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Trileptal (Oxcarbazepine)

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Trileptal is used for treating certain types of seizures in patients with epilepsy. It may be used alone or in combination with other medicines. It may also be used for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Oxcarbazepine.


Trileptal is used for treating certain types of seizures in patients with epilepsy. It may be used alone or in combination with other medicines. It may also be used for other conditions.

Trileptal is an anticonvulsant. It works by slowing abnormal nerve impulses in the brain.

Trileptal is also known as Oxcarbazepine, Trexapin.


Trileptal may be taken with or without food.

It is important to take all doses on time to keep the level of medicine in your blood constant. Take doses at evenly spaced intervals. Do not skip doses.

Taking Trileptal at the same times each day will help you to remember to take it.

Continue to take Trileptal even if you feel well.

Do not miss any doses. Trileptal works best when there is a constant level of Trileptal in your body.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Trileptal suddenly. If Trileptal is stopped, this should be done gradually. The risk of seizures may be increased if Trileptal is suddenly stopped.


If you overdose Trileptal and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Store in the original container. Use within 7 weeks of first opening the bottle. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Trileptal are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Trileptal if you are allergic to its components.

Do not take Trileptal if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

If you have a history of seizures, you may suddenly lose consciousness while you are taking Trileptal. Avoid activities where loss of consciousness could be dangerous to you or others (driving, swimming, climbing, and operating heavy machinery).

Hormonal birth control pills may not work as well while you are using Trileptal. To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control (condoms).

Trileptal may cause you to become sunburned more easily. Avoid the sun, sunlamps, or tanning booths until you know how you react to Trileptal. Use a sunscreen or wear protective clothing if you must be outside for more than a short time.

Trileptal must be gradually decreased when discontinued. Talk to your health care provider about the proper way to stop Trileptal.

Notify your health care provider if seizure control worsens.

Lab tests, including sodium blood levels, may be performed while you use Trileptal. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Trileptal should not be used in children younger than 2 years old. Safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Avoid alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Trileptal taking suddenly.

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Antiepileptic drugs and epilepsy are often associated with sexual disorder in women such as hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders and ovarian cysts. In children, until puberty, a hormone imbalance may influence many aspects of development, e.g. growth and sexual maturation. The aromatase complex is the enzyme system that converts androgens to estrogens and consequently an inhibition may induce a hormone imbalance. Twelve antiepileptic drugs, used in mono or polytherapy for the treatment of children, were tested for their ability to inhibit aromatase (CYP19) with commercially available microsomes from transfected insect cells using dibenzylfluorescein as substrate. The drugs inhibiting CYP19 were: lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, tiagabine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, ethosuximide, and valproate. The inhibitory effects (50% reduction in activity compared to enzymes without inhibitor present) were in the range of 1.4-49.7 mM. Carbamazepine, gabapentin, primidone, topiramate and vigabatrin showed no inhibition. Additionally, binary drug combinations were tested to investigate if combination therapy could potentiate the aromatase inhibition. Additive inhibition was seen in combination experiments with valproate and phenobarbital. When adding carbamazepine to a range of valproate concentrations no additional inhibition was seen. The data for some of the AEDs show that side effects on steroid synthesis in humans due to inhibition of aromatase should be considered.

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Oxcarbazepine did not suppress spreading depression either after a single dose or after daily treatment for 5 weeks. As previously shown, valproate suppressed spreading depression susceptibility after chronic dosing, while a single dose was ineffective.

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To explore effectiveness, tolerability and changes in quality of life in patients with epilepsy converting to topiramate (TPM) from carbamazepine (CBZ) or oxcarbazepine (OXC) due to insufficient effectiveness and/or tolerability.

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Clinical data were collected from ICCA patients and their family members. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples with standard protocol. Mutations of PRRT2 were screened using PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing.

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From an analysis of the studies published to date, the criteria used to select the antiepileptic drugs that can be associated for the treatment of a particular situation or patient need to be optimised because combination therapy offers a low level of evidence. It is also acknowledged that it is advisable to begin treatment with monotherapy (although 30% of patients do not respond and in such cases combination therapy is usually employed), but the possibility of starting with bitherapy in epilepsies that are usually resistant to treatment has also been suggested.

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To study the possible cross-reactivity of trans-10, 11-dihydroxy-10, 11-dihydro-carbamazepine (DHCBZ), the diol metabolite of carbamazepine (CBZ), of oxcarbazepine (OCZ), and of its metabolites in the CBZ-enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT), this technique was used to analyze sera spiked with CBZ, OCZ, DHCBZ, and 10-hydroxy-10, 11-dihydro-carbamazepine (HCBZ). OCZ and, to a lesser extent, HCBZ cross-reacted with the CBZ-EMIT reagents. However, from a clinical point of view, only HCBZ could significantly interfere in the quantitation of CBZ levels in the plasma of patients taking both CBZ and OCZ. There was no interference by DHCBZ.

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We have studied the effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of oxcarbazepine, its active monohydroxy-metabolite (which predominates in plasma), their glucuronides, and the inactive dihydroxy-metabolite after a single oral dose of oxcarbazepine (300 mg). Six subjects with normal renal function and 20 patients with various degrees of renal impairment participated. The mean areas under the plasma concentration-time curves of oxcarbazepine and its monohydroxy-metabolite were 2-2.5-times higher in patients with severe renal impairment (CLCR < 10 ml.min-1) than in healthy subjects. The apparent elimination half-life of the monohydroxy-metabolite [19 (SD 3) h] in these patients was about twice that in healthy subjects. The effect of renal impairment on the plasma concentrations of glucuronides was more marked. The renal clearances of the unconjugated monohydroxy-metabolite and its glucuronides (the main compounds recovered in urine) correlated well with creatinine clearance. The maximum target dose in patients with slight renal impairment (CLCR > 30 ml.min-1) should not be changed. In patients with moderate renal impairment (CLCR 10-30 ml.min-1) it should be reduced by 50%. In patients with severe renal impairment (CLCR < 10 ml.min-1), the glucuronides of oxcarbazepine and its monohydroxy-metabolite are likely to accumulate during repeated administration, and dosage adjustment of oxcarbazepine in these patients could not be proposed from this single administration study.

