal antibodies against human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) or E-selectin (ELAM-1) partially blocked oxidized LDL-stimulated adhesion of endothelial cells to monocytes. The inhibitory effects of carvedilol on LDL oxidation and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells may protect blood vessels from atherosclerotic processes associated with oxidized LDL-induced injuries.

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1 The hypotensive action of labetalol was evaluated during 24 h by continuous intra-arterial ambulatory monitoring in 14 patients. The dose used ranged from 300-1800 mg daily. 2 The drug caused a significant reduction of systolic BP in 19 and diastolic BP in 20 of the 24 h of monitoring. Heart rate was also reduced but less markedly than BP. 3 The rapid early morning increase in BP was also effectively controlled. 4 The mild pre-waking increase in BP was not significantly reduced. 5 Labetalol treatment reduced the variation in systolic BP from the lowest observed quarter-hourly mean as compared with pre- treatment values. 6 The quarter hourly mean values were consistently smooth and revealed no sudden variations which might have resulted from postural hypotension.

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The effects of dilevalol on vascular adrenoceptors were investigated using helical strips of cat arteries. In coronary arteries partially pre-contracted with prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), the concentration-relaxant response curves for isoproterenol were shifted to the right by dilevalol with a potency similar to that of propranolol, although dilevalol itself did not relax the arteries. Contractions induced by norepinephrine of mesenteric arteries were attenuated by low concentrations of prazosin but were not influenced by yohimbine of up to 10(-8) M. In contrast, the norepinephrine-induced contractions of middle cerebral arteries were attenuated by yohimbine but only slightly attenuated by prazosin. With mesenteric arteries, treatment with dilevalol (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) attenuated the contractions induced by norepinephrine and phenylephrine in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, contractions induced by norepinephrine and clonidine in middle cerebral arteries were not attenuated by treatment with dilevalol of up to 10(-6) M. Treatment with low concentrations of dilevalol (10(-8) to 10(-7) M) potentiated the contractile response to the electrical stimulation of adrenergic nerves in mesenteric arteries while high concentrations (3 x 10(-7) to 10(-5) M) attenuated it. The potentiation was reversed to attenuation by pretreatment with propranolol. Treatment with isoproterenol (10(-10) to 10(-9) M) also potentiated the contractile response to the electrical stimulation in the arteries. Isoproterenol did not cause any relaxation of mesenteric arteries precontracted with PGF2 alpha. Attenuations by clonidine of the response to the electrical stimulation in the arteries did not significantly differ in control arteries and those treated with a high concentration (10(-6) M) of dilevalol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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15 hypertensive patients presenting with diastolic blood pressures (DBP) of 130 mmHg or higher were hospitalised and treated with oral labetolol. They all received a diuretic and 400 mg of labetolol orally initially and subsequent doses at 2, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours depending on the level of diastolic pressure. The mean of systolic/diastolic blood pressure dropped from 241/130 mmHg to 191/125 mmHg 30 minutes after the initial dose, and to 157/103 mmHg after six hours. Of the patients 73% had DBP of 115 mmHg or less six hours after the initial dose. Oral labetolol is recommended in hypertensive emergencies when sodium nitroprusside, diazoxide or trimethaphan cannot be used as an alternative to other agents.

trandate oral dose

Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most common chronic medical conditions, affecting nearly 72 million people in the United States. A systolic blood pressure (BP) > 180 mm Hg or a diastolic BP > 120 mm Hg is considered a "hypertensive crisis." Hypertensive crises are categorized as either hypertensive emergencies or urgencies depending on the degree of BP elevation and presence of end-organ damage. The primary goal of intervention in a hypertensive crisis is to safely reduce BP. Immediate reduction in BP is required only in patients with acute end-organ damage (ie, hypertensive emergency). This requires treatment with a titratable shortacting intravenous (IV) antihypertensive agent, while severe HTN with no acute end-organ damage (ie, hypertensive urgency) is usually treated with oral antihypertensive agents. Patients with hypertensive emergencies are best treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) with titratable IV hypotensive agents. Rapid-acting IV antihypertensive agents are available, including clevidipine, labetalol, esmolol, fenoldopam, nicardipine, and sodium nitroprusside. Newer agents such as clevidipine have considerable advantages compared with other available agents in the management of hypertensive crises. Sodium nitroprusside is an extremely toxic drug, and its use in the treatment of hypertensive emergencies should be avoided. Likewise, nifedipine, nitroglycerin, and hydralazine should not to be considered first-line therapies in the management of hypertensive crises because these agents are associated with significant toxicities and/or side effects.

