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Zocor (Simvastatin)
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Zocor

Zocor is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. Zocor is used to reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and death due to coronary heart disease. It also reduces the risk of heart attack, stroke, blood vessel blockage, or chest pain caused by angina, it lows high cholesterol and triglycerides and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL, "good") cholesterol levels. Zocor works by reducing the production of certain fatty substances in the body, including cholesterol.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Crestor, Zetia, Tricor, Pravachol, Mevacor, Lipitor

 

Also known as:  Simvastatin.

Description

Zocor is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor.

Zocor is used to: reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and death due to coronary heart disease; reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, blood vessel blockage, or chest pain caused by angina; low high cholesterol and triglycerides; increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL, "good") cholesterol levels.

Zocor is also known as Imvastatin, Simlup, Simcardis, Ranzolont, Simvador.

Zocor works by reducing the production of certain fatty substances in the body, including cholesterol.

Generic name of Zocor is Simvastatin.

Brand name of Zocor is Zocor.

Dosage

Take Zocor orally.

Take Zocor with or without food.

Do not use grapefruit or grapefruit juice while taking Zocor. Eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice may increase the amount of Zocor in blood, what may increase the serious side effects.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Zocor suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Zocor and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Zocor are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Zocor if you are allergic to Zocor components.

Be careful with Zocor if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby. Do not use it if you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Zocor if you suffer from low blood pressure, kidney problems, diabetes, serious infection, metabolism problems, hormonal problems.

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while taking Zocor.

While taking Zocor, you can make laboratory tests (blood cholesterol levels, liver function tests, creatine phosphokinase blood levels) to monitor the condition of your health.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Zocor suddenly.

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Objective Age screening and preventive medication for future myocardial infarction and stroke has been previously described. We aimed to ascertain whether different age cut-offs are needed for males and females. Methods We determined five parameters for each sex according to age cut-off: detection rate (sensitivity), false-positive rate, proportion of the population eligible for treatment with a polypill, proportion who benefit from taking a polypill (simvastatin 20 mg, losartan 25 mg, hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg, amlodipine 2.5 mg), and among these, years of life gained without a first myocardial infarction or stroke. Results Approximately one-third benefit, regardless of the age cut-off. For males and females combined, using ages 40 and 80, the detection rates are 98% and 52%, false-positive rates are 51% and 7%, population percentages eligible for treatment are 52% and 7%, and years of life gained without a first myocardial infarction or stroke are 8.4 and 3.6. Using age 50, detection rates are 93% (males) 98% (females), false-positive rates 37% (males) 40% (females), percentage of the population eligible for treatment 38% (males) 41% (females), percentage who benefit 35% (males) 33% (females), and years of life gained without an event 8.5 (males) 7.0 (females). At a given age cut-off, the sex differences are relatively small. Conclusion A single age cut-off can be used for both sexes.

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The primary end point was met by 30 of 78 patients in the placebo group and 22 of 69 in the simvastatin group (P = .423). Seventeen patients in the placebo group died (22%) vs 6 patients in the simvastatin group (9%) (hazard ratio for adding simvastatin to therapy = 0.39; 95% confidence interval: 0.15-0.99; P = .030). Simvastatin did not increase survival of patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis. Rebleeding occurred in 28% of patients in the placebo group and 25% in the simvastatin group (P = .583). Serious adverse events occurred in 53% of patients in the placebo group and 49% in the simvastatin group (P = .752); the percentages of serious adverse events related to therapy were 11% in the placebo group vs 8% in the in the simvastatin group (P = .599). Two patients in the simvastatin group, each with advanced liver disease, developed rhabdomyolysis.

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Ezetimibe, an inhibitor of intestinal cholesterol absorption, can decrease total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TGs) and apolipoprotein (apo) B levels and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Apart from lipid-lowering, ezetimibe may exert certain off-target actions (e.g. anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and antioxidant) thus contributing to a further decrease of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.Ezetimibe trials resulted in controversial outcomes with some studies reporting atherosclerosis regression and reductions in CVD events following ezetimibe therapy in combination with a statin while others reported negative results. The results of the ongoing IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) which compares ezetimibe plus simvastatin with simvastatin monotherapy with regard to CVD outcomes after acute coronary syndromes should further elucidate the effect of ezetimibe on CVD events.This review presents the results of up-to-date clinical trials with ezetimibe and summarizes its potential pleiotropic effects. Furthermore, we comment on the administration of ezetimibe in treating high-risk patients [i.e. with diabetes mellitus (DM), metabolic syndrome (MetS), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), peripheral artery disease (PAD) or carotid disease]. The use of ezetimibe either as monotherapy or as add-on therapy in daily clinical practice is also discussed.

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Simvastatin and ivabradine significantly inhibited intimal hyperplasia and oxidative stress contributing to aortic stiffness reduction in hyperlipidemic rabbits.

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Statins have anti-inflammatory effects that are not directly related to their cholesterol-lowering activity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of simvastatin on the extent of tissue damage in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The rats received a single intravenous injection of 2.5mgkg(-1) cisplatin. Other groups received either simvastatin (1mgkg(-1)) or the vehicle (ethanol:saline) intraperitoneally for 10 days beginning 5 days prior to cisplatin injection. All animals were decapitated 5 days after cisplatin administration. Trunk blood was collected and analyzed for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), albumin, and total bilirubin levels. The urine samples were used for the calculation of creatinine clearance levels. The kidney and liver samples were stored for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and collagen content or were processed for histopathological examinations. Formation of reactive oxygen species in tissue samples was monitored by using chemiluminescence method. Simvastation reduced the extent of both kidney and liver damage and preserved both kidney and liver functions (p<0.01-0.001). Increase in liver MDA level with a concomitant reduction in GSH in the cisplatin group was attenuated by simvastatin treatment (p<0.05-0.01). Increase in tissue collagen content and chemiluminescence levels in the kidney and liver samples of the cisplatin group was also reversed by simvastatin (p<0.001). In conclusion, simvastatin is beneficial in cisplatin-induced kidney and liver dysfunction and organ damage in rats via prevention of lipid peroxidation and tissue fibrosis, preservation of antioxidant glutathione, and suppression of neutrophil infiltration.