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There is evidence that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are teratogenic and are associated with an increased risk of congenital malformation. The majority of women with epilepsy continue taking AEDs throughout pregnancy; therefore it is important that comprehensive information on the potential risks associated with AED treatment is available.

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During this period, six patients were identified. All had an aggravation of their epilepsy in both clinical and EEG activities. OXC had been used because of an incorrect diagnosis of focal epilepsy or generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) of undetermined origin (no syndromic classification of the epilepsy). Before OXC, only one patient had experienced a worsening of seizures with an inadequate drug (CBZ). Four had juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, one had juvenile absence epilepsy, and one had IGE that could not be classified into a precise syndrome. OXC (dosage range, 300-1,200 mg/day) was used in monotherapy in all of them except for one patient. Aggravation consisted of a clear aggravation of myoclonic jerks (five cases) or de novo myoclonic jerks (one case). Three patients had exacerbation of absence seizures. One patient had worsened dramatically and had absence status, and one had de novo absences after OXC treatment. The effects of OXC on GTCSs were less dramatic, with no worsening in frequency in three and a slight increase in three.

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In uteri, apoptosis in stroma, mitochondrial swelling, and cristolysis were observed in the VPA group, and OXC led to negative effects on epithelial cell and intracellular edema. In ovaries, both drugs increased apoptosis and intracytoplasmic edema. Organelle structure disruption was also observed in the OXC group. More conspicuous degenerative modifications were determined in the VPA + OXC group. In uteri, the number of TUNEL-positive luminal epithelial cells was 7.20 +/- 1.32 in controls, and significantly increased to 29.60 +/- 1.58, 34.20 +/- 2.53, and 54.80 +/- 2.04 in VPA, OXC, and VPA + OXC groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The highest number of TUNEL-positive glandular epithelium cells was observed in the VPA + OXC group; however, the number of TUNEL-positive stroma cells was highest in the VPA group. The highest number of eosinophils in stroma was in the VPA group.

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We present a case of a woman who used topiramate (100 mg) and oxcarbazepine (300 mg) continuously during pregnancy. Multiple fetal anomalies including limp defects of the lower extremities, pericardiac fluid collection, cardiomegaly, cleft lip and palate, absent right kidney, and dysplastic left kidney were found by ultrasonography. Labor was induced and anomalies were confirmed by autopsy. The malformation rate after exposure to oxcarbazepine in utero as a monotherapy was calculated to be 2.4%, which is compatible with the malformation rate seen in the general population. Topiramate is teratogenic in mice, rats, and rabbits, but there are very few reports about its teratogenicity in humans.

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Epilepsy is recognized as the commonest serious neurological disorder in the world. Women with epilepsy (WWE) experience several gender-related physical and social problems. They constitute high obstetric risk because of reduced fertility, risk of seizures during pregnancy and complications of pregnancy. Hormonal and other factors can alter the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AED) during pregnancy and puerperium. Antenatal exposure to AEDs, particularly at higher dosage and in polytherapy, increases the risk of fetal malformation. Recent reports raise the possibility of selective developmental language deficits and neurocognitive deficits with antenatal exposure to AEDs. There are concerns regarding the effect of traces of AEDs that pass to the infant during breast-feeding. The pre conception management is the cornerstone for epilepsy care in WWE. A careful reappraisal of each case should ascertain the diagnosis, the need for continued AED therapy, selection of appropriate AEDs, optimization of the dosage and prescription of folic acid. During pregnancy, the fetal status needs to be monitored with estimation of serum a-feto-protein and ultrasound screening for malformations. The dosage of AEDs can be adjusted according to clinical requirement and blood levels of AEDs. Several institutions recommend oral vitamin K toward the end of pregnancy when enzyme-inducing AEDs are prescribed because the latter may potentially predispose the new born to hemorrhagic disease, but recent reports indicate that such a risk is practically negligible. WWE who are using enzyme-inducing AEDs (phenobarbitone, primidone, phenytoin, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine) need to know that these AEDs may lead to failure of oral contraception.

trileptal drug class

All studies evaluating any aspect of management of agitation/aggression, emphasizing those associated with dementia or developmental disability.

trileptal patient reviews

We examined response to oxcarbazepine prescribed for irritability/agitation symptoms in a retrospective case series of 30 patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The average patient was 12.0 years old (range 5-21) and taking two other psychotropic medications (range 0-4). Fourteen patients (47 %) had a clinical global impression of improvement score of 'much improved' during treatment. Ten patients (33 %) showed an improvement on their clinical global impression of severity score. Seven patients (23 %) had a clinically significant adverse event or side effect leading to oxcarbazepine discontinuation. Without a placebo group, it is not possible to evaluate whether oxcarbazepine provides benefit for irritability/agitation symptoms in ASD. The high rate of adverse events suggests its use should be accompanied by caution.

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Continuing experience with oxcarbazepine has shown that the drug tends to be less sedative than carbamazepine and at least as potent as an anticonvulsant but much more likely to cause hyponatraemia. The behaviour of the clearance of oxcarbazepine over a period of 3 months raises the possibility that the drug may not be as active an inducer of drug metabolism as is carbamazepine.