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Postpartum preeclampsia/eclampsia is the presence of hypertension and proteinuria, with or without seizures, occurring up to 4 weeks after delivery. We describe the Emergency Department (ED) presentation, signs and symptoms, results of diagnostic studies, management, and outcome in a cohort of patients diagnosed with postpartum preeclampsia/eclampsia at our institutions, and use this to review the diagnosis and management of postpartum preeclampsia/eclampsia.

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A patient in chronic renal failure, who was receiving large doses of the combined alpha- and beta-blocking agent, labetalol, was selected for renal transplantation. A low concentration of halothane was used for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia, but severe myocardial depression occurred which proved unresponsive to atropine or isoprenaline, although it responded to a dopamine infusion. Synergism has already been reported between labetalol and high concentrations of halothane, but this case suggests that, in patients with previous myocardial damage, much lower concentrations of this inhalational agent may prove fatal.

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trandate 100mg dose 2016-05-19

1. Using conventional microelectrode techniques for the intracellular recordings of the membrane potential, the effects of labetalol were studied on cardiac Purkinje, atrial and ventricular muscle fibres of the dog. 2. Labetalol (1-10 microM) reduced, in a concentration-dependent manner, the action potential amplitude (APA) and the maximum rate of rise of the action potential (Vmax) in Purkinje fibres. 3. The buy trandate online action potential duration (APD) was decreased in Purkinje fibres but significantly increased in ventricular fibres after small concentrations of labetalol (1-3 microM). The atrial fibres were not very sensitive to labetalol. 4. Depolarization of the cardiac Purkinje fibres by increasing the external potassium concentration (8-12 mM), potentiated the labetalol effects on APA and Vmax but blocked its effects on the APD. 5. The effects of labetalol on Vmax of Purkinje fibres were dependent on the frequency of stimulation. 6. The ratio of the effective refractory period to the APD was increased both in normally polarized and depolarized Purkinje fibres after treatment with labetalol (10 microM). 7. Labetalol (10 microM) shifted the membrane responsiveness curve of Purkinje fibres by about 10 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction. 8. The slow response obtained in K-depolarized, Ba-treated Purkinje fibres was not significantly affected by labetalol (10-100 microM). 9. It is suggested that labetalol can exert Class I and Class III antiarrhythmic actions in cardiac muscle of the dog in vitro.

trandate oral dose 2017-03-24

The antihypertensive effect of the peripheral vasodilator diazoxide in 13 patients and the alpha-beta adrenoceptor blocking agent labetalol in 12 patients were compared in 46 severe acute hypertensive episodes during haemodialysis. A single dose of diazoxide 150 mg or labetalol 50 mg was effective in 74% and 70% of the hypertensive episodes, respectively. In the diazoxide-treated patients blood pressure fell from 192 +/- 3/115 +/- 4 mmHg to 141 +/- 8/85 +/- 4 mmHg 2 h after injection. In 7 hypertensive episodes a second dose of diazoxide 150 mg was given 60 +/- 11 min after the first injection. The reduction in mean arterial blood pressure at the end of haemodialysis was 21.5 +/- 2.6% in patients treated with a single dose and 24.8 +/- 3.5% buy trandate online in patients treated with the repeated dose of diazoxide. In the labetalol-treated patients blood pressure in 17 instances fell from 198 +/- 5/104 +/- 4 mmHg to 143 +/- 7/89 +/- 5 mmHg 180 min following injection of labetalol 50 mg. In 6 episodes a second dose labetalol 50 mg was given 41 +/- 9 min after the first injection. At the end of haemodialysis the decrease in mean arterial blood pressure was 17.2% in patients treated with a single dose and 18 +/- 5% in patients given the repeated dose of labetalol. The reduction in blood pressure caused by diazoxide was slightly greater than that due to labetalol. At the end of haemodialysis the percentage reduction in mean arterial blood pressure was 23 +/- 2% in the diazoxide-treated group and 17 +/- 2% after labetalol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