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Radiographic and clinical healing occurred more successfully following 3Mixtatin treatment compared to treatment with MTA, it may lead to a paradigm shift in the pulpal treatment of primary teeth in the future.

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The rat blood lipids profile in model group was remarkably different after feeding 6-weeks HFD. TG, TCH and LDL indexes in model group were increased significantly compared with those in control group (p < 0.01). AEE at the dosage of 54 mg/kg significantly decreased levels of TG, TCH and LDL (p < 0.01), and slowed the rate of BW gain in comparison with model group (p < 0.05). Moreover, high dose AEE showed better effects than simvastatin on reducing TCH level and similar effects on TG, HDL and LDL.

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Three authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data.

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3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors have been shown to reduce cardiac allograft failure and to lower the incidence of transplant coronary artery disease. These effects result from as yet unknown mechanisms not clearly attributable to lipid lowering. We here report that low-dose simvastatin treatment inhibits excessive expression of monocyte tissue factor (TF) and reduces the persistent hypercoagulability state seen in cardiac transplant recipients.

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Statin therapy was associated with a reduction in hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-0.99). Statin therapy was associated with lower hospital mortality in the following groups: patients >58 years of age (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.35-0.97), those with an acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) score >22 (aOR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.31-0.96), diabetic patients (aOR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.30-0.90), patients on vasopressor therapy (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.29-0.97), those admitted with severe sepsis (aOR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.07-0.66), patients with creatinine ≤ 100 μmol/L (aOR = 0.14, 95% CI 0.04-0.51), and patients with GCS ≤ 9 (aOR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.71). When stratified by statin dose, the mortality reduction was mainly observed with statin equipotent doses ≥ 40 mg of simvastatin (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.28-1.00). Mortality reduction was observed with simvastatin (aOR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.17-0.81) but not with atorvastatin (aOR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.84-1.46). Statin therapy was not associated with a difference in any of the secondary outcomes.

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Although statins are lipid-lowering drugs that block cholesterol biosynthesis, they exert immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative functions by reducing the isoprenylation of proteins involved in cell signal transduction such as Ras and RhoA. In this study, we provide evidence that several natural (lovastatin, simvastatin and pravastatin) and synthetic (cerivastatin and atorvastatin) statins exert a cytotoxic effect on human T, B and myeloma tumor cells by promoting their apoptosis. Dissimilar susceptibility to apoptosis has been detected in these lines, presumably in relation to the altered expression of proteins involved in the regulation of cellular signals. Cerivastatin promptly activated the cell death even in doxorubicin resistant cell lines such as MCC-2, whereas pravastatin, a hydrophilic compound, failed to induce any effect on either proliferation or apoptosis. The statin-induced apoptotic pathway in these cell lines was presumably regulated by altered prenylation of either Ras or RhoA, as measured by the defective membrane localization of these small GTPases. In addition the cell proliferation was rescued by both farnesylpyrophosphate (FPP) and geranyl-geranylpyrophosphate (GGPP), whereas no effect was obtained with squalene, a direct precursor of cholesterol. Statins primed apoptosis through its intrinsic pathway involving the mitochondria. In fact, we observed the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and the cytosolic release of the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac/DIABLO). The apoptotic pathway was caspase-dependent since caspases 9, 3 and 8 were efficiently activated. These results support the potential use of statins in association with conventional treatment as apoptosis-triggering agents in these tumors.

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Statins are widely used to decrease cholesterol and improve morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease. Myopathy constitutes a rare but potentially life-threatening adverse reaction, which is related to plasma HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity. Therefore, the incidence of rhabdomyolysis increases dramatically when statins are co-administered with drugs that inhibit their hepatic transformation, such as cyclosporine or azoles.

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: Two recent clinical reports describe an association between statin therapy and a reduction in the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease by as much as 70 %. One report is a cross-sectional analysis of discharges among three hospitals, and the other is a nested case control study drawn from ambulatory patients of general practitioners in the UK. Because neither study is a randomized trial, the association noted between statin therapy and a reduced incidence of Alzheimer's disease may have occurred because other factors, unaccounted for in the studies, may be present (so called bias) and be responsible for the observed association. However, there is an expanding body of biological and epidemiological data that makes it plausible that statin therapy may retard or prevent the pathogenesis and clinical expression of Alzheimer's disease. This review was initiated in order to find other clinical evidence that might support or refute the hypothesized benefit of statin therapy.

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This study assessed whether the co-administration of ezetimibe and simvastatin would be more effective than simvastatin monotherapy in allowing high-risk patients to achieve a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol goal of <100 mg/dl. Men and women with LDL cholesterol >/=130 mg/dl and meeting National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for coronary heart disease (CHD) or CHD risk equivalent were randomized to 1 of 4 daily treatments for 23 weeks: simvastatin 20 mg (n = 253), ezetimibe 10 mg plus simvastatin 10 mg (n = 251), ezetimibe 10 mg plus simvastatin 20 mg (n = 109), and ezetimibe 10 mg plus simvastatin 40 mg (n = 97). In all groups, patients not at goal had their simvastatin doses doubled at weeks 6, 12, and/or 18, up to a maximum of 80 mg. The primary efficacy objective was LDL cholesterol goal attainment (<100 mg/dl) after 5 weeks of treatment. Ezetimibe plus any dose of simvastatin produced greater reductions in LDL cholesterol and allowed more patients to achieve goal after 5 weeks (p <0.001) and at the end of the study (p <0.001) than simvastatin 20 mg alone. At 5 weeks, 75%, 83%, and 87% of patients receiving ezetimibe plus simvastatin 10, 20, and 40 mg had LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl compared with 46% of patients receiving simvastatin 20 mg. In patients who started on ezetimibe plus simvastatin 10, 20 and 40 mg, 33%, 22%, and 12%, respectively, required simvastatin titration during the study compared with 68% of patients who started on simvastatin 20 mg. The corresponding median simvastatin doses used were 10, 20, 40, and 40 mg, respectively. Ezetimibe plus simvastatin was well tolerated, with an overall safety profile similar to that of simvastatin monotherapy. Thus, through the dual inhibition of cholesterol absorption and synthesis, ezetimibe plus simvastatin allowed more patients to reach LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl at a lower simvastatin dose and with fewer dose titrations than simvastatin monotherapy.

