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As far as research regarding any disease is concerned, each and every aspect poses a challenge. One such entity that poses a challenge in our arena is oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) as no effective treatment is available for this progressively disabling condition with high malignant potential. Hence the present study was undertaken with the aim to determine the use of pentoxifylline (PTX) on the clinical and histopathologic course of OSF.
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This study examines the hypothesis that intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury contributes to renal dysfunction by altered renal eicosanoid release. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 60 min of sham or superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion with 60 min of reperfusion. The I/R groups received either allopurinol, pentoxifylline, 1-benzylimidazole, or carrier before SMA occlusion. In vivo renal artery blood flow was measured by Transonic flow probes, the kidneys were then perfused in vitro for 30 min, and the effluent was analyzed for eicosanoid release and renal function. Intestinal I/R caused a twofold increase in the ratio of renal release of thromboxane B2 to prostaglandin E2 and to 6-ketoprostaglandin F1alpha compared with the sham level, with a corresponding 25% decrease in renal sodium and inulin clearance and renal blood flow. Pentoxifylline or allopurinol pretreatment restored renal eicosanoid release and renal sodium and inulin clearance to the sham level but did not alter renal blood flow. Pretreatment with 1-benzylimidazole restored renal function, eicosanoid release, and renal blood flow to sham levels. These data suggest that severe intestinal I/R contributes to the downregulation of renal function. The decrease in renal function is due in part to toxic oxygen metabolites, which occur in the milieu of altered renal eicosanoid release, reflecting a decrease in vasodilator and an increase in vasoconstrictor eicosanoids.
The literature demonstrates inconsistent results amongst investigators who have used pentoxifylline in an effort to enhance skin flap survival. This study employed a standardized skin flap model in the rat and a standard intraperitoneal dose of pentoxifylline (10 mg/kg) delivered in four different temporal regimens. Fluorescein staining and length of flap survival were measured. The only regimen that demonstrated increased flap survival over saline controls included administration of the drug immediately upon raising the flap and every 12 hours for the next 7 days. Three different regimens that included preoperative administration of the drug failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect on skin flap survival. Slight improvement in flap survival was seen in animals receiving fluorescein. These results suggest an inconsistent pentoxifylline effect even within a single controlled study.
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A simple analytical method for determination of optically active amphetamine and methamphetamine using (+)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-trifluoromethylphenylacetyl chloride (MTPA-Cl) was developed. The method was found to be useful for determining the absolute configuration and optical purity. The results obtained using the capillary GC method agreed well with those of the NMR method. The absolute configuration for illegally used methamphetamine was the (S) form and its optical purity was greater than 99% enantiomeric excess. Racemic amphetamine was found to be resolved into optically active (S)-methamphetamine by barley roots.
Selection for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of viable frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa obtained from patients suffering from non-obstructive azoospermia is very often long, difficult and sometimes impossible. The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of pentoxifylline (PF) could facilitate this selection in stimulating sperm motility. From January 2000 to December 2004, 108 ICSI cycles with non-obstructive azoospermia were performed. From these 108 cycles, in 64 cycles where no motile spermatozoa were observed or when the time search per spermatozoa was above 20 min, 1.5 mmol/l PF was used for 10 min, whereas the 44 other ICSI cycles were performed using spontaneously motile spermatozoa (control group). In all cases, PF either initiated the motility when no motile spermatozoa were observed, or stimulated the motility, reducing dramatically the time search per spermatozoa. The total fertilization rate was 54.2% versus 66.7% in the control group (P < 0.02). Twenty-nine pregnancies out of the 64 PF cycles (45.3% per cycle) occurred, including 20 deliveries of 23 healthy children and eight ongoing pregnancies, whereas 12 pregnancies were obtained in the control group (27.3% per cycle), including nine deliveries of 13 healthy children. In conclusion, in 100% of cycles pentoxifylline allows the selection of viable frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa with the same outcome after ICSI as that observed with fresh ejaculated spermatozoa.
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Randomised controlled trials comparing surgical interventions, systemic or topical medicines or other interventions to manage the symptoms of oral submucous fibrosis.
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To test the hypothesis that the inflammatory response stimulated by intrauterine devices (IUDs) plays a role in the antifertility action of IUDs. We treated rats with pentoxifylline (Trental; Hoechst-Roussel Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Somerville, NJ) and evaluated its effect on the anti-implantation action of IUDs. The number of embryos in treated compared with untreated rats was determined.