trandate drug 2017-10-20

An otherwise healthy 31-year-old gravida 2 para 1 woman with a spontaneous dichorionic, diamniotic twin pregnancy presented with hypertension, nephrotic syndrome and renal insufficiency at 19 weeks' gestation. Fetal ultrasound revealed severe intrauterine growth restriction of one fetus and measurement of serum anti-angiogenic and angiogenic factors were consistent with a profound anti-angiogenic state. After one fetus died and the placenta became increasingly buy trandate online echogenic, the patient improved clinically, and weekly ultrasound assessments of the intact co-twin from 22 weeks onwards demonstrated symmetrical fetal growth along the 10th centile. Repeat serum angiogenic factors at 24 weeks' gestation revealed considerable improvement of the anti-angiogenic state and paralleled resolution of the clinical syndrome.

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The stability of drugs commonly prescribed for use in oral liquid dosage forms but not commercially available as such was studied. Labetalol hydrochloride 40 mg/mL, metoprolol tartrate 10 mg/mL, verapamil hydrochloride 50 mg/mL, and spironolactone 5 mg/mL plus hydrochlorothiazide 5 mg/ mL were prepared in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Sweet and Ora-Plus (Paddock Laboratories), a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Sweet SF and Ora-Plus (Paddock Laboratories), and cherry syrup and placed in polyethylene terephthalate bottles. The sources of the drugs were tablets. Six bottles were prepared per liquid; three were stored at 5 degrees buy trandate online C and three at 25 degrees C, all in the dark. A sample was removed from each bottle initially and at intervals up to 60 days and analyzed for drug concentration by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. At least 91% of the initial drug concentration was retained in all the oral liquids for up to 60 days. There were no substantial changes in the appearance or odor of the liquids, or in the pH. Labetalol hydrochloride 40 mg/mL, metoprolol tartrate 10 mg/mL, verapamil hydrochloride 50 mg/mL, plus hydrochlorothiazide 5 mg/ mL in three oral liquids compounded extemporaneously from sweetened vehicles and tablets were stable for up to 60 days when stored without light at 5 and 25 degrees C.

trandate maximum dose 2016-11-18

178 community pharmacies across British Columbia agreed to participate in this feasibility study, of which 63 pharmacists completed the study training. Of these, only 21 pharmacists recruited at least 1 patient and 1 pharmacist met the success criteria. Overall, 51 patients were enrolled, 2 withdrew from the study and 7 buy trandate online patients were diagnosed with HDP. Antihypertensive medications used by patients included methyldopa and labetalol.

trandate safe dose 2017-09-01

1. alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocking activity of bevantolol(NC-1400) was tested in the rat thoracic aorta, comparing with that of labetalol. 2. In alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocking activity, bevantolol buy trandate online (NC-1400) was 1/20th as potent as labetalol. 3. The pA2 values of bevantolol(NC-1400) and labetalol estimated in the rat thoracic aorta were compared with those in the rabbit thoracic aorta, which were reported by Takayanagi et al. [Takayanagi I., Kizawa Y., Iwasaki S. and Nakagoshi A. (1987) Gen. Pharmac. 18, 87-89]. 4. The pA2 values of bevantolol(NC-1400) and labetalol were approximately 1 order of magnitude higher in rat aorta than in rabbit aorta, suggesting that both the drugs distinguish between subtypes of alpha 1-adrenoceptors.

trandate 100mg dosage 2017-04-19

Correction of high grade carotid artery stenosis may result in cerebral hyperperfusion because of defective vascular autoregulation. Thus, transcranial Doppler was used to determine mean arterial flow velocity (Vmean) of the middle cerebral artery in 95 patients before and after carotid endarterectomy. Attention was buy trandate online focused on postoperative episodes of ipsilateral headache and hypertension. Symptoms of cerebral hyperperfusion lasted for 3 (1.5-5) h (median and range) in nine patients, and for 12 (8-14) days in nine other patients. Of these later patients, two developed seizures on the 5th and 6th postoperative day, respectively. The mean pressure difference across the stenosis was 31 (0-63) mmHg in the symptomatic group (n = 18) as opposed to only 10 (0-60) mmHg in the asymptomatic group (n = 77) (p < 0.01). In the 18 patients with headache after surgery, ipsilateral Vmean increased to 177 (130-332)% of the preoperative value (p < 0.0001), while the contralateral Vmean remained unchanged. After blood pressure was reduced in symptomatic patients with labetalol, ipsilateral Vmean decreased from 92 (69-124) to 56 (32-93) cm s-1 (p < 0.0001) as systemic arterial pressure decreased from 101 (80-128) to 88 (60-103) mmHg, with no change in contralateral Vmean. Normalisation of Vmean via reduction of arterial pressure ended episodes of headache and seizure in symptomatic patients. Thus, in patients who developed post-endarterectomy hyperperfusion, these findings clearly demonstrated that ipsilateral middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity was pressure dependent. This substantiates the hypothesis of defective autoregulation in the ipsilateral hemisphere after carotid endarterectomy, and in turn demonstrates an immediate cessation of symptoms with reduction of arterial pressure even in normotensive patients.