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Much debate on the benefits and risks of cholesterol lowering to prevent coronary heart disease has focused on excess non-CHD mortality rates reported in some trials. Because of the wide variation in design of cholesterol-lowering trials and because the non-CHD mortality rate was not a controlled endpoint of statistical power in most published studies, it has been difficult to determine whether any excess mortality was due to certain therapies, to other mechanisms, or to chance. As a result, some investigators have performed retrospective analyses of pooled trial data in order to augment statistical power. Some investigators have hypothesized that the human brain is dependent on a constant supply of cholesterol from the circulation and that cholesterol loss in neuronal membranes, with the possible consequences of behavioral disorders and increased risk of accident and violent death. Indeed Weidner and Griffin suggest that low cholesterol is a marker for poor underlying health; physical illnesses are likely to cause depression and other negative emotional states, which are often accompanied by suppressed appetite and weight loss causing reduction in cholesterol levels. Such mental states may also increase the risk of non-CHD death, for example suicide. Rossouw reviews the evidence concerning non-CHD mortality in cholesterol-lowering trials and reports metaanalyses carried out for all trials combined. The findings indicated a significant (15%) increase in non-CHD mortality in all trials combined. However, this was not related to cholesterol lowering itself, because there was no increased risk in trials with > 10% cholesterol reduction, whereas there was a significant (22%) increase in trials with lesser degrees of cholesterol lowering. The publication of a large secondary prevention trial (4S) employing Simvastatin for cholesterol lowering supports the idea that cholesterol reduction itself does not have adverse effects on non-CHD mortality. The overview of all published trials demonstrates their effectiveness in reducing cholesterol and provides clear evidence of benefits on stroke and total mortality. A 10% reduction in cholesterol yielded about a 20% decrease in CHD mortality, which would be expected to result in about a 6% reduction in total mortality. Endothelium-dependent relaxations are reduced in hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Exogenous L-arginine improves or restores the reduced endothelium-dependent relaxations. Moreover inflammation is associates with the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The fact of the matter is the Cardiovascular drugs already in clinical use or in development are able to interfere with certain aspects of endothelial function and may be useful in protecting the vessels and, hence, in preventing the development of cardiovascular disease.

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This review summarizes published in vitro, animal, and clinical studies investigating the effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract and associated catechins on drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters. In vitro studies suggest that green tea extract and its main catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, to varying degrees, inhibit the activity of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. UGT1A1 and UGT1A4 isoforms were also inhibited by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Animal studies suggest green tea extract and/or (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate significantly increase the bioavailability of diltazem, verapamil, tamoxifen simvastatin, 5-fluorouracil, and nicardipine. Conversely, green tea extract and/or (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduce the bioavailability of quetiapine, sunitinib, clozapine, and nadolol. Of the few clinical studies available for review, it appears neither green tea extract nor (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibit any major cytochrome P450 enzyme. Regarding drug transporters, in vitro studies indicate P-glycoprotein, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A1, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3, organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1, organic cation transporter 1, organic cation transporter 2, multidrug and toxin extrusion 1, and multidrug and toxin extrusion 2-K are potentially inhibited by green tea extract. A clinical study indicates the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A1 transporter is inhibited by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate while P-glycoprotein is unaffected. In conclusion, the ingestion of green tea extract or its associated catechins is not expected to result in clinically significant influences on major cytochrome P450 or uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase enzyme substrates or drugs serving as substrates of P-glycoprotein. However, some caution is advised in the consumption of significant amounts of green tea beverages or green tea extract in patients prescribed known substrates of organic anion transporting polypeptide, particularly those with a narrow therapeutic index.

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UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, Merck, Roche Vitamins, and GlaxoSmithKline.

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Compared with HFD group, rats fed CTS, COSI, and COSIII showed a better ability to regulate their body weight, liver and cardiac indices, fat/body ratio, as well as serum, liver, and fecal lipids, and simultaneously to maintain the appropriate activity of liver and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), as well as liver and fecal total bile acids (TBA). Simultaneously, there had been a higher mRNA expression of PPARα and HL in the treatment groups.

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Retrospective analysis of a national sample of adults 18 years or older who were continuously enrolled in plans of a large US pharmacy benefit manager from 2007 to 2010.

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In total, 355 patients were randomized, 236 to pitavastatin and 119 to simvastatin; 330 patients (223 and 107, respectively) completed the study. In the pitavastatin group, mean (± SD) reduction in LDL-C concentrations from baseline was -44.0 ± 12.8% compared with -43.8 ± 14.4% in the simvastatin group. The adjusted mean treatment difference (simvastatin--pitavastatin) was 0.31% (95% confidence interval -2.47, 3.09; P = 0.829), which was within the predefined noninferiority range. More than 80% of patients in each group reached recommended LDL-C targets. Pitavastatin provided a greater increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; 6.8% vs. 4.5%; P = 0.083) and a significantly greater decrease in triglycerides (-19.8% vs. -14.8%; P = 0.044) than simvastatin. Both treatments were well tolerated.

