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Hypertensive crises result from acute elevations in blood pressure. Although uncommon in children, they can be life-threatening and require immediate recognition and treatment to decrease morbidity. The diagnosis is made following complete history and physical assessment, with confirmation of blood pressure elevation using an appropriate-size blood pressure cuff. There are various options for treatment. Some of the more commonly used agents include nitroprusside, diazoxide, hydralazine, labetalol, esmolol, nicardipine, nifedipine, enalaprilat, and minoxidil. Close monitoring of blood pressure during treatment is mandatory to ensure a good outcome.
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The contribution made by different enzymes to the degradation of bradykinin in physiological conditions was estimated by examining bradykinin metabolism in rat serum, in the in situ perfused lung and in vivo.
A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind protocol.
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Ventricular unloading using a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) can improve mitochondrial function in end-stage heart failure. Nitric oxide modulates the activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain to regulate myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2).
The pharmacokinetics of the converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, were studied in an open, randomized, balanced crossover design in 12 hospitalized patients with stable, chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). Enalapril maleate is a prodrug requiring in vivo hepatic esterolysis to yield the active diacid inhibitor enalaprilat. CHF results in changes in regional blood flow that may affect the gastrointestinal absorption, hepatic hydrolysis and renal excretion of enalapril and enalaprilat. In order to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of enalapril in CHF, the following treatments were given: enalapril maleate 10 mg orally, enalapril maleate 5 mg intravenously and enalaprilat 5 mg intravenously. Each dose was followed by a 72 h period with frequent blood sampling and fractionated urine collection for the radioimmunoassay of enalaprilat, before and after sample hydrolysis. Mean absorption for the oral dose was 69%, hydrolysis 55%, bioavailability 38%, urinary recovery 77% and estimated first-pass effect 10%. The results were compared with available data in normal subjects. After oral administration of 10 mg enalapril maleate, the extent of absorption, the degree of hydrolysis and the bioavailability in CHF patients appear to be similar to those in normals with differences less than 10%. The rate of absorption and hydrolysis appear to be slightly slower in CHF. The serum concentrations of enalaprilat were consistently greater in CHF and maximal concentrations were reached at 6 h in CHF as compared to 4 h in normal subjects. We conclude that the presence of CHF does not appreciably alter the pharmacokinetic behaviour of enalapril. The observed differences may be associated with age as well as the disease state.
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The orally active angiotensin-converting inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) such as captopril and enalapril represent a significant therapeutic advance in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. Enalapril differs from captopril in several respects. It is a prodrug converted by hepatic esterolysis to the active (but more poorly absorbed) diacid, enalaprilat. Enalaprilat is more potent than captopril, more slowly eliminated and does not possess a sulfhydryl (SH) group. Enalapril was rapidly followed by a number of newer ACE inhibitors, the majority of which are similar to enalapril in that they are prodrugs, converted by hepatic esterolysis to a major active but poorly absorbed diacid metabolite. In one case (delapril) there are 2 active metabolites; in another (alacepril) the prodrug is converted in vivo to captopril. Lisinopril is an exception in that it is an enalaprilat-like diacid but with acceptable oral bioavailability, so that the prodrug route is not employed. The newer ACE inhibitors are at widely different stages of development, and it is not yet clear how many will reach regular clinical use. Of these newer drugs, lisinopril is the longest established and is the subject of the widest published literature. For a number there is as yet little published pharmacokinetic information. A variety of assay methods have been employed to characterise the pharmacokinetics of the ACE inhibitors, including enzymatic techniques, radioimmunoassay and chromatography. The peak plasma concentrations of the prodrugs are generally observed at around 1 hour and those of the diacid metabolites at about 2 to 4 hours. However, there is considerable variation within and between drugs, with benazepril and benazeprilat reaching peak concentrations early