trandate drug class 2017-03-09

After ethical approval, 100 patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were ventilated using a tidal volume of 8 ml/kg, an inspiration:expiration ratio of 1:2.5, and a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cm H(2)O. At 15 min before CO(2) insufflation, the patients were randomly allocated into two groups of 50 patients each. For the normocapnia group, the respiratory rate (RR) was adjusted to maintain arterial CO(2) tension (PaCO(2)) at 35 to 45 buy trandate online mmHg. For the hypocapnia group, the RR was adjusted to maintain PaCO(2) at 30 to 35 mmHg. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane 2% to 2.5% in 40% air oxygen and rocuronium. Hemodynamic variables, PaCO(2), end-tidal CO(2) tension (EtCO(2)), arterial-to-end-tidal CO(2) (Pa-ETCO(2)) gradient, and RR were recorded.

trandate usual dosage 2016-08-24

We identified 3550 published LASA drug pairs. A total of 1834 pairs were retained for the Delphi surveys, and 608 drug pairs were retained for round 3. Final scoring demonstrated that participants were able to identify pairs where the substitutions represented high risk of buy trandate online harm for receiving the delivered drug in error (eg, did not receive methylphenidate/received methadone), high risk of harm for not receiving the intended drug (eg, did not receive furosemide/received fosinopril), and pairs where the potential harm was high from not receiving the intended drug and from erroneously receiving the delivered drug (eg, did not receive albuterol/received labetalol).

trandate medicine 2015-04-29

Sotos' syndrome (synonym: cerebral gigantism) is the association of mental retardation, macrocephaly and prenatal onset of accelerated growth. The rapid skeletal growth may account for a 4% incidence of scoliosis. General anaesthesia using halothane or enflurane in nitrous oxide and oxygen, with opioid supplementation and labetalol to induce moderate hypotension, appeared to be a satisfactory technique for corrective spinal surgery. The potential problems are discussed, with mental retardation and sometimes aggressive behaviour contraindicating a "wake-up buy trandate online " test. Extradural somatosensory evoked potential monitoring is a satisfactory alternative. Hook failures seem more likely than in patients undergoing surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

trandate 20 mg 2017-03-02

A liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC-APCI-MS) is presented for screening for, library-assisted identification (both in scan mode) and quantification (selected-ion mode) of the beta-blockers acebutolol, diacetolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bupranolol, carazolol, carteolol, carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, metoprolol, nadolol, nebivolol, oxprenolol, penbutolol, propranolol, sotalol, talinolol and timolol in blood plasma after mixed-mode (HCX) solid-phase extraction (SPE) and separation by reverse-phase liquid chromatography with gradient elution. The validation data were within the required limits. The assay was successfully applied to buy trandate online authentic plasma samples allowing confirmation of diagnosis of overdose situations as well as monitoring of patients' compliance.