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, simvastatin, on the pharmacokinetics of diltiazem and its main metabolite, desacetyldiltiazem, in rats. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and diltiazem are sometimes prescribed as a combination therapy for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The effect of simvastatin on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity was evaluated. Simvastatin inhibited CYP3A4 enzyme activity in a concentration-dependent manner with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) of 3.0 μM. In addition, simvastatin significantly enhanced the cellular accumulation of rhodamine-123 in MCF-7/ADR cells overexpressing P-gp. The pharmacokinetic parameters of diltiazem and desacetyldiltiazem were determined after oral and intravenous administration of diltiazem to rats in the presence and absence of simvastatin (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg). The areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the peak concentration (C(max)) of diltiazem were significantly (p < 0.05, 1.0 mg/kg) increased by 45.2% and 35.2%, respectively, in the presence of simvastatin compared to control. Consequently, the absolute bioavailability (AB) values of diltiazem in the presence of simvastatin (1.0 mg/kg) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher (44.8%) than that of the control group. Moreover, the relative bioavailability (RB) of diltiazem was 1.21- to 1.45-fold greater than that in the control group. The metabolite-parent AUC ratio (MR) in the presence of simvastatin (1.0 mg/kg) significantly decreased compared to the control group. This result implied that simvastatin effectively inhibited the metabolism of diltiazem. The increase in diltiazem oral bioavailability might be attributable to enhanced absorption in the small intestine via the inhibition of P-gp and to reduced first-pass metabolism of diltiazem via the inhibition of the CYP3A subfamily in the small intestine and/or in the liver rather than renal elimination of diltiazem by simvastatin.

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To evaluate the efficacy of simvastatin (S) in achieving LDL-C levels <70 mg/dL in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

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Hyperlipidemia of the nephrotic syndrome is a risk factor for the development of systemic atherosclerosis, but it also may aggravate glomerulosclerosis and enhance the progression of glomerular disease. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are effective in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Whether they may influence the progression of glomerular disease is not clear. The Simvastatin in Nephrotic Syndrome Study addressed the question of whether or not cholesterol lowering by the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin was superior to placebo treatment in limiting the decline of GFR and reducing proteinuria in nephrotic patients with primary glomerulonephritis.

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Acute infection is associated with impairment of the muscarinic and kinin-related reactivity of coronary circulation. These functional abnormalities are in part prevented by simvastatin through mechanisms unrelated to lipid lowering.

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3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) cause mainly muscular adverse effects. During the last 20 years there has been solid evidence of peripheral neuropathy caused by statins, with a risk of one in 10,000 patients treated for 1 year. Meralgia paresthetica is an entrapment neuropathy occasionally encountered by primary care physicians. To date there has been no report of entrapment neuropathy that could have been caused or aggravated by statins. This case report presents meralgia paresthetica aggravated by simvastatin use that disappeared after simvastatin cessation.

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Forty-one subjects with body mass index (BMI) 25-39.9 kg/m(2) and impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to receive simvastatin or metformin for 16 weeks. Blood samples were obtained for measurement of metabolic and inflammatory parameters before and after each treatment.

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We included any randomized clinical trial (RCT) of atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin and simvastatin used for cardiovascular disease event prevention. The main outcome was adverse events [all-cause mortality, cancers, rhabdomylosis, diabetes, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT), and creatinine kinase (CK) increases beyond the upper limit of normal]. In order to evaluate the relative effects of each drug on adverse events, we calculated adjusted indirect comparisons of the adverse-event outcomes.

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The present study aimed at assessing the effect of simvastatin in reducing myocardial ischemia in patients with chronic atherosclerotic coronary artery disease.

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Background. Hypercholesterolemia and disruptions of the blood brain barrier (BBB) have been implicated as underlying mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Simvastatin therapy may be of benefit in treating AD; however, its mechanism has not been yet fully understood. Objective. To explore whether simvastatin could block disruption of BBB induced by cholesterol both in vivo and in vitro. Methods. New Zealand rabbits were fed cholesterol-enriched diet with or without simvastatin. Total cholesterol of serum and brain was measured. BBB dysfunction was evaluated. To further test the results in vivo, rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMECs) were stimulated with cholesterol in the presence/absence of simvastatin in vitro. BBB disruption was evaluated. Results. Simvastatin blocked cholesterol-rich diet induced leakage of Evan's blue dye. Cholesterol content in the serum was affected by simvastatin, but not brain cholesterol. Simvastatin blocked high-cholesterol medium-induced decrease in TEER and increase in transendothelial FITC-labeled BSA Passage in RBMECs. Conclusions. The present study firstly shows that simvastatin improves disturbed BBB function both in vivo and in vitro. Our data provide that simvastatin may be useful for attenuating disturbed BBB mediated by hypercholesterolemia.

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Atherosclerosis (AS) can result in severe cardiovascular diseases. Early indications of AS include disorders in lipid metabolism, inflammatory responses, and endothelial dysfunction. Statins are the preferred drugs for stabilizing atherosclerotic plaques because of their lipid-lowering, anti-inflammation and endothelial-protection activities. However, they can exhibit side effects and are effective in only one-third of patients. Many natural products (especially traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs)) possessing similar lipid-lowering, anti-inflammation and antioxidant activities are of interest in many studies exploring new AS drug therapy. The widely distributed hawthorn is used to prevent and cure heart disease not only in China but also in the United States and several European countries. For example, the fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. and Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br. (a commonly used hawthorn fruit in China) is used in combination with other TCMs to treat AS. Studies have also shown that the water extracts of these two hawthorn fruits are effective against hyperlipidemia by lowering lipid levels, reducing endothelial dysfunction, and inhibiting inflammation. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect and possible mechanisms of the aqueous extract of Crataegus pinnatifida var. major on AS rats.