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A total of 1,878,189 AED users was found in the database, with 16,200 of them also used thyroxine. The adjusted sequence ratio of thyroxine use after each AED was 1.75 (99% confidence interval, 1.58-1.94) for phenytoin, 1.34 (1.20-1.49) for valproate, 1.25 (1.15-1.36) for phenobarbital, 1.21 (1.08-1.34) for carbamazepine, and 1.22 (1.03-1.46) for oxcarbazepine. The risk of hypothyroidism from phenytoin use within a shorter time frame was similar that associated with amiodarone use. No association was shown in most of the new generation AEDs.

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Since 2010, the Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of four new anti-epilepsy drugs (AEDs) for the treatment of epilepsy in the USA: clobazam (Onfi), ezogabine (Potiga), perampanel (Fycompa), and eslicarbazepine (Aptiom) as well as two extended release formulations, topiramate ER (Qudexy XR and Trokendi) and oxcarbazepine ER (Oxtellar). This not only provides practitioners ample choice to match medication profiles to their patients' preferences and co-morbidities better, but also challenges us to be proficient in the use of all. In addition to providing a brief overview of these new medications and of the current medical management of epilepsy, this review discusses new data regarding vitamin D and AED-related osteoporosis, pregnancy registries, suicidality, marijuana-related compounds for epilepsy, and the recently published guidelines on the approach and management of a first unprovoked seizure in adults and guidelines for when to stop AEDs.

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A total of 212 studies were included in the review. All included systematic reviews were Cochrane reviews and of good quality. The quality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was variable. Assessment was hampered by poor reporting of methods of randomisation, allocation concealment and blinding. Few of the non-randomised studies were of good quality. The main weakness of the economic evaluations was inappropriate use of the cost-minimisation design. The included systematic reviews reported that newer AEDs were effective as adjunctive therapy compared to placebo. For newer versus older drugs, data were available for all three monotherapy AEDs, although data for OXC and TPM were limited. There was limited, poor-quality evidence of a significant improvement in cognitive function with LTG and OXC compared with older AEDs. However, there were no consistent statistically significant differences in other clinical outcomes, including proportion of seizure-free patients. No studies assessed effectiveness of AEDs in people with intellectual disabilities or in pregnant women. There was very little evidence to assess the effectiveness of AEDs in the elderly; no significant differences were found between LTG and carbamazepine monotherapy. Sixty-seven RCTs compared adjunctive therapy with placebo, older AEDs or other newer AEDs. For newer AEDs versus placebo, a trend was observed in favour of newer drugs, and there was evidence of statistically significant differences in proportion of responders favouring newer drugs. However, it was not possible to assess long-term effectiveness. Most trials were conducted in patients with partial seizures. For newer AEDs versus older drugs, there was no evidence to assess the effectiveness of LEV, LTG or OXC, and evidence for other newer drugs was limited to single studies. Trials only included patients with partial seizures and follow-up was relatively short. There was no evidence to assess effectiveness of adjunctive LEV, OXC or TPM versus other newer drugs, and there were no time to event or cognitive data. No studies assessed the effectiveness of adjunctive AEDs in the elderly or pregnant women. There was some evidence from one study (GBP versus LTG) that both drugs have some beneficial effect on behaviour in people with learning disabilities. Eighty RCTs reported the incidence of adverse events. There was no consistent or convincing evidence to draw any conclusions concerning relative safety and tolerability of newer AEDs compared with each other, older AEDs or placebo. The integrated economic analysis for monotherapy for newly diagnosed patients with partial seizures showed that older AEDs were more likely to be cost-effective, although there was considerable uncertainty in these results. The integrated analysis suggested that newer AEDs used as adjunctive therapy for refractory patients with partial seizures were more effective and more costly than continuing with existing treatment alone. Combination therapy, involving new AEDs, may be cost-effective at a threshold willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) greater than 20,000 pounds, depending on patients' previous treatment history. There was, again, considerable uncertainty in these results. There were few data available to determine effectiveness of treatments for patients with generalised seizures. LTG and VPA showed similar health benefits when used as monotherapy. VPA was less costly and was likely to be cost-effective. The analysis indicated that TPM might be cost-effective when used as an adjunctive therapy, with an estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 34,500 pounds compared with continuing current treatment alone.

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Unprovoked seizures are common, affecting approximately 4% of the population by age 80. Only approximately 30% to 40% of patients with a first seizure will have a second unprovoked seizure (ie, epilepsy). Treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) should not be initiated unless the diagnosis of a seizure is firm. Decisions regarding treatment of single unprovoked seizures must balance seizure recurrence risk, the potential impact of a recurrent seizure, the likelihood of adverse effects of treatment, and patient preference. Risk factors for seizure recurrence include a history of remote neurologic insult, epileptiform abnormalities on electroencephalogram, focal structural lesion on neuroimaging, and family history of epilepsy. Adult patients with these risk factors have a recurrence risk of 60% to 70% and usually should be treated with an AED to prevent seizure recurrence. Without risk factors, the recurrence risk is 20% to 30%, and treatment depends on individual risk-to-benefit ratios and patient preference. Treatment of a first unprovoked seizure is often not necessary in childhood, especially if the seizure is part of a benign self-limited syndrome, such as benign Rolandic epilepsy of childhood. Treatment with an AED reduces the risk of seizure recurrence after a single unprovoked seizure. This must be balanced against the risk of adverse effects of AEDs. Treatment of the first seizure does not appear to affect the long-term prognosis of epilepsy. The choice of an AED should be guided by the seizure type and likely epilepsy syndrome diagnosis. Monotherapy is preferable. Standard AED options include phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate, and phenobarbital. The newer AED, including gabapentin, lamotrigine, topiramate, oxcarbazepine, levetiracetam, and zonisamide, have good efficacy, favorable pharmacokinetic profiles, and often fewer adverse effects, supporting their use early in treatment. Not all of the newer AEDs are approved for use as monotherapy. Patients with single seizures should be counseled about seizure first aid and general safety measures, including precautions regarding swimming alone, engaging in high-risk activities, driving, possible seizure precipitation by photic stimuli (in generalized epilepsy), sleep deprivation, and alcohol.