trandate dose 2017-07-10

A highly sensitive method for simultaneous determinations of eleven β-blockers and β-agonists in distilled and waste-waters using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) was developed, optimized and validated. The method was used for trace determinations of acebutolol, atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol, timolol, nadolol, labetalol, oxprenolol, pindolol, alprenolol and terbutaline. Oasis MCX and Clean Screen cartridges were used for solid phase extractions and an alkaline mixture of dichloromethane-propanol was used as mobile phase. Matrix effect was reduced by using methanol as a pre-eluant for removing co-extractives on the SPE cartridges and by applying the internal standard method for quantification. Using Oasis MCX-SPE cartridges, developed method gave average recoveries of 77.20-97.30% for drugs spiked at 150. buy trandate online 00-500.00pg/ml. Intra-day precisions gave RSD of 3.367-12.489% while as inter-day precisions gave RSD of 6.425-19.768%. Detection limits of 0.11-6.74pg/ml and quantification limits of 0.14-22.88pg/ml were obtained. Signal's suppression in the range of 4.50-24.50% was recorded due to the matrix effect. Drugs spiked in wastewater at 500.00pg/ml concentrations level and stored at 4°C for 6 days, showed insignificant degradation. Developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical residues in effluents wastewaters. Five β-blockers and one β-agonists were detected in Al-Ain and Abu Dhabi wastewaters at average concentrations of 3.44-19.05pg/ml. Atenolol was detected at higher average concentration ranged in 125.60-234.28pg/ml. Results obtained suggest that adopted wastewater treatment processes are not enough to degrade these compounds.

trandate 100 mg 2015-04-05

Induced hypotension was used in a patient with chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis presenting for clipping of an intracranial aneurysm. A mean arterial pressure of 50 mmHg was produced with a combination of sodium nitroprusside and labetalol. The patient sustained Avelox 400mg Dosage no postoperative changes in hepatic function. Previous studies have examined the effects of induced hypotension on the function of the normal liver, but there is relatively little information available on its effects in the presence of liver disease. The lack of an adverse outcome in this patient does not prove the safety of this technique in patients with liver disease; further studies of this patient group are required.

trandate cost 2017-01-17

A case of a 48-year-old male is described with recurrent paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia originating near the region Prandin Drug of the posterior fascicle, as an initial presentation of a primary norepinephrine producing pheochromocytoma, including reversible catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. The ventricular arrhythmia was terminated by procainamide and labetalol. After adrenalectomy no recurrent ventricular arrhythmia was observed.

trandate drug interactions 2016-09-18

Several drugs possess a chiral structure, i.e. they contain one or more stereogenic centres in their molecule. While naturally occurring active principles usually contain a single enantiomer, most chiral drugs produced by chemical synthesis are used in the form of racemic mixtures of two or more diastereoisomers. These stereoisomers (including enantiomers) may interact in different ways with biological structures and, therefore, may exhibit widely different pharmacokinetic properties. In the pharmaceutical industry, partly in response to increasing demands raised by regulatory authorities, these considerations justify the current trend to develop the single enantiomer characterized by the most favourable profile of activity (eutomer). The availability of new chemical and analytical technologies facilitates stereoselective synthetic processes and separation of individual enantiomers from racemic mixtures. Any decision to develop a drug as a single enantiomer, however, should be made only after careful evaluation of the cost-benefit ratio, i.e. when the advantages of the eutomer in terms of efficacy and tolerability outweigh the associated increase in production and development costs with respect to the racemic drug. This article takes into consideration synthetic procedures and pharmacological profiles for a number of chiral drugs in therapeutic use (naproxen, labetalol, and warfarin) or selected for clinical development, such as the beta-blocker dilevalol or the mucokinetic agent 3'-hydroxyfarrerol. These examples demonstrate that the kinetic, pharmacological and toxicological properties of individual enantiomers need to be clearly characterized before any decision can be made concerning the development of a chiral drug. The choice of preferentially developing a single enantiomer should be based on careful consideration of production and development costs and actual therapeutic advantages Cozaar Tabs especially in terms of improved safety.

trandate 400 mg 2017-02-21

Significant decrease (P < .05) in HR, MBP, and RPP in groups A and B in comparison with group C and in group A in comparison with group B. Just before intubation, there was a significant decrease (P < .05) in HR, MBP, and RPP in groups A and B in comparison with group C. In group C, there was a significant increase in HR, MBP, and RPP at all points when compared with the baseline. In Atarax Dose Pediatrica group A, the mean propofol induction dose (mg) was statistically significantly low as compared with that in groups B and C.

trandate dosing 2017-05-31

A survey, with French and English versions (and covering diagnosis, evaluation, and management of pregnancy hypertension), was mailed to all members of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) (N = 1757, including obstetricians, family doctors practicing obstetrics, and midwives). Additionally, internists Ventolin 90 Mg [i.e., all nephrologists (N = 191) and a random sample of 25% of general internists (N = 450)] registered with the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada were sampled. The survey was distributed in two mailings and one reminder card. Data were entered into Microsoft Access, and Graph Pad Prism used to summarize responses [N (%)]. Differences in practice between specialties were examined, with a Bonferroni correction used to calculate a significant p value based on the number of comparisons and alpha of 0.05.