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In patients with severe COPD, statin use is associated with significantly lower PAWP and mPAP. These finding should be evaluated prospectively.

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Serum samples of 445 CAD subjects participating in a long-term follow-up of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study were analyzed. In addition, samples obtained from a separate randomized parallel three-group study of subjects treated with simvastatin (n=24), ezetimibe (n=24), or their combination (n=24) were studied. Furthermore, samples from the LURIC participants with a loss-of-function mutation (R46L) in the PCSK9 gene (n=19) were analyzed and compared with major allele carriers (n=868).

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This is a retrospective review of all adult patients diagnosed with first event myocardial infarction (STEMI and NSTEMI) at Siriraj Hospital between 2007 and 2009. Patients were included if they were 18-75 years-old, received statins therapy before discharge and followed-up regularly at least 1 year at OPD. Patients were excluded if triglyceride > 400 mg/dL. Patient demographics, type of reimbursement and discharge medication data were collected. The goal attainment was assessed and result was demonstrated in percentages of patients who achieved LDL goal compare with all patients meeting exclusion and inclusion criteria. This goal is based on NCEP ATP III 2004 for the management of dyslipidemias treatment goal of LDL-C < 100 mg/dL.

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An orthotopic mouse glioblastoma (GL-26) model was used to investigate the effect of simvastatin on glioblastoma vasculature in vivo. GL-26 cells were implanted into the striatum of C5LKa mice treated with either control, low- or high-dose simvastatin. Brains were analyzed for necrotic volume, apoptosis, morphology and pericytic cells within the vascular tree.

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Simvastatin treatment with doses ranging from 0.5 to 20 mg/kg/day significantly enhanced early epithelial recovery and reduced the development of OAD. No dose response was observed. Simvastatin treatment markedly reduced IL-23 mRNA and lymphocyte chemokine CCL20 production, and the infiltration of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells into allografts already at 3 days. At 10 days, simvastatin significantly attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNF-α, MCP-1 and IP-10, and Th17-polarizing cytokines, IL-6 and IL-17e, and inhibited allograft infiltration by inflammatory cells. The protective effects of simvastatin on inflammation and OAD were partially mediated through nitric oxide synthase.

zocor 80mg tab

Tuberculosis is still a cause of major concern, partly due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. New drugs are therefore needed. Vancomycin can target mycobacteria with cell envelope deficiency. In this study, we used a vancomycin susceptibility assay to detect drugs hampering lipid synthesis in Mycobacterium bovis BCG and in Mycobacterium tuberculosis We tested three drugs already used to treat human obesity: tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), simvastatin, and fenofibrate. Only vancomycin and THL were able to synergize on M. bovis BCG and on M. tuberculosis, although mycobacteria could also be inhibited by simvastatin alone. Lipid analysis allowed us to identify several lipid modifications in M. tuberculosis H37Rv treated with those drugs. THL treatment mainly reduced the phthiocerol dimycocerosate (PDIM) content in the mycobacterial cell wall, providing an explanation for the synergy, since PDIM deficiency has been related to vancomycin susceptibility. Proteomic analysis suggested that bacteria treated with THL, in contrast to bacteria treated with simvastatin, tried to recover, inducing, among other reactions, lipid synthesis. The combination of THL and vancomycin should be considered a promising solution in developing new strategies to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

zocor 30 mg

To improve lipid management of high-risk patients in a large academic primary care practice.

zocor pill identifier

Mets JCR:LA-cp rats received a 1% cholesterol diet containing Simvastatin (0.01% w/w), for 8 weeks. Fasting and postprandial plasma biochemical profile was assessed using enzymatic assays and a modified apoB48 (chylomicron; CM) western blotting protocol. Statin treatment reduced fasting plasma TG (-49%), cholesterol (-24%) and postprandial plasma apoB48 (-58%). The intestinal secretion of lipids into mesenteric lymph was assessed using lymph fistulae procedures. Interestingly, MetS rats treated with statin secreted greater cholesterol (1.9-fold) and TG (1.5-fold) per apoB48 particle, into mesenteric lymph. This was shown to be as a result of simvastatin-induced increase in intestinal cholesterol absorption (31.5%). Experiments using in vivo inhibition of lipoprotein lipase (LPL; poloxamer-407) demonstrated statin treatment reduced hepatic cholesterol secretion (-49%), but significantly increased hepatic (73%) TG secretion in MetS rats. Statin treatment also increased the expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis (Hmgcr, Srebp1, Fas, Acc; 33-67%) and reduced those involved in efflux (Abca1, Abcg8; -36 to 73%) in enterocytes and liver of MetS rats versus untreated control.

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zocor generic simvastatin 2016-01-17

Since the publication of the second set of guidelines by the National Cholesterol Education Program, a solid body of data from landmark clinical studies has demonstrated that reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor ("statin") therapy sharply diminishes the risk for coronary artery disease. These trials include the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study, the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study, the Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study, the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events investigation, and the Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease trial. buy zocor online Coronary event rates and, in some cases, all-cause mortality decreased significantly after about 5 years of statin therapy in patients at risk for and those who had coronary artery disease at baseline. In contrast, recent subgroup analyses of these pivotal studies have in the aggregate challenged the premise that lower LDL cholesterol levels necessarily lead to further declines in risk for coronary artery disease, particularly among the patients most likely to be seen by the clinician: those with moderately elevated or normal cholesterol profiles. Indeed, when LDL cholesterol levels are in this range, further lowering with statin therapy elicits diminishing returns in terms of coronary event rates. These findings are readily accommodated by the curvilinear, or log-linear, model between serum cholesterol level and risk for coronary artery disease, which is predicated on data from large epidemiologic studies. In light of the current climate involving competing health care costs, the pursuit of progressively diminishing returns in terms of reductions in coronary artery disease risk through more aggressive lowering of LDL cholesterol levels appears to be unwarranted. Until data are published from ongoing randomized, clinical trials that can more effectively resolve the clinical utility of aggressive lipid-lowering strategies to improve coronary event rates, a prudent, evidence-based strategy seems warranted.