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Endotoxin induces alterations in the neonatal red cell membrane that result in decreased deformability and an increase in whole blood viscosity. These rheologic alterations are detrimental to flow in the microcirculation. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methyl xanthine derivation, increases red cell deformability presumably through its effect on intracellular adenosine 5-triphosphate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of PTX on endotoxin-induced alterations in the neonatal red blood cell. Anticoagulated whole blood specimens obtained from the cord of 12 neonates at birth were used to study the effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS) with and without PTX (50 micrograms/mL) on red cell deformability and whole blood viscosity. LPS resulted in a significant (P less than .001) decrease in deformability compared with controls. PTX reversed these endotoxin-induced alterations (P less than .01), normalizing deformability to control values (P = NS). LPS resulted in a significant increase (P less than .005) in blood viscosity that was reversed by PTX (P = NS). Pentoxifylline reverses the detrimental rheologic effect of endotoxin in the neonate. This activity may be helpful in sustaining normal microcirculation in neonatal sepsis.
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MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of PTX on p53-defective human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep3b and clonogenic assay employed to observe its effects on the radiosensitivity of the cells quantified by calculating the sensitive enhancement ratio (SER). Flow cytometry was performed to observe the cell cycle changes of Hep3b cells in response to X-ray irradiation and the interventional effect of PTX.
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PTX-vitamin E boosted by clodronate is an effective treatment of mandibular ORN that induces mucosal and bone healing in a median period of 6 months.
Tinnitus is one of the 20 most common reasons why patients aged 45-64 years consult a general practitioner in Germany. In the literature a correlation is claimed between disease patterns of the cervical spinal column and nuclei of cerebral nerves. In the case report presented here, a 30-year-old female patient with acute tinnitus after acute hearing loss was cured from her tinnitus after a single manual medical treatment at C0/C1, which supports the correlation claimed. If cervical spine diseases should therefore regularly be included in the differential diagnoses of acute tinnitus is a matter of further research.
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Blood viscosity was measured using a cone-plate viscometer and whole blood filterability was determined by a filtration method. Cardiac index and portal venous inflow were measured using radioactive microspheres. Measurements were performed 30 min after double-blind administration of placebo or pentoxifylline (25 mg/kg, intravenously).
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Using NRK52E cells, DDAH-1 mRNA and protein were determined after exposure to albumin with losartan and/or pentoxifylline. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), PKC activity, and NOX-4 mRNA were also measured. In addition, the effect of losartan and/or pentoxifylline on renal expression of DDAH-1 and serum ADMA were evaluated in a rat model of proteinuric nephropathy.
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To determine the effects of in vitro incubation with pentoxifylline on sperm motion characteristics of spermatozoa from normozoospermic, normokinetic specimens.
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There is accumulating evidence that inflammatory cytokines have an important role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Plasma concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) are high in heart failure and have been correlated with the severity of symptoms. Pentoxifylline suppresses the production of TNF-alpha. This study aimed to assess the effects of pentoxifylline on left-ventricular function and functional class in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.
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Complete healing of the reference ulcer occurred in 23 of the 38 patients treated with oxpentifylline and in 12 of the 42 patients treated with a placebo. Life table analysis showed that the proportion of ulcers healed at six months was 64% in the group treated with oxpentifylline compared with 34% in the group treated with a placebo (log rank test chi 2 = 4.78, p = 0.03), which was significant (odds ratio = 1.81, 95% confidence interval 1.20 to 2.71).
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Non-enzymatic glycation of proteins with reducing sugars and subsequent transition metal-catalyzed oxidation leads to the formation of protein-bound "advanced glycation endproducts" (AGEs). They accumulate on long-lived protein deposits inducing senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease. AGE-modified proteins are able to activate microglia and astroglia and can cause chronic inflammation. The aim of the present study was to confirm the stimulatory effect of different AGEs on TNF-alpha release in human monocytes. Furthermore, the effects of four xanthine derivatives on AGE-induced TNF-alpha release were investigated. We show that chicken egg albumin-AGEs prepared with glucose and chicken egg albumin-AGEs prepared with methylglyoxal dose-dependently induce TNF-alpha release. The xanthine derivatives pentoxyphylline and propentophylline attenuate AGE-induced TNF-alpha release in a dose-dependent manner. Theophylline at low concentrations slightly stimulated TNF-alpha release whereas caffeine had no effect. The inhibition of the AGE-induced TNF-alpha release by pentoxyphylline and propentophylline provides interesting pharmacological strategies for diseases with local neuroinflammation such as Alzheimer's disease.
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Experience of treatment of disorders of peripheral blood circulation in 120 patients with diabetes mellitus was summarized. Conservative treatment, conducted in 85 patients, included insulinization, preparations of sulfanilurea and glibenclamids, antibacterial therapy (beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, metronidazole) during 7-10 days, acidum acetylsalicylicum, trental, solcoseryl, vitamins. Amputation of lower extremity was done 35 patients, in 15 of them--on the hip level. Good result was noted in the treatment of diabetic foot with pronounced trophic changes in the third stage of ischemia when fraxiparine was applied locally.