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Our observations support the association of SJS or TEN with phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate or phenobarbital and enlighten the role of lamotrigine and others such as oxcarbazepine or levetiracetam.

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To reassess the evidence for management issues related to the care of women with epilepsy (WWE) during pregnancy, including preconceptional folic acid use, prenatal vitamin K use, risk of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, clinical implications of placental and breast milk transfer of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), risks of breastfeeding, and change in AED levels during pregnancy.

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High correlation between plasma and saliva MHD levels supported the use of saliva as an alternative to plasma for OXC monitoring in children with epilepsy.

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The use of antiepileptic drugs increases the risk of major congenital malformations during pregnancy. Here, we report an infant who had a history of in-utero carbamazepine exposure and who was born with a cardiac malformation. The infant was born at 39 weeks of gestation vaginally to an epileptic mother who had been treated with carbamazepine throughout her pregnancy. He was referred due to cardiac murmur in the second week of his life. The mother had not received folic acid supplementation. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed bicuspid aortic valve, mild aortic stenosis, patent ductus arteriosus, patent foramen ovale and the renal ultrasound revealed mild left hydronephrosis. Follow-up echocardiography performed 14 weeks later showed increased severity of aortic stenosis and percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty was performed. To our knowledge, there is only one case report in the literature mentioning the association of a bicuspid aortic valve and aortic stenosis with oxcarbazepine exposure, which is a structural derivative of carbamazepine. However, there are no reports for association with carbamazepine itself. Bicuspid aorta and aortic stenosis may be among the cardiac malformations that result from the teratogenic effect of carbamazepine.

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Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated, demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease that currently lacks any neuroprotective treatments. Innovative neuroprotective trial designs are required to hasten the translational process of drug development. An ideal target to monitor the efficacy of strategies aimed at treating multiple sclerosis is the visual system, which is the most accessible part of the human central nervous system. A novel C57BL/6 mouse line was generated that expressed transgenes for a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific T cell receptor and a retinal ganglion cell restricted-Thy1 promoter-controlled cyan fluorescent protein. This model develops spontaneous or induced optic neuritis, in the absence of paralytic disease normally associated with most rodent autoimmune models of multiple sclerosis. Demyelination and neurodegeneration could be monitored longitudinally in the living animal using electrophysiology, visual sensitivity, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography all of which are relevant to human trials. This model offers many advantages, from a 3Rs, economic and scientific perspective, over classical experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models that are associated with substantial suffering of animals. Optic neuritis in this model led to inflammatory damage of axons in the optic nerve and subsequent loss of retinal ganglion cells in the retina. This was inhibited by the systemic administration of a sodium channel blocker (oxcarbazepine) or intraocular treatment with siRNA targeting caspase-2. These novel approaches have relevance to the future treatment of neurodegeneration of MS, which has so far evaded treatment.

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Forty female wistar rats (21-24 days old and weighted between 46.4 and 55.3 g) were divided equally into 4 experimental groups, which were applied tap water (control group), 300 mg/kg/day VPA, 100 mg/kg/day OXC, and both VPA and OXC via gavage for 90 days. Ovaries of the rats on proestrous and diesterous phase of estrous cycle according to daily vaginal smear were taken out and placed in a fixation solution. Immunohistochemical and apoptosis (TUNEL) staining protocols were applied.

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Currently, there are insufficient trials of adequate methodological quality on oxcarbazepine in the acute treatment of bipolar disorder to inform us on its efficacy and acceptability. Studies predominantly examine the treatment of mania: there are data from subgroup analysis on mixed affective, hypomania and rapid-cycling states.From the few studies included in this review, oxcarbazepine did not differ in efficacy compared to placebo in children and adolescents. It did not differ from other active agents in adults. It may have a poorer tolerability profile compared to placebo. No data were found on outcomes relevant to patients and clinicians, such as length of hospital admission.  There is a need for adequately powered randomised controlled trials of good methodological quality to inform us of the therapeutic potential of oxcarbazepine across the spectrum of acute episodes in bipolar disorder.

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This multicenter clinical trial was conducted to examine current practice of benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes and especially address the question that in what circumstances 1 antiepileptic drug (AED) should be preferred.Twenty-five medical centers participate in this clinical trial. The general information, clinical information, and treatment status were collected under the guidance of clinicians and then analyzed. Difference between different treatment groups was compared, and usefulness of the most commonly used AEDs was evaluated.A total of 1817 subjects were collected. The average age of the subject was 8.81 years. The average age of onset is 6.85 years (1-14 years). Male-to-female ratio is 1.13:1. A total of 62.9% of the patients are receiving monotherapies, and 10.6% are receiving multidrug therapy. Both age and course of disease of treated rolandic epilepsy (RE) patients are significantly different from those of untreated patients. Bilateral findings on electroencephalography (EEG) are less seen in patients with monotherapy compared with patients with multidrug therapy. Except for 25.4% patients not taking any AEDs, oxcarbazepine (OXC), sodium valproate (VPA), and levetiracetam (LEV) are the most commonly used 3 AEDs. VPA and LEV are commonly used in add-on therapy. OXC and LEV are more effective as monotherapy than VPA.Age of onset of Chinese RE patients is 6.85 years. Bilateral findings on EEG could be a risk factor to require multidrug therapy. In Chinese patients, OXC, VPA, and LEV are most commonly used AEDs as monotherapy and OXC and LEV are more effective than VPA.