zocor generic name 2017-10-31

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common clinically significant cardiac arrhythmia, and AF is associated with relatively higher all-cause mortality in both men buy zocor online and women. However, there are limited treatment options for AF. Statins are hypothesized to have a benefit against arrhythmias in addition to well-established secondary prevention benefit for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, yet the data are inconsistent

zocor 5 mg 2016-08-11

Femoral atherosclerosis was buy zocor online induced by a combination of endothelial desiccation and atherogenic diet. Animals were randomized to ezetimibe (0.6 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)), simvastatin (5 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)), ezetimibe plus simvastatin or no treatment, still on atherogenic diet. A control group of rabbits received normolipidemic diet.

zocor brand name 2015-08-26

In real conditions of lipid lowering therapy use, LDL-cholesterol therapeutic objective attainment was inadequate in high-risk patients, and TO differences were observed between drugs at prescribed buy zocor online doses.

buy online zocor 2015-04-13

Lipid-lowering agents buy zocor online affect adipose tissue function. No study has investigated the role of age in the effects of hypolipidaemic agents on plasma adipokines.

zocor drug 2015-04-27

Statins reduced the efflux activity buy zocor online of Pgp/ABCB1 and BCRP/ABCG2 in hCMEC/D3 cells by increasing the synthesis of NO, which elicits the nitration of critical tyrosine residues on these transporters. Statins also increased the number of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors exposed on the surface of BBB cells, as well as on tumour cells like human glioblastoma. We showed that the association of statins plus drug-loaded nanoparticles engineered as LDLs was effective as a vehicle for non-permeant drugs like doxorubicin to cross the BBB, allowing its delivery into primary and metastatic brain tumour cells and to achieve significant anti-tumour cytotoxicity.

zocor tablets 2015-07-14

The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients who are receiving lovastatin 20 mg daily can be switched to daily regimens of lovastatin 10 mg, pravastatin 10 mg, or simvastatin 5 mg without loss of lipid control or an increase in side effects. One hundred five patients were identified whose lipid levels were clinically stable on a regimen of lovastatin 20 mg/d; these patients were randomly allocated to a group that continued to receive lovastatin 20 mg/d (the control group) or a group receiving 1 of the 3 alternative regimens. Patients were evaluated after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment for side effects and changes in liver and muscle enzymes and lipid levels compared with baseline. Of the 105 patients enrolled, 5 withdrew because of side effects, 4 did not return for follow up, and 3 were excluded. Ninety-three patients completed the 12-week study. When baseline values were compared to those at week 12 for each group, the proportions of patients meeting treatment goals for LDL cholesterol, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program, were as follows: control group, 30.8% improved; lovastatin 10 mg, 16.7% worsened; pravastatin 10 mg, 27.3% improved; and simvastatin 5 mg, no change. Patients who were switched from lovastatin 20 mg daily to pravastatin 10 mg or simvastatin 5 mg daily did not experience statistically significant changes in mean total cholesterol levels. Patients buy zocor online who were switched from 20 to 10 mg/d of lovastatin experienced increases in mean total cholesterol levels (from 195 mg/dL +/-5 mg/dL at baseline to 200 mg/dL +/-5 mg/dL at 12 weeks; P<0.05). There were no differences in side effects or in elevations in liver or muscle enzymes. Thus patients who are stable on 20 mg/d lovastatin can be switched to a regimen of 10 mg/d pravastatin or 5 mg/d simvastatin.

zocor mg 2016-10-07

All the statins tested are associated with calcific tendinopathy risk of which full awareness is required during everyday medical buy zocor online practice. However, statin-associated improvement of bone biomechanical properties is a favourable feature which may add to their beneficial effects in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, especially in the elderly.

zocor oval pill 2016-07-14

The usual treatment of venous ulcers may be associated with statins intake. Antibiotics have only marginal utility in acute bronchitis. The prescription of paracetamol seems to have no benefit in the treatment of acute lower back pain. The absence of antithrombotic prophylaxis for distal fractures of the lower limbs seems to be safe for patients' health. The treatment of atraumatic lesions of the rotator cuff in patients >55 years should remain conservative. Arthroscopic surgery of non-traumatic tear of buy zocor online the medial meniscus seems to have no benefit. The family environment seems to be a protective factor to the mental health of adolescents. Screening for colorectal cancer in patients >75 years would save lives.

zocor dosage amounts 2015-02-27

Fibroblasts were pre-incubated with atorvastatin or simvastatin for 24h in serum-free medium, and then incubated with IL-1β for 6d. The concentration buy zocor online of OPG or RANKL in culture supernatants was measured by specific ELISA. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Scheffe's F procedure for post hoc comparison.

zocor 40 mg 2015-04-22

Neuroinflammation is involved in the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after optic nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether systemic simvastatin can suppress neuroinflammation in the optic nerve and rescue RGCs after the optic nerve is crushed. Simvastatin or its vehicle was given through an osmotic minipump beginning one week prior to the crushing. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were used to determine the degree of neuroinflammation on day 3 after the crushing. The density of RGCs was determined in Tuj-1 stained retinal flat mounts on day 7. The effect of simvastain on the TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation was determined in cultured optic nerve astrocytes. On day 3, CD68-positive cells, most likely microglia/macrophages, were accumulated at the crushed site. Phosphorylated NF-κB was detected in some astrocytes at the border of the lesion where the immunoreactivity to MCP-1 was intensified. There was an increase in the mRNA levels of the CD68 (11.4-fold), MCP-1 (22.6-fold), ET-1 (2.3-fold), GFAP (1.6-fold), TNF-α (7.0 buy zocor online -fold), and iNOS (14.8-fold) genes on day 3. Systemic simvastatin significantly reduced these changes. The mean ± SD number of RGCs was 1816.3±232.6/mm(2) (n = 6) in the sham controls which was significantly reduced to 831.4±202.5/mm(2) (n = 9) on day 7 after the optic nerve was crushed. This reduction was significantly suppressed to 1169.2±201.3/mm(2) (P = 0.01, Scheffe; n = 9) after systemic simvastatin. Simvastatin (1.0 µM) significantly reduced the TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in cultured optic nerve astrocytes. We conclude that systemic simvastatin can reduce the death of RGCs induced by crushing the optic nerve possibly by suppressing astroglial NF-κB activation.