trandate overdose 2017-02-14

Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), an analogue of noradrenaline, is used to explore the functional integrity of sympathetic nerve endings in the human heart. Various drugs inhibit noradrenaline transport Depakote Pills systems and may block the uptake of MIBG. As in vivo studies of the effect of these drugs on myocardial [123I]MIBG uptake are often difficult to perform, we used an in vitro human blood platelet model for this purpose. A platelet preparation from healthy volunteers was incubated with [125I]MIBG alone or different concentrations of drugs currently used in cardiology. Labetalol and propranolol inhibited [125I]MIBG uptake, whereas all other drugs tested (other beta-blockers, calcium inhibitors, digoxin and amiodarone) had no effect even at doses exceeding 50 microM. The labetalol dose inhibiting 50% of [125I]MIBG uptake was lower than the plasma concentration of this drug in treated patients, whereas the propranolol dose was higher. This in vitro study of the effect of drugs on MIBG uptake by human blood platelets is predictive of their in vivo effect on myocardial uptake of [123I]MIBG in treated patients, provided that plasma concentration is taken into account.

trandate drug classification 2015-02-15

The results suggest that in multiparas, intravenous hydralazine is possibly associated Propecia Or Generic with more fetal distress when compared to primiparas.

trandate iv dosage 2015-12-23

1 Labetalol, a Azulfidine Medication hypotensive agent combining alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonist properties, was used to treat severe hypertensive disease complicating pregnancy. 2 Effective reduction in BP was achieved in all but 3 of the 25 patients treated. Careful monitoring of feto-placental function was undertaken to ensure the maintenance of fetal well-being. Maternal and fetal side-effects were minimal and it was not necessary to discontinue the drug in any patient. 3 Labetalol was estimated in the cord blood of the fetus at delivery as well as in the breast milk of mothers on day 3 post partum. There were no adverse effects of the drug on the infants and significant hypotension did not occur. 4 The reults suggest that labetalol has a direct action on fetal lung maturation and this, together with its effective hypotensive effect, contributes to the low perinatal mortality (3.5%) observed. 5 Oculotoxicity due to the labetalol was not observed in the infants delivered. 6 It is concluded that the efficient hypotensive action of labetalol, together with apparent freedom from maternal and fetal side- effects, and consequent improved perinatal mortality, suggest that it is a suitable drug for use in pregnancy complicated by hypertension.

trandate reviews 2016-06-04

To assess the effects of acute pressor and depressor blood Propecia I Mg pressure (BP) manipulation on 2-week death and dependency following acute stroke and investigate the safety and efficacy of such treatments.

trandate max dose 2015-03-23

The case underscores the necessity of a meticulous approach to hypertension management and the pivotal role of diligent multidisciplinary collaboration to achieve a safe outcome.

trandate 300 mg 2015-11-04

Severe preeclampsia is a major contributor to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. This review was performed to assess the fetal and maternal benefits of allowing women presenting with severe preeclampsia between 24 and 32-34 weeks of amenorrhea to continue their pregnancy following antihypertensive treatment. After ultrasound scanning to assess growth and biophysical state of the fetus, patients without deteriorating maternal conditions, were managed with volume expansion, antihypertensive drugs (as hydralazine, labetalol, nifedipine), anticonvulsants and prophylactic steroids to promote fetal pulmonary maturity. Previous studies have indicated that this conservative management is also possible with the HELLP syndrome, without an increase in maternal morbidity.

trandate generic name 2015-12-10

The study population comprised 134 women presenting with hypertension at a UK hospital. Treatment with oral labetalol was administered when BP was > 150/100 mmHg or > 140/90 mmHg with systemic disease. BP and hemodynamic parameters were recorded at presentation and at 1 h and 24 h after commencement of treatment. Labetalol doses were titrated to maintain BP around 135/85 mmHg. Women with unresponsive BP, despite labetalol dose maximization (2400 mg/day), received additional vasodilatory therapy with nifedipine. Binary logistic and longitudinal (mixed-model) data analyses were performed to create prediction models anticipating the likelihood of hypertensive women needing vasodilatory therapy. The prediction models were created from data at presentation and at 1 h and 24 h after treatment, to assess the value of central hemodynamics relative to the predictive power of BP, heart rate and demographic variables at these intervals.