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Using a nephelometric method, concentrations of IgA, IgG and IgM were analyzed in the sera of 257 patients with refractory epilepsy, 15 patients with controlled epilepsy and 584 healthy control subjects.

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trileptal 450 mg 2016-07-23

Case reports, retrospective chart reviews, open prospective studies, and double-blind studies reported the efficacy and effectiveness of OXC buy trileptal online in treating BD. The data indicate that OXC has efficacy in treating acute mania and may be a useful add-on in treating acute bipolar depression and in BD prophylaxis. OXC is generally well-tolerated.

trileptal reviews 2015-02-13

For the original version we searched The Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register of Trials (December 2001), The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2001), MEDLINE (1966-2001), EMBASE (1980-2001), Biological Abstracts (1980-2001), PsycLIT (1886-2001 buy trileptal online ) and PSYNDEX (1974-2001). For the most recent update we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register of Trials in July 2012. We also inspected references of all identified studies for further trials and contacted relevant pharmaceutical companies and authors for additional data.

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Amitriptyline produced significant analgesia, but this was not apparent until after the second injection. Baclofen produced significant effects, but the response varied erratically. Mexiletine and NMED-126 (a mixed N- and T-type calcium channel blocker) produced consistent, significant analgesia when tested acutely, but buy trileptal online the pain relief did not persist at 24 hours postinjection. Oxcarbazepine had no effect at any time. Tramadol produced consistent, near-complete analgesia when tested acutely, but the analgesia did not persist to 24 hours postinjection. Topiramate produced significant effects that were first evident after 6-8 days of dosing.

trileptal 200 mg 2015-02-17

The number of follicles decreased and that of corpora lutea increased significantly in OXC, VPA, and OXC+VPA treated groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). The number of TUNEL positive ovarian follicles was 1.40 +/- 0.52 in control group, but it significantly increased to 3.50 +/- 0.53, 3.50 +/- 0.53, and 4.90 +/- 0.88 in VPA, OXC, and VPA+OXC groups (p < 0.0001). The increase in the number of TUNEL positive granulosa cells was also significant for OXC and VPA+OXC groups (p < 0.0001). Immunohistochemical HSCORE decreased for TGF beta 1 and IGF1 staining and increased for P53 staining in all buy trileptal online drug groups compared with control group (p < 0.001). Intensity of P53 labeling increased, while intensity of TGF beta 1, IGF-1, and GDF-9 immunoreactivity decreased significantly in all drug groups compared with control group (p < 0.001).

trileptal yellow pill 2016-12-28

The present data and data from the literature review suggest that there are several potential treatments for chemotherapy-evoked neuropathic pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have little or no efficacy. Opioids have an effect, but probably only with high doses. At least some antidepressants are analgesic in these conditions. Some, but clearly not all, anticonvulsants and sodium channel blockers have efficacy. Tramadol is a particularly promising candidate. Topiramate, acetyl-L-carnitine, carbamazepine, and venlafaxine may have protective or buy trileptal online restorative effects. Clinical trials of these candidates are needed to advance the treatment of chemotherapy-evoked pain.

trileptal 300mg suspension 2017-11-25

This was an open-label, 9-week trial, consisting of a 1-week prospective Screening Phase followed by an 8-week Treatment Phase. Treatment with oxcarbazepine was initiated at 150 mg/day, and the daily dose was doubled on a weekly basis and titrated to tolerability over 4 weeks, up to 1200 mg/day. This was followed by a 4-week fixed-dose Maintenance Phase, during which buy trileptal online patients were maintained on oxcarbazepine at 1200 mg/day or highest tolerated dose. The primary efficacy variable was the change in the weekly pain rating assessed on the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire between the Screening Phase and the Treatment Phase. All analyses were performed on the intent-to-treat population.

trileptal brand name 2017-06-03

For time to treatment failure, lamotrigine was significantly better than carbamazepine (hazard ratio [HR] 0.78 [95% CI 0.63-0.97]), gabapentin (0.65 [0.52-0.80]), and buy trileptal online topiramate (0.64 [0.52-0.79]), and had a non-significant advantage compared with oxcarbazepine (1.15 [0.86-1.54]). For time to 12-month remission carbamazepine was significantly better than gabapentin (0.75 [0.63-0.90]), and estimates suggest a non-significant advantage for carbamazepine against lamotrigine (0.91 [0.77-1.09]), topiramate (0.86 [0.72-1.03]), and oxcarbazepine (0.92 [0.73-1.18]). In a per-protocol analysis, at 2 and 4 years the difference (95% CI) in the proportion achieving a 12-month remission (lamotrigine-carbamazepine) is 0 (-8 to 7) and 5 (-3 to 12), suggesting non-inferiority of lamotrigine compared with carbamazepine.

trileptal max dose 2015-11-08

Lafora disease (LD) is characterized by fragmentary, symmetric, or generalized myoclonus and/or generalized tonic-clonic seizures, visual hallucinations (occipital seizures), and progressive neurologic degeneration including cognitive buy trileptal online and/or behavioral deterioration, dysarthria, and ataxia beginning in previously healthy adolescents between ages 12 and 17 years. The frequency and intractability of seizures increase over time. Status epilepticus is common. Emotional disturbance and confusion are common at or soon after onset of seizures and are followed by dementia. Dysarthria and ataxia appear early, spasticity late. Most affected individuals die within ten years of onset, usually from status epilepticus or from complications related to nervous system degeneration.

trileptal medication bipolar 2016-09-19

Original publications and review articles were evaluated by an epileptologist and buy trileptal online a specialist in andrology.

trileptal generic oxcarbazepine 2017-02-21

Only efficacy and effectiveness outcome measures were evaluated since there is buy trileptal online little scientifically rigorous comprehensive AED adverse effects data.

trileptal 900 mg 2016-08-22

This study investigated the effects of three buy trileptal online AEDs (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and valproic acid) on nicotine and nicotine metabolite levels in 149 smokers with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder who participated in an afternoon blood draw for nicotine, cotinine, and 3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC). The ratio of 3HC to cotinine was calculated as a marker of CYP2A6 metabolic activity. Among the participants, 8 smokers were taking carbamazepine, 6 were taking oxcarbazepine, and 40 were taking valproic acid.

trileptal 40 mg 2015-11-06

To compare the efficacy of oxcarbazepine (OXC) and valproate (VPA) in the treatment of mood and schizoaffective disorders, we retrospectively analysed data regarding 27 in-patients with mood or schizoaffective diagnosis treated with OXC (and other buy trileptal online psychoactive drugs except VPA) and 27 matched in-patients treated with VPA (and other psychoactive drugs except OXC), in a psychiatric intensive care unit of a general hospital. In the evaluation of the outcome, we considered the length of hospitalization, the changes in the scores of BPRS, SAPS, SANS, MMSE, CGI, GAF, UPDRS, BAS, and Morrison's scale. The assessment of global psychopathology and functioning, of positive and mood symptoms suggested similar efficacy of OXC and VPA. Unexpectedly, OXC appeared more efficacious in the treatment of negative symptoms.

trileptal vs generic 2015-05-02

Based on the results of this study, we propose 2 min of convulsive seizure activity (irrespective of focal or generalized onset) as a prolonged seizure, which could serve buy trileptal online as a time point to consider treatment to prevent status epilepticus. In focal complex seizures, we suggest an upper limit of 7 min, and in focal simple seizures 11 min, as definition of prolonged seizures. History of status epilepticus, temporal seizure onset, and lesional MRI findings are factors associated with significantly longer SD. Negative correlations of carbamazepine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, and valproic acid serum levels and SD suggest a prolonging effect on seizures during withdrawal of these AEDs during video-EEG monitoring sessions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus".

trileptal reviews anxiety 2017-10-27

Cross-sensitivity rates between certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are high, especially when involving carbamazepine and phenytoin. Specific cross-sensitivity rates buy trileptal online provided here may be useful for AED selection and counseling in individual patients.

trileptal 600 mg 2017-04-15

Ten eligible trials (489 participants) were identified A pooled analysis showed an overall significant reduction in the frequency/severity of aggressive behaviour (standardised mean difference (SMD) = -1.02, 95% CI -1.54 to -0.50), although heterogeneity was high (I(2) = 84.7%). When analysed by drug type, significant effects were found in the pooled analysis of three phenytoin trials (SMD Flagyl Y Alcohol = -1.34, 95% CI -2.16 to -0.52), one lithium trial (SMD = -0.81, 95% CI -1.35 to -0.28), and two oxcarbazepine/carbamazepine trials (SMD = -1.20, 95% CI -1.83 to -0.56). However, when the results of only those studies that had a low risk of bias were pooled (347 participants), there was no significant reduction in aggression (SMD = -0.28, 95% CI -0.73 to 0.17, I(2) = 71.4%).

trileptal drug interactions 2015-07-10

Although failure to meet good practice guidelines influences the reliability of the presented evidence adversely, a sufficient number of the included studies were found to comply enough with the guidelines in order for the qualitative content of the cost-effectiveness results - that some of the newer AEDs are cost effective - to be reliable. In fact, this conclusion is likely to be relatively robust, since the effect of improved seizure control on Zofran Maximum Dosing labour market performance was not included in the base-case results in any of the included studies and improved seizure control need only to have a moderate effect on sickness absenteeism in order for the corresponding treatment to be cost effective even when willingness to pay for an additional QALY is low. However, the cost effectiveness of newer AEDs has only been studied for a small number of settings, and hence future studies incorporating additional settings are needed.

trileptal 2 mg 2017-02-21

Paracetamol (50-200 mg/kg peroral), oxcarbazepine (40-160 mg/kg peroral), and their combination (1/8, 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2 Aggrenox 20 Mg of a single drug ED(50)) produced a significant, dose-dependent antihyperalgesia in carrageenan-injected rats. In the writhing test in mice, paracetamol (60-180 mg/kg peroral), oxcarbazepine (20-80 mg/kg peroral), and their combination (1/16, 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2 of a single drug ED(50)) significantly and dose dependently reduced the number of writhes. In both models, isobolographic analysis revealed a significant synergistic interaction between paracetamol and oxcarbazepine, with a >4-fold reduction of doses of both drugs in combination, compared with single drugs ED(50).

trileptal 300 mg 2015-08-24

Primary rat hippocampal neurons were used to evaluate neuronal morphology and biochemical changes induced by the AEDs used in this study. Immunocytochemical staining against MAP-2 was used to evaluate neuronal morphology. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in Eldepryl Buy mitochondrial membrane potential (Psim) were measured by fluorescence techniques. Intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

trileptal reviews seizures 2016-07-24

The finding of high serum IgA concentration in patients with TLE strengthens the previously found association of immunological activity in the epileptic temporal lobe Lopressor Tablet rather than other brain regions. The newly observed immunological effects of topiramate are important to proper AED choice in patients with refractory epilepsy.

trileptal maximum dose 2016-07-17

Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder, and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are the mainstays of therapy. The focus of this article is on the 3 latest AEDs--levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, and zonisamide. We discuss human data published as both original studies and reviews from the last 4 years, except where noted. We apply a general template for all 3 drugs and provide information on Requip 12 Mg clinical trials, adverse effects, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, and clinical use.

trileptal 1300 mg 2016-10-02

To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of oxcarbazepine (1,200 mg/day) vs placebo as prophylactic therapy for patients with migraine headaches.

trileptal pediatric dose 2015-09-03

We review current pharmacological treatments for peripheral and central vestibular disorders, and ocular motor disorders that impair vision, especially pathological nystagmus. The prerequisites for successful pharmacotherapy of vertigo, dizziness, and abnormal eye movements are the "4 D's": correct diagnosis, correct drug, appropriate dosage, and sufficient duration. There are seven groups of drugs (the "7 A's") that can be used: antiemetics; anti-inflammatory, anti-Ménière's, and anti-migrainous medications; anti-depressants, anti-convulsants, and aminopyridines. A recovery from acute vestibular neuritis can be promoted by treatment with oral corticosteroids. Betahistine may reduce the frequency of attacks of Ménière's disease. The aminopyridines constitute a novel treatment approach for downbeat and upbeat nystagmus, as well as episodic ataxia type 2 (EA 2); these drugs may restore normal "pacemaker" activity to the Purkinje cells that govern vestibular and cerebellar nuclei. A limited number of trials indicate that baclofen improves periodic alternating nystagmus, and that gabapentin and memantine improve acquired pendular and infantile (congenital) nystagmus. Preliminary reports suggest suppression of square-wave saccadic intrusions by memantine, and ocular flutter by beta-blockers. Thus, although progress has been made in the treatment of vestibular neuritis, some forms of pathological nystagmus, and EA 2, controlled, masked trials are still needed to evaluate treatments for many vestibular and ocular motor disorders, including betahistine for Ménière's disease, oxcarbazepine for vestibular paroxysmia, or metoprolol for vestibular migraine.

trileptal 500 mg 2017-07-31

About 30% of epileptic patients suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Quality of life is worse and costs are higher than in controlled epilepsy. One of the aims of the LINCE study was to assess the prevalence of DRE in epilepsy-specialized and general neurology clinics in Spain and the clinical management of these patients in routine clinical practice.

trileptal 6 mg 2015-03-09

The choice of antiepileptic drug for an individual should be based upon the highest quality evidence regarding potential benefits and harms of the available treatments. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials should be a major source of evidence supporting this decision making process. We summarise all available individual patient data evidence from randomised controlled trials that compared at least two out of eight antiepileptic drugs given as monotherapy.

trileptal user reviews 2017-04-21

A series of antiepileptic drugs have been investigated in terms of their ability to treat mania (with later applications for the treatment of bipolar depression and prevention of relapses). These include divalproex, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, tiagabine, topiramate and zonisamide. Although these drugs are all antiepileptic in action, they bring about these effects by different mechanisms; in particular, their impact on GABA differs significantly. Perhaps for this reason, their impact on mania varies greatly, with double-blind significant results evident only for valproate, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine. Only valproate and carbamazepine are approved by the US FDA for use in mania; oxcarbazepine has never been found significantly effective in large-scale studies. Of the other options, both gabapentin and topiramate failed in large-scale investigations; tiagabine failed in small sample reports. Although lamotrigine has been successful in the prevention of depression relapse in bipolar disorder, it has not been effective in treating mania. Finally, there are no findings of large scale double-blind studies on the use of levetiracetam and zonisamide. A review of the kinetics, side effects and complications of the antiepileptic drugs indicates that carbamazepine is useful, and has adverse event benefit over all other options. The potential of zonisamide awaits further testing.

trileptal 25 mg 2015-09-25

Randomised controlled trials in children or adults with partial onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with a comparison of oxcarbazepine monotherapy with phenytoin monotherapy.

trileptal 600mg cost 2017-02-06

There were six eligible studies but only four had sufficient data at the time of this review. The four RCTs included in this review reported on a total of 262 participants. One study, a placebo-controlled trial with a low risk of bias, found that individuals on sulthiame were significantly more likely to remain in seizure remission during the three and six months from commencement of treatment than those on placebo (3 months: RR 2.26, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.44; 6 months: RR 2.63, 95% CI 1.43 to 4.86, 66 participants, moderate quality evidence). The other three trials, all open-labelled studies, had a high risk of bias and did not show any significant differences in terms of seizure remission between AEDs. One compared levetiracetam with oxcarbazepine (3 months: RR 1.13, 95% CI of 0.93 - 1.36; 12 months: RR of 1.29 with 95% CI of 0.89 - 1.86, 39 participants, low to very low quality evidence), one clobazam with carbamazepine (4-40 weeks: RR of 1.04, 95% CI of 0.67 - 1.62; last 9 months: RR of 1.06 with 95% CI of 0.84, 1.34, 45 participants, low quality evidence), and one carbamazepine with topiramate (28 weeks: RR 1.02 with 95% CI of 0.8 - 1.3, 112 participants, low quality evidence).Other outcome measures assessed included time to first seizure after randomisation which was only obtained in the sulthiame versus placebo study as a hazard ratio of 7.8 (95% CI 2.66 - 22.87). There were no significant differences between the proportion of participants who had adverse events, apart from a higher incidence of rash in the carbamazepine group (14.8%) when compared with topiramate (1.7%), or the proportion who withdrew from treatment due to adverse events, when this was reported. Two trials (carbamazepine versus topiramate, and clobazam versus carbamazepine) evaluated the effects on cognition. The studies were of low to very low quality evidence showing no clear difference in cognition at the end of the study periods between the AEDs compared. A meta-analysis was not performed as the RCTs evaluated different therapies.

trileptal high dose 2016-04-20

CBZ, OXC, and VPA are associated with sperm abnormalities in men with epilepsy. In addition, VPA-treated men with generalized epilepsy who have abnormal sperm may have reduced testicular volume.

trileptal patient reviews 2017-05-11

Data were extracted from the original reports individually by two review authors. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed individually by two review authors. The main outcomes were the efficacy of oxcarbazepine maintenance treatment in preventing or attenuating further episodes of bipolar affective disorder (including its efficacy in rapid cycling disorder), the acceptability of oxcarbazepine treatment to participants, the prevalence of side-effects, and mortality, if any, on oxcarbazepine treatment. Where appropriate, data concerning outcome measures and adverse effects were to be extracted from the studies and analysed using Review Manager software.

trileptal 6 suspension 2016-05-24

A MEDLINE search of the literature, as well as review of bibliographies, was performed to identify randomized controlled trials and other reports evaluating efficacy, pharmacokinetic profile, adverse effects, and drug interactions of the second-generation antiepileptic drugs. Key search terms included felbamate, gabapentin, lamotrigine, topiramate, tiagabine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, zonisamide, and pregabalin.

trileptal good reviews 2017-06-15

The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of retigabine (GlaxoSmithKline) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of this drug for the treatment of adults with partial-onset seizures in epilepsy, with and without secondary generalization, as part of the Institute's single technology appraisal (STA) process. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG undertakes a critical review of the clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence of the technology based upon the manufacturer's submission to NICE. The ERG also independently searches for relevant evidence and evaluates modifications to the manufacturer's decision-analytic model. This paper provides a description of the company submission, the ERG review and NICE's subsequent decisions. The clinical effectiveness data were derived from three placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A meta-analysis pooling across all doses of retigabine found beneficial effects of retigabine in terms of responder rate (odds ratio [OR] 2.79; 95 % CI 2.08, 3.76) and rate of seizure freedom (OR 2.54; 95 % CI 0.92, 6.98) [both double-blind phase analyses]. When compared in a network meta-analysis with the selected comparator antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) [eslicarbazepine acetate, lacosamide, pregabalin, tiagabine and zonisamide], retigabine offered broadly similar efficacy in terms of responder rate and freedom from seizure. The de novo decision-analytic model presented within the submission evaluated the cost effectiveness of retigabine compared with these AEDs and no treatment (i.e. maintenance therapy). After numerous additional analyses, the ERG considered the use of retigabine to be not cost effective for NICE at thresholds below £43,000 if no treatment was considered a relevant comparator. The NICE Appraisal Committee decided that an appropriate comparator was an active treatment. The Committee recommended that retigabine is offered as an option for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization in adults aged 18 years and older with epilepsy, only when previous treatment with carbamazepine, clobazam, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, sodium valproate and topiramate has not provided an adequate response, or has not been tolerated.

trileptal maximum dosage 2017-07-08

Maintenance of effective drug concentrations is essential for adequate treatment of epilepsy. Some antiepileptic drugs can be successfully administered rectally when the oral route of administration is temporarily unavailable. Oxcarbazepine is a newer antiepileptic drug that is rapidly converted to a monohydroxy derivative, the active compound. This study aimed to characterise the bioavailability, metabolism and tolerability of rectally administered oxcarbazepine suspension using a randomised, crossover design in ten healthy volunteers.

trileptal overdose 2017-12-18

Reproductive endocrine function was evaluated in 90 men taking VPA (n = 21), CBZ (n = 40), or OXC (n = 29) as monotherapy for epilepsy and in 25 healthy control men.

trileptal 750 mg 2016-08-26

SCN1A gene mutation screening was performed by PCR-DNA sequencing and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplication (MLPA). The early clinical features of DS patients with SCN1A mutations were reviewed with attention to the seizures induced by fever and other precipitating factors before the first year of life.

trileptal versus generic 2016-01-28

Oxcarbazepine is an antiepileptic drug that has been approved by the US FDA and is indicated for use as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in adults and children aged over 4 years. The aim of this report is to investigate the results of clinical trials in order to ascertain the efficacy and safety of oxcarbazepine for use in bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder. Oxcarbazepine is a keto-congener of carbamazepine with fewer side effects and drug interactions. Orally administrated oxcarbazepine is rapidly and completely absorbed and has a half-life of 9 h. Currently, there is a lack of controlled clinical trials studying the use of oxcarbazepine. In light of controlled and open-label prospective studies, it may be useful for manic symptoms in the treatment of bipolar and schizoaffective patients. Case reports, retrospective and prospective studies suggest that oxcarbazepine might have prophylactic efficacy and long-term benefit for these patients. In addition, owing to its lower propensity for drug interactions and side effects, it may be useful in the treatment of refractory patients with bipolar and schizoaffective disorder. However, most of the trials have relevant methodological shortcomings. The side-effect profile of oxcarbazepine is similar to carbamazepine, but the severity of these effects appears to be slightly less. The symptoms that are most frequently associated with the use of oxcarbazepine are asthenia, headache, dizziness, somnolence, nausea, diplopia and skin rash. Isolated cases of hyponatremic coma have been reported, thus electrolyte abnormalities should be closely monitored. Oxcarbazepine is now a generic drug, but the metabolite licarbazepine and other related compounds, such as eslicarbazepine, are currently being studied under controlled conditions and might become useful therapies for bipolar and schizoaffective disorder in the future.