and enalapril and enalaprilat typical of later times to peak. Absorption of the active diacids is generally poor, and moderate (typically 30 to 70%) for the prodrugs. The bioavailability of lisinopril is about 25%. It is difficult to talk meaningfully about half-lives of the active drugs. The declines in their plasma concentrations are polyphasic and, if analytical sensitivity allows, active drug may be found at 48 hours or more following administration. This may reflect binding to ACE in plasma. Half-lives of accumulation are of the order of 12 hours; protein binding varies from little (lisinopril) to 90% (benazeprilat). Elimination is mostly renal but there may be biliary elimination for some, such as benazeprilat and fosinopril. The half-lives of the prodrugs are short. Impaired renal function decreases the elimination rate of the diacids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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1. Renin inhibitors may be more advantageous than either angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin (Ang) antagonists in blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) because they do not allow accumulation of either AngI or AngII in plasma. 2. Effects of i.v. administration of two human renin inhibitors (EMD 58265 and U 71038) were compared with the ACE inhibitor enalaprilat on mean blood pressure (BP), renal blood flow (RBF) and plasma AngI and AngII in the anaesthetized two-kidney one-clip Goldblatt rabbit. 3. At doses of 2-2.5 mg/kg, i.v., EMD 58265 and 5-10 mg/kg, i.v., U 71038, both drugs decreased BP approximately 10 mmHg more than enalaprilat (2-4 mg/kg, i.v.) when given either before or after the ACE inhibitor. None of the three agents had any significant effect on RBF in the face of the lowered BP; however, renal vascular resistance was decreased. A higher dose of enalaprilat (10 mg/kg, i.v.) had no further effect on BP than the lower doses but did cause a marked increase in RBF. 4. Both renin inhibitors markedly decreased plasma AngI, but the high basal level of AngII was less consistently and only modestly affected. Enalaprilat, in either the low dose range or at the high dose, was also not effective in significantly decreasing AngII. 5. The results indicate that renin inhibition in the rabbit with a high circulating AngII level is more effective in lowering BP than ACE inhibition. A high dose of the ACE inhibitor may be required to block the intrarenal RAS, which may account for the increase in RBF.
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In moderate to severe chronic renal insufficiency the same degree of blood pressure control was achieved on low as well as moderate daily doses of enalapril. This was irrespective of concomitant antihypertensive treatment.
This study was performed to determine divided renal efferent sympathetic nerve activity from kidneys in seven patients with renin-positive, unilateral renal artery stenosis before and 30 minutes after an acute intravenous dose of 1.25 mg enalaprilat. Renal norepinephrine release was calculated from split renal plasma flow, venoarterial plasma concentration gradients across the kidney, and the fractional extraction of tritiated norepinephrine. All patients had unilateral renin secretion, the affected kidney increasing its plasma renin activity gradient 1.7-fold, whereas no statistically significant change was noted on the contralateral side in response to enalaprilat. Total norepinephrine release to plasma and norepinephrine plasma clearance (assessed by isotope dilution) were similar before and after administration of enalaprilat (approximately 400 ng/min and 1.0 l/min), despite a 26% fall in mean arterial pressure (from 125 mm Hg, p less than 0.01). Heart rate remained unchanged. After enalaprilat, norepinephrine venoarterial difference increased in the renin-secreting kidney (from 264 to 396, SED = 57 pg/ml, p less than 0.05), whereas it increased only slightly in the contralateral kidney (from 149 to 256, SED = 72 pg/ml, NS). Tritiated norepinephrine extraction fell approximately 25% (p less than 0.01) in both kidneys. Thus, renal norepinephrine spillover increased from 49 to 62, SED = 9 ng/min (NS) and from 81 to 129, SED = 17 ng/min (p less than 0.05) from the affected and the contralateral kidney, respectively. Hence, in this relatively small study in patients with renovascular hypertension, no evidence for increased renal nerve activity could be observed in the affected kidney, despite its marked renin production.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were isolated by gradient centrifugation from 10 patients on regular hemodialysis and 7 healthy control volunteers. A colony assay of hematopoietic progenitors was performed using the methylcellulose culture system. PBMNCs of 1 or 2 x 10(5) were plated in a medium containing EPO with various concentrations of ACE inhibitors or AT1 receptor antagonist and incubated for 14 days. Colonies of BFU-E were counted under an inverted microscope.