zocor 500 mg 2017-07-24

This study evaluated the long-term cost-effectiveness of atorvastatin 20 mg, rosuvastatin 10 mg and simvastatin 40 mg in buy zocor online primary and secondary prevention of CHD in Finland.

zocor overdose 2016-06-08

Lung infections are associated with acute lung injury (ALI), systemic inflammation, and vascular events. Clinical studies suggest that statins improve health outcomes of patients with pneumonia and ALI. The mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether statins attenuate systemic inflammation and cardiovascular dysfunction related to ALI in mice. Simvastatin (SS; 20 mg/kg) or vehicle solution was instilled intraperitoneally into mice 24 h before and again just prior to intratracheal LPS instillation (1 μg/g). These mice were then anesthetized with 2.0% isoflurane and underwent a short surgical procedure to instill LPS. Four hours later, IL-6 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in arterial and venous serum were measured. Cardiac function was evaluated using 2-D echocardiography, and endothelial function was determined using wire myography on aortic sections. LPS induced a significant increase in serum IL-6 levels. SS reduced venous (P = 0.040) but not arterial concentrations of IL-6 buy zocor online (P = 0.112). SS improved the maximal vasodilatory response of the aorta to ACh (P = 0.004) but not to sodium nitroprusside (P = 1.000). SS also improved cardiac output (P = 0.023). Vasodilatory response to ACh was impaired when aorta from untreated mice was incubated with ex vivo IL-6 (P = 0.004), whereas in the aorta from mice pretreated with SS, the vasodilatory response did not change with IL-6 incubation (P = 0.387). SS significantly improved LPS-induced cardiovascular dysfunction possibly by reducing systemic expression of IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways. These findings may explain how statins improve health outcomes in patients with ALI.

zocor drug interactions 2015-09-04

EZE/SIMVA produced greater reductions in LDL-C (-27.7% vs. -16.9%; p < or = 0.001), total cholesterol (-17.5% vs. -10.3%; p < or = 0.001), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (-23.4% vs. -14.0%; p < or = 0.001) and apolipoprotein B (-17.9% vs. -9.8%; p < or = buy zocor online 0.001) compared with ROSUVA, while both treatments were equally effective at increasing HDL-C (2.1% vs. 3.0%; p = 0.433). More patients achieved LDL-C levels < 2.59 mmol/l (73% vs. 56%), < 2.00 mmol/l (38% vs. 19%) and < 1.81 mmol/l (25% vs. 11%) with EZE/SIMVA than ROSUVA (p < or = 0.001). A borderline significantly greater reduction in triglycerides (p = 0.056) was observed for EZE/SIMVA (-11.0%) vs. ROSUVA (-5.3%). There were no between-group differences in the incidences of adverse events or liver transaminase and creatine kinase elevations.

zocor generic equivalent 2015-07-18

Severe hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG Amoxil Generic ) is uncommon but most prevalent in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and excess ethanol intake.

zocor blockbuster drug 2017-07-07

It has been studied in detail that cellular differentiation during chondrogenesis can be recapitulated in vitro by differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells as embryoid bodies (EBs). We here used this model system of cartilage development to analyze the effect of simvastatin, a potentially embryotoxic substance. Statins are a group of drugs used to treat hypercholesterolaemia. We found that simvastatin activated cartilage nodule formation during EB differentiation. Extended application of simvastatin resulted in enhanced expression of cartilage marker molecules and prolonged persistence of cartilage nodules. Expression of collagen type II was upregulated during simvastatin-induced chondrogenic ES cell differentiation as demonstrated by quantitative real time PCR. However, immunostaining for cartilage marker molecules revealed that cartilage nodules within simvastatin-treated EBs were defective, bearing cavities of cell loss. Furthermore, caspase activity was reduced in comparison Cymbalta Capsule Open to untreated controls indicating reduced apoptosis. Taken together, we may speculate that simvastatin prolongs survival of chondrocytes and disrupts cellular integrity of cartilage nodules during EB development by affecting apoptotic mechanisms. The study underlines that ES cell-derived EBs are a useful in vitro model to screen substances for their embryotoxic and teratogenic potential.

zocor missed dose 2015-05-15

7-Ketocholesterol caused SMC death, mainly via autophagic vesicle formation with LC3 processing, whereas lipophilic statins Cymbalta Generic 2013 evoked SMC apoptosis. Cell death following 7-ketocholesterol and low statin concentrations were not additive, presumably because the autophagic process interfered with statin-induced caspase activation. This further illustrates that drug effects in normal SMCs are not necessarily predictive for activities in atherosclerotic settings.

drug zocor 2015-07-15

To determine the effects of 6 months' treatment with simvastatin on platelet function and some hemostatic parameters, markers of endothelial cell injury, in 14 CAPD patients with hypercholesterolemia. N Clomid Tablet

zocor generic 2017-04-14

In ApoE(-/-) mice suprarenal aortic diameters were modestly smaller in animals receiving simvastatin without significant change despite reduction Motilium Generic in macrophage infiltration. Aortic arch atheroma was substantially reduced in LDLR(-/-) mice receiving simvastatin with borderline significant reduction in suprarenal aortic diameters. Simvastatin did not favourably modify serum lipids in either mouse model.