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Remnant lipoprotein concentrations are significantly elevated in patients with intermittent claudication and can be reduced by cilostazol. Reduction of remnant lipoproteins may provide a long-term benefit to the patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease.
Necrobiosis lipoidica often fails to respond adequately to therapy with topical and intralesional corticosteroids, or to systemic medications like niacinamide and pentoxifylline (Trental). On the basis of unpublished work which showed a predominance of T helper cells in lesions of necrobiosis lipoidica, and recalling the case of a woman whose necrobiosis lipoidica improved after she was started on cyclosporine for a renal transplant, systemic cyclosporine was successfully used in the cases of two young women who had insulin-dependent diabetes and were disfigured by severe, ulcerating necrobiosis lipoidica on the anterior lower legs. Response to treatment was monitored with photographs. In both cases the ulcers resolved, and remained in remission after cyclosporine was stopped.
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Maternal infection is a cause of adverse developmental outcomes. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced embryonic resorption, intra-uterine fetal death (IUFD) and preterm labor have been well characterized. In the present study, we investigated the effects of maternal LPS exposure on intra-uterine fetal growth and skeletal development. All pregnant mice except controls received an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (75 microg/kg) on gestational days (GD) 15-17. The number of live fetuses, dead fetuses and resorption sites was counted on GD 18. Live fetuses in each litter were weighed. Crown-rump and tail lengths were examined and skeletal development was evaluated. As expected, perinatal LPS exposure resulted in 63.2% fetal death. LPS significantly lowered fetal weight, reduced crown-rump and tail lengths, and retarded skeletal ossification in caudal vertebrae, anterior and posterior phalanges, and supraoccipital bone. Additional experiment showed that a single dose of LPS (75 microg/kg, i.p.) on GD 15 increased the expression of TNF-alpha mRNA in maternal liver and placenta and TNF-alpha concentration in maternal serum and amniotic fluid. Furthermore, pentoxifylline, an inhibitor of TNF-alpha synthesis, significantly inhibited TNF-alpha production, reduced fetal mortality, and reversed LPS-induced fetal intra-uterine growth restriction and skeletal development retardation. Taken together, these results suggest that TNF-alpha is, at least in part, involved in LPS-induced intra-uterine fetal death, intra-uterine growth restriction and skeletal development retardation.
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The effects of dexamethasone, pentoxifylline, and MAb against endotoxin (HA-1A) on the release of various proinflammatory mediators, i.e. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), IL-1 beta, IL-8, and prostaglandin 2, by human leukocytes during stimulation with Haemophilus influenzae type B were studied. The results show that only monocytes, and thus neither lymphocytes nor granulocytes, release these mediators in response to H. influenzae. Dexamethasone inhibited the release of all of these mediators, whereas pentoxifylline only inhibited the release of TNF. HA-1A only reduced the release of IL-8 from adherent monocytes significantly and had no significant effect on the release of TNF, IL-1 beta, and prostaglandin E2. In whole blood, no significant effect of HA-1A on the release of TNF, IL-1 beta, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 was found. In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that dexamethasone is the most potent inhibitor of the release of proinflammatory mediators by monocytes induced by H. influenzae type B.
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Although this study was performed in the animal model by well-designed manner, clinical study will be needed to confirm the analgesic effect of pentoxifylline.
The present study is the first prospective randomized controlled trial of the effect of pentoxifylline on future fertility in infertile women with asymptomatic minimal or mild endometriosis. After completion of a basic infertility workup and laparoscopy, patients were entered into the study and randomly allocated to receive either a 12 month course of oral pentoxifylline (800 mg/day) (n = 30) or an oral placebo (n = 30). Those patients with other infertility factors were included in the study only if the factors were correctable and ultimately determined to be non-contributory. Life-table analysis was used to compare pregnancy rates between the two groups over a 12 month period that started immediately after laparoscopy. The 12 month actuarial overall pregnancy rates were 31 and 18.5% in the pentoxifylline and placebo groups respectively. However, this difference was not statistically significant by the chi(2)-test. Similarly, the Cox regression method showed no differences between the hazard of pregnancy in the two groups studied (odds ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-1.67). Therefore, there is no evidence from this study that immunomodulation with pentoxifylline aids fertility in those women with minimal or mild endometriosis. Further studies including more infertile patients with endometriosis are desirable in order to confirm our results.
Systemic administration of PTX significantly accelerated the wound healing process in NG rats.