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In an open, crossover study, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of lisinopril and enalapril, administered alone and in combination with propranolol, were evaluated in 12 volunteers. The maximum serum concentration (Cmax) of lisinopril and time to reach maximum concentration (Tmax) were 64 +/- 16 ng/ml and 7.5 +/- 1.5 h, respectively. The area under the serum curve (AUC) was 916 +/- 239 h. ng/ml. The Cmax of enalaprilat (89 +/- 34 ng/ml) was greater than that of lisinopril whilst Tmax was shorter (4.3 +/- 1.7 h) and AUC smaller (718 +/- 17 h.ng/ml) (P less than 0.01). Renal clearance of drug 48 h post-dosing showed that enalaprilat (164 +/- 38 ml/min) was cleared from plasma significantly more rapidly than lisinopril (82 +/- 16 ml/min) (P less than 0.001). Mean supine blood pressure decreased significantly with all treatments, as did heart rate. No significant changes were observed in either the serum concentrations or the urinary outputs of these ACE inhibitors following combination with propranolol, apart from a greater variability of Cmax after addition of propranolol to enalapril compared with lisinopril in combination.
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The analytical method developed in this study, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, was confirmed as suitable for application in the determination of plasma concentrations in patients and subsequently revealed statistically significant differences in plasma concentrations between the 3 treatment groups.
The authors have compared the ability of two non-SH-containing angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (enalaprilat and lisinopril) with an -SH containing ACE inhibitor (captopril) to scavenge the hydroxyl radical (.OH). All three compounds were able to scavenge .OH radicals generated in free solution at approximately diffusion-controlled rates (10(10) M-1 s-1) as established by the deoxyribose assay in the presence of EDTA. The compounds also inhibited deoxyribose degradation in reaction mixtures which did not contain EDTA but not so effectively. This later findings also suggests that they have some degree of metal-binding capability. Chemiluminescence assays of oxidation of hypoxanthine by xanthine oxidase in the presence of luminol, confirm that the three ACE inhibitors are oxygen free radical scavengers. Our results indicate that the presence of a sulphydryl group in the chemical structure of ACE inhibitors is not relevant for their oxygen free radical scavenging ability.
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Several inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme were also found to inhibit aminopeptidase P, whereas inhibitors of other mammalian aminopeptidases were ineffective. Aminopeptidase P purified from pig kidney cortex was found to contain one atom of zinc per polypeptide chain, confirming its metalloenzyme nature. The concentrations of converting enzyme inhibitors required to cause 50% inhibition (I50) of aminopeptidase P were in the low micromolar range. The most potent converting enzyme inhibitors toward aminopeptidase P were the carboxylalkyl compounds, cilazaprilat, enalaprilat, and ramiprilat (I50 values of 3-12 microM). The sulfhydryl compounds captopril (I50 110 microM) and YS980 (I50 20 microM) were slightly less potent at inhibiting aminopeptidase P. In contrast, the carboxylalkyl compounds benazeprilat, lisinopril, and pentoprilat; the sulfhydryl compound rentiapril; and the phosphoryl compounds ceranopril and fosinoprilat had no inhibitory effect against aminopeptidase P. This compares with I50 values in the 1-6 nM range for these inhibitors with angiotensin converting enzyme. Inhibition of aminopeptidase P may account for some of the effects or side effects noted with the clinical use of converting enzyme inhibitors. These results may provide the basis for the design of more selective inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme or mixed inhibitors of aminopeptidase P and angiotensin converting enzyme, or both.