trandate generic 2015-11-06

In order to obtain derivatives with simultaneous alpha- and beta-adrenergic blocking activity, compounds having the phenoxypropanolaminic structure of beta-adrenergic blockers have been synthesised, as well as 1,2,4-oxadiazole moiety, which could imitate the imidazolinic nucleus characteristic of drugs acting on alpha-adrenergic receptors. The synthesised compounds have been submitted to alpha and beta receptor binding assays. Some derivatives showed an alpha-adrenoceptor binding activity higher than labetalol and similar to prazosin, but with a poor beta-adrenoceptor binding activity.

trandate pediatric dose 2016-12-03

The hemodynamic disturbances in essential hypertension depend on the age of the subjects and the severity of the hypertensive state. In a 20-year follow-up study, we demonstrated a shift in the hemodynamic characteristics from a high output/normal resistance pattern in the early phase toward a low-flow/high-resistance pattern in the later period. The arteriovenous oxygen difference increased, particularly during exercise, and the oxygen reserve in venous blood decreased. Treatment with conventional drugs (beta-blockers and/or diuretics) for 20 years with satisfactory control of diastolic blood pressure did not prevent a marked increase in total peripheral resistance and a reduction in stroke index and cardiac index. In recent years, beta-blockers with vasodilating activity have been introduced in the treatment of hypertension (labetalol, acebutolol, dilevalol, celiprolol, and carvedilol). The hemodynamic effects of these compounds clearly differ from the changes induced during acute and chronic conventional beta-blocking treatment. In contrast to the usual beta-blockers, these drugs reduce total peripheral resistance acutely, and reduce cardiac index considerably less; arteriovenous oxygen difference is more normal. In an acute study of carvedilol in 18 patients with essential hypertension, total peripheral resistance was reduced 8% at rest (supine) and 6% during exercise. Exercise heart rate was reduced 12%, but due to an increase in stroke index, the reduction in cardiac index was only 6%-considerably less than what is seen during treatment with conventional beta-blockers.

trandate pill 2017-08-14

Labetalol at all dosages significantly reduced the mean arterial pressure and the systemic vascular resistance at 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg. External iliac blood flow was not consistently significantly reduced; however, uterine blood flow was significantly reduced after the 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg labetalol dosages (p < 0.05). Although uterine vascular resistance tended to increase after the 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg doses, statistical significance was not achieved.

trandate and alcohol 2016-08-10

A case of acute dissecting aneurysm of the aorta in a seriously hypertensive woman was treated for 9 days with continuously infused labetalol hydrochloride, initially at 1 mg/min and later at 125 mg/min. Continuous, invasive monitoring of arterial pressure showed values to be within present safety limits, even though the treatment was first supplemented with furosemide and then with clonidine. The use of labetalol in hypertension emergencies offers and alternative to the employment of dangerous drugs that have a transient effect, or are even unadvisable for treatments lasting longer than two days.

trandate 200mg tablets 2017-04-24

In summary, hypertensive blacks have an increased overall benefit of therapy in mild hypertension. They also exhibit an accentuated (supersensitive) response to monotherapy with diuretics or calcium channel blockers. They have a blunted response to most beta blocker monotherapy in usual doses, with the possible exceptions of labetalol and pindolol. They also have a blunted response to converting enzyme inhibitor monotherapy, but both beta blocker and converting enzyme responses are equal when diuretic is added.

trandate 200 mg 2015-05-22

Peyronie's disease (induratio penis plastica) has been observed in a 58-year-old man 8 months after initiation of treatment with the new combined alpha- and beta-blocking agent, labetalol. During the last 2 months before onset of symptoms he had received 2400 mg labetalol daily. He showed no other signs of abnormal fibrous tissue production and the ANF test was negative. Cessation of the drug revealed no improvement. Peyronie's disease has also been observed in relation to treatment with propranolol, practolol and metoprolol and might be due to an impaired balance between alpha- and beta-receptors in connective tissue, but there may also be an immunological basis for the fibrosis. A possible coincidence is stressed, as the ages of the reported cases are within the range where this disease most often develops.