zocor tabs 2016-06-17

Calcific aortic valve disease is associated with the differentiation Lanoxin Drugs of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) to myofibroblast and osteoblast-like cells, particularly in the fibrosa layer of the valve. Previous studies suggested that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) protects against calcific aortic valve disease to maintain homeostasis. We aimed to determine whether CNP inhibits VIC pathological differentiation as a mechanism to explain its protective effects.

zocor 80mg tab 2016-11-04

We examined the effects of intensive statin therapy in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) and previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) participating in the Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Protonix Generic Picture Evaluation and Infection Therapy-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 22 (PROVE-IT TIMI 22) and the Aggrastat to Zocor (A to Z) trials. Of the 8,655 patients enrolled in PROVE IT-TIMI 22 or A to Z, 640 (7.4%) had undergone CABG before enrollment. After a median follow-up of 2 years, compared with patients without previous CABG, those with previous CABG had a higher risk of cardiovascular death (6.2% vs 2.8%), myocardial infarction (14.2% vs 6.6%), and readmission for ACS (7.9% vs 4.4%, p <0.001 for all comparisons) but a lower rate of repeat coronary revascularization (22.7% vs 26.9%, p = 0.01). Compared with moderate statin therapy, intensive statin therapy appeared to decrease the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stoke, and readmission for an ACS (A to Z primary end point) to a similar extent in patients with (26.1% vs 21.6%, hazard ratio 0.84, p = 0.27) and without (13.9% vs 12.0%, hazard ratio 0.86, p = 0.016) previous CABG, although the decrease was not statistically significant in the previous CABG group, likely due to the small number of patients with previous CABG. In conclusion, compared with patients with ACS without previous CABG, those with previous CABG have a higher risk for adverse cardiac events and may derive similar benefit from intensive statin therapy.

zocor dose limitations 2015-06-30

UC and IT groups were similar in risk factors with the exception that IT had more severe coronary artery disease. Mean LDL-C levels were 167 mg/dL from 1988 to 2004, 97 from 2005 to 2006, and 96 from 2007 to 2012 in surviving subjects receiving UC. IT lowered LDL-C to 119, 97, and 83 mg/dL in the 3 Avelox Brand Name periods, respectively. Compared with UC, IT significantly reduced total mortality (11.1 vs 26.3 per 1000 person years [PY], hazard ratio [HR] = 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26-0.77, P = .003) and CVD mortality (10.6 vs 27.7 per 1000 PY, HR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15-0.80, P = .009). The non-CVD mortality was also reduced but was not of statistical significance (6.8 vs 12.7 per 1000 PY, HR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.27-1.14, P = .11).

zocor medication 2016-07-07

In order to assess the determinants of non-compliance with a lipid-lowering therapy, a prospective study of the hyperlipidemic Korean subjects was carried out.

zocor generic cost 2017-11-03

The series consisted of 63 subjects (mean age 64 +/- 9) suffering from peripheral arterial occlusive disease; 21 subjects with total cholesterol (TC) lower than 200 mg/dl were considered as normolipemic (group A); 24 subjects with TC ranging between 200 and 240 mg/dl were considered as mild hypercholesterolemic (group B); 18 subjects with TC higher than 240 mg/dl were consider as severe hypercholesterolemic (group C). All the patients were examined before and after 15 and 30 days of a vasoactive treatment (calciparine, aspirin, buflomedil and pentoxiphylline); group B after vasoactive and diet (NCEP phase 1) treatment and group C after vasoactive, diet and drug (simvastatin) treatment. Nitrite plasma levels were determined by the Gutman and Hollywood colorimetric method.

zocor tab 10mg 2017-09-07

Throughout 2 years we performed repetitive echocardiographic examinations of 166 patients with Braunwald class IB and IIB-IIIB UA for assessment of left ventricular (LV) structural-functional changes.

zocor normal dosage 2016-05-11

Although several cholesterol-lowering interventions have reduced coronary heart disease (CHD) events in clinical trials, drug therapy for hypercholesterolaemia has not been as widely used as the US and European guidelines recommend, mainly because until recently there was insufficient clinical trial evidence for improved survival. The Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S) is the first trial of lipid-lowering therapy to demonstrate an unequivocal reduction in total mortality. Largely as a result of this study, there is now little disagreement on the necessity to reduce low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol effectively in hypercholesterolaemic patients with CHD. Many physicians believe it is also important to reduce elevated levels of LDL cholesterol in patients without overt coronary disease, but more clinical trial evidence will be required before this is universally accepted. Inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase are the most effective class of agents for this purpose, and have become widely used. It is likely that the magnitude of risk reduction produced by lipid-lowering therapy is proportional to the degree of cholesterol lowering achieved, which is an important consideration when selecting an agent and deciding the dosage to use. The results of several multicentre comparative trials have clearly established that the 4 members of the class are not all equipotent on a mg basis in terms of their effects on lowering LDL cholesterol. They have shown that the hypolipidaemic effect of simvastatin 5 mg approximately equals that of pravastatin 15 mg and lovastatin 15 mg and that of fluvastatin 40 mg, all given once daily. The tolerability profiles of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are excellent. Five-year data are available for simvastatin and lovastatin, and to date there is no good evidence for important differences in safety or tolerability among the class.

zocor user reviews 2015-12-24

Statin-fibrate combinations are commonly used to treat hyperlipidemia. These drugs have been previously reported to cause rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure. Whether different statin-fibrate combinations have different risks for rhabdomyolysis is not known. We report a patient who developed rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure promptly after switching from the combination of pravastatin and fenofibrate to simvastatin and gemfibrozil.