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The acute hemodynamic, hormonal, and pharmacokinetic aspects of treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor lisinopril were assessed in two studies in 24 patients with chronic stable congestive heart failure (CHF). Lisinopril, the lysine analogue of enalaprilat, is biologically active following absorption and is cleared via the urine without any known metabolic transformation. In the hemodynamic study, single doses of lisinopril (1.25-10.0 mg) were administered on days 1 and 3, each followed by 48 h of intensive hemodynamic observation in 12 patients. Arterial and mixed venous blood from the right atrium were sampled frequently and assayed for angiotensin I, angiotensin II, ACE activity, plasma renin activity, renin substrate, plasma aldosterone, and serum drug concentration. Across all doses, reductions in mean arterial pressure (-17.2%), mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (-28.0%), and systemic vascular resistance (-25.6%) were observed compared to baseline values. No significant changes in heart rate or cardiac index were observed. The analysis of the hormonal parameters indicate potent inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system for a period exceeding 24 h. In the pharmacokinetic study, 12 hospitalized patients with chronic CHF received lisinopril both orally and intravenously, with each dose followed by a 72-h arterial blood and urine sampling schedule. Arterial blood pressure was monitored continuously for 6 h following each dosage using an intraarterial cannula. Mean urinary recovery of lisinopril was found to be 15% following oral administration and 88% following intravenous administration. Maximal serum drug concentration occurred at 6 h after oral drug.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Aqueous eyedrops with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin containing 0.01-2.9% (w/v) enalaprilat, 1.0% (w/v) enalapril maleate with cyclodextrin or 0.5% (w/v) timolol were prepared. The eyedrops were administered to rabbits and intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured at various time intervals after the administration and the results (mean of 10 experiments +/- standard error of the mean) are expressed as the change from baseline (24.7 +/- 3.3 mmHg).
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Intravenous enalaprilat 0.005 or 0.01 mg/kg.
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In vitro characteristics of the human erythrocytes loaded by enalaprilat have been evaluated. Erythrocytes obtained from a healthy volunteer were loaded by enalaprilat using the hypotonic preswelling method, and the loading parameters, drug-release kinetics, hematological indices, particle size distribution, scanning electron microscopy view, osmotic and turbulence fragilities, and deformability of the resulting carrier cells were determined along with the sham encapsulated and unloaded cells. Carrier erythrocytes, having acceptable loading parameters, released their drug content according to zero-order kinetics. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content values of the cells decreased, particle size dispersion increased, the cells transformed to cup-form, the erythrocytes became more fragile against osmotic pressure and turbulent flow, and, finally, the deformability of the cells decreased significantly upon drug loading.
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Intravenous antihypertensive agents for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies are reviewed.
Thirty-eight instrumented and anaesthetized animals received either candesartan, enalaprilat or placebo. Within each of the three groups 6-7 animals were exposed to HS and 6 animals of each group served as normovolaemic controls. After 30 min of shock, 50 mg kg(-1) Evans blue (EB) was injected i.v. followed by a distribution period of 20 min. Exsanguination was performed with saline, before harvesting organs to quantify albumin-bound EB extravasation.
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The synthesis and biological activity of a series of inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (EC 22.214.171.124) are described. Incorporation of the substituted N-carboxymethyl dipeptide design of enalapril (MK-421) into acyl tripeptides and larger peptides yielded potent inhibitors of the enzyme. These can be viewed as substrate analogues in which the carbonyl of the scissile peptide bond is replaced by a CHCO2H group. Several of the analogues described possess inhibitory potency equal to that of enalaprilat (MK-422), but none achieves an increase in potency which would demonstrate additional binding interactions contributed by the extended peptide chain. Application of the design described may be useful for inhibition of other metallopeptidases.
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The CES1 c.428G > A SNV decreased enalaprilat concentrations, probably by reducing the hydrolysis of enalapril, but had no observable effect on the pharmacokinetics of quinapril.
Enalaprilat is a safe antihypertensive drug with moderate efficacy in the treatment of hypertensive crisis. As doses above 0.625 mg alter neither response rates nor the magnitude of blood pressure reduction, we recommend 0.625 mg as the initial dose in the treatment of hypertensive crisis.
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Forty surgical septic patients (noncardiac/nonneurosurgical patients).
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The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5μg/h) or vehicle for 